作者归档:brahmavihara

雪山夜叉经讲记

马哈希大师 述

邬安培 英译

陈永威 中译

校对 李珍珍 汤华俊

雪山夜叉经讲记PDF下载

中译者序

这部《雪山夜叉经讲记》,本来是安排在笔者的第二部译作——2015年出版的《负担经讲记》之后接续出版,然而由于其他译作(譬如《内观要义》的编译)和法务,致使这部作品只能够断续地进行。自2012年10月开始起笔,到2021年3月方始译毕初稿,差不多耗时十载。最后能够成功完成,主要是基于今年(2021年)因肺炎而休长假,能够在家中把40余页还未翻的内容完成,此次病假,让我亦能够一并把《大念处经略讲》也译毕,倒是一个难得的机缘。

《雪山夜叉经》在南传巴利经藏中,收录在《小部尼柯耶》的《经集.第一章蛇品》的第九经,与它对应的汉传文献是《杂阿含1329经》、《别译杂阿含328经》、《佛说立世阿毗昙论·夜叉神品》等典籍。台湾学者苏锦坤居士于2009年发表的《雪山夜叉经》──巴利经典与汉译经典,已经对这些版本做了详细的比对和研究,欲进一步了解文献研究的人可以参考他的论文,此书亦主要以他的译文对照马哈希大师的讲解,因原书并没有列出大部分经文。

雪山夜叉在佛经中,是属于「祇夜」的类别,只有偈颂而没有长行(解释性的经文),此经据记载是属于佛说法最早的经典,仅在《转法轮经》之后,《无我相经》之前,因此实际是佛说法的第二部经,然而因为这不是对人和大众宣说的,所以一般都是以《无我相经》作为第二部宣说的经。

未翻译这部经之前,笔者曾经一直在想,像鬼子母、恶夜叉(yakkha)这类凶恶的非人众生,经中可曾有明确记载他们可以证果的事?后来在阅读《相应部·夜叉相应》中的经文,得到了明确的答案。在《相应部·夜叉相应·富那婆苏经》记载了一位夜叉母,带同自己的儿子听闻佛法,座中听闻到佛讲四圣谛,闻法后心生喜乐并「已出脱了」(samuggatā),意即解脱了轮回,证得圣果。

此经中的两位主角,也是一类夜叉,属于四天王天中毗沙门天所管辖的二十八大夜叉神,因此他们聪颖、具备福德和大威神。他们在礼敬佛陀和听法后便获得初果,而刚巧听到他们在天上对话的女居士卡利亦同证圣果,后来更诞下一位未来会证阿罗汉的儿子。这些例子,都说明了佛陀说的四圣谛、缘起、八正道等教法,是能够让人天、神明均得证悟的。

然而,由于过去生的业障,并非所有众生听佛闻法都可以证悟,如《法句经》第182偈所记载的伊罗钵多龙王(Erakapatta),因为是畜生道的缘故,就算在佛前忏悔过去犯戒的恶业及听闻了正法,都无法在现生证取圣果,相反传达佛陀的话给伊罗钵多龙王的人则得证初果,可见犯戒是障碍圣道的严重违缘,那愧疚的障是世世不散的。

此经中的两位夜叉主角,也正因为在迦叶佛的时代犯戒,堕入夜叉身,一直无法证果,直到释迦牟尼佛的出世,才得解脱。现在,我们还能够听闻正法、持戒、修习八正道、供养僧团和禅修者,也能够修习毗婆舍那禅法,如果不珍惜这个机缘,不严自律己,护持正法,则一失人身,万劫不复矣。

澳门佛教正勤禅修中心

负责人 陈永威

于2021年4月20日

英译前言

礼敬世尊、阿罗汉、正等正觉者

Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammā Sambuddhassa

这本书是最高大哲士(Agga Mahā Pandita)马哈希大师(Mahāsi Sayādawpayagyi)的《雪山夜叉经讲记》,英译者是缅甸着名的作家邬安培(U On Pe)。按照传统记载,佛陀讲述《雪山夜叉经》(Hemavata sutta)的时间在《转法轮经》和《无我相经》之间。虽然它不及这两部经出名,但对于追求真理和希望增进对佛陀及其教法认识的人而言,它是具有同等价值的。

在此先简单地介绍此经的缘起过程,相信这不会过于离题。有一次,马哈希大师的弟子们邀请大师讲述《转法轮经》,在一连串的讲座中,大师阐述了许多《转法轮经》的资料及其实践应用[1][1],令听众留下了深刻的印象。笔者有幸在讲座中聆听法音并进行录音,后来得到大师允许出版该经的讲记。现在那部讲记已经翻译成英文,利益非缅语的阅读群众。

尊敬的华尼塔尊者(Ashin Vaṇṇita)在协助我编辑《转法轮经讲记》的时候,建议我请求马哈希大师启讲《雪山夜叉经》。尊贵的大师慈悲地应允,于一九六三年的缅甸新年初,在马哈希禅修中心举行了一连串的讲座,那时中心挤满了禅修者,包括一群大学和中学生。当时收录了六节讲座的录音,经过誊写内容及提交给大师审阅后,于一九七三年出版。

在博学的马哈希大师的讲解之下,《雪山夜叉经讲记》以简单易懂的语言提供了许多关于佛法的内容,深具启发性,不论佛教徒及非佛教徒均能明了。讲记包括一些有趣的故事,及辅助读者铭记的偈颂格言。[2]总言之,整部讲记蕴含的精深智慧,无疑会协助读者得尝佛法的滋味,此味将胜于一切其余滋味。佛陀在《律藏》、《增支部》及《自说经》中反复说:「犹如大海唯有一味——咸味,此正法、律亦唯有一味,即解脱味。」

谚语有云:「布丁好不好,吃了才知道」,读者可以透过这部讲记亲身发现及享受当中的法味。不论求道的人是属于那个社会阶层、性别、种族或国籍,这部讲记均可以提供巨大的利益。我们希望这本首次翻译为英语的书能够成功圆满。祈愿所有的众生证得圣道及智慧,正如本书中所指,获得解脱与涅槃的寂静,到达诸佛及阿罗汉的境地。

邬定汉(马哈希禅修者)

荣誉司库

仰光佛法弘扬协会

(Buddha Sāsana Nuggaha Organization,Yangon)[3]

《雪山夜叉经讲记》[2]

第一讲

《雪山夜叉经》是一部相当短的经典,难怪许多人都忽略它的存在。事实上,它是佛陀所讲的第二部经典。佛陀讲的第一部经是《转法轮经》,而本经则在其后宣说,在宣讲本经后,才轮到著名的《无我相经》。本经是在宣讲《转法轮经》的同一个晚上所讲的。

本经适合每一个人。雪山夜叉与七岳夜叉[3]之间的对话,描述了佛陀的圣德以及在佛陀教法(sāsanā)中的弟子们所应有的德行。有一位无意中听到两位夜叉对话的女人,因为崇敬佛陀的圣德而证得初果须陀洹,虽然她还不知道佛陀成佛的事。

现在,如果在此讲座中的听众,如那位女士般体证「佛法」[4],将会是十分好的事情,那位女士才听了一段短的对话,而这里的听众则是连听了三四天,每日聆听超过两小时的讲座。这里的听众将会学习到一个详细的讲解,远多于那位女士从一段短的交谈中所学的。听众们如果没有证得初果,也至少可以获得证得初果所需的波罗密(资粮)。

此经的日期

佛陀在多久之前宣讲此经?自他宣讲《转法轮经》至入涅槃之前,他以清凉、柔和的佛法之水,润泽人、天人和梵天整整四十五年。从他入灭至今(指一九六三年)已经相隔2506年。加上他为人天师表的45年,《雪山夜叉经》距离现在2551年。本经与《转法轮经》一样古老,它应该被视为佛陀最早宣讲的经典之一。

在2551年前的五月月圆日之后的黎明[4][5],释迦牟尼证成佛道,后来他于附近的七个地方分别逗留了七日。经过前后四十九天,佛陀前往波罗奈(现代的瓦拉纳西)的鹿野苑向「五比丘」(pañca-vaggiyā bhikkhū)初转法轮,讲经说法。他第一次讲经说法的日期是2551年前的七月月圆日,时间是黄昏,一轮红日缓缓西沉,皎洁明月正从东起,佛陀就在这个时候开始讲解《转法轮经》。

无数天人及梵天与会,聆听佛陀第一次的说法。按照《弥兰陀王问经》(Milinda Pañha),听经的五位比丘中最年长的一位──阿若侨陈如(Añña Kondañña)在会中证得初果、1.8亿的梵天及数不尽的天人体证「法」。

当时与会的其中一位听众是七岳夜叉(Sātāgiri),他以其居住处「七岳」为名。[6]他在听《转法轮经》的时候心情非常雀跃,由于他想确定其朋友雪山夜叉(Hemavata)是否在场,于是四处张望,结果发现他并不在现场。他很渴望这位朋友能够来临听经,因为他回忆上一次听经,已经是多劫之前的迦叶佛时代,到了现在才听到类似的讲经说法。因此,他十分希望雪山夜叉能够参与听经,他不断地思考着为什么雪山夜叉不来,由于分心,他没能体证「法」。

集中专注的重要性

一个人要在聆听佛法讲座的时候体证「法」,必须有一颗平静的心,只有透过专心的注意力及平静的心,才能够证得禅定(又称三摩地),只有透过禅定,才能够成就观智。如果心散乱,被家庭、钱财和其它世俗事情拉走,禅定便不能够生起。如果担忧出现,那情况就更坏了。如果散乱和担忧出现,「法」的特质将会消失,由于缺乏禅定[7],将不会有观智,那么一个人便不能够修习毗婆舍那,他怎样能够体证「法」呢?因此,在听经的时候专心注意是很重要的因素。《相应部‧迦叶相应》描述了听经时应如何照顾身心,方法如下。

聆听佛法的正确方法

在听经的时候,必须存有得益的心态,犹如在商业交易中,良好和公平的交易协议必须小心谨慎处理,亦如同收割农作物,必须小心处理方能确保没有一粒玉米、一根豆芽会在任何情况下遗漏。在处理金银珠宝时,也需要无微不至地小心保存它们,这是人所共知的。同样地,在听经的时候,一个人必须小心聆听,不遗漏讲者的每一个字,必须尽量了解每一个字的意思。根据那一部经典,听经者必须小心聆听,全心地投入,而且按照法语修行。

这是听经的正确方式[8]。如果一个人以此方法听经,一个人的心将会宁静和收摄;他将会远离干扰,从而证得心清净。在聆听四圣谛的宣讲后,有许多众生在期间体证「法」。在聆听《转法轮经》的那一天,侨陈如尊者和许多天人跟梵天,都解脱了轮回,这都是因为他们专注于佛陀的言语。在那一场讲座,七岳夜叉可能因为想着他的朋友雪山夜叉,而听漏了某些字语。如果他没有遗漏那些字,便可能深思那些字语的意思。看来他当时没有彻底明了那一次讲经的内容,而只顾着想为什么他的朋友没有出席;因为想着朋友,他沉醉于欲乐,导致心不在焉,七岳夜叉因而不能够体证「法」。

在提及七岳夜叉思惟其朋友的内容中,也讲到了雪山夜叉受到欲乐的缠缚,换言之[9],「为世间欲乐所迷惑」。是的,世间欲乐虽然在本质上没有价值,它们却迷惑着人们。有些人不能够来到此地听经,也是因为他们为世间欲乐所迷惑。对于这些人而言,修行佛法是很遥远的事。他们经常认为佛法可以晚一点修,现在更重要的是只管干活、为生活打拼和享受生活乐趣。这就是为世间欲乐所迷惑。但事实上,真正紧迫和重要的是修行佛法。修行只能够在佛陀教法存在的时期做到,而世间的快乐可以在任何时间和地方找到。所以,我建议人们在获得足够的生活所需之后,更应当注意佛法的修行。

透过修行佛法,一个人可以证得某一阶段的圣道,免离堕落四恶趣,包括地狱。纵然一个人还没有证得「道智」(magga)与「果智」(phala),他仍然可以投入「法」当中,持续地造作「善业」(kusala)。以此善业,[10]他可以再次投生为人、欲界天或更高的天界,享受在这些世界中所得的好处。如果一个人浪费时间在世俗的事务上,他便没有条件让下一生享受好的生活。因此,认为世间欲乐更加重要和紧迫,是由于被世间欲乐所迷惑,事实上它们并不真的重要。它们只是幻象。七岳夜叉当时正在想着缺席的朋友,因而在听佛陀讲经时心是散乱的,这就是为什么他错失证得「法」的机会。

在佛陀讲完《转法轮经》后,七岳夜叉离开会场,立马去邀请他的朋友。因为七岳夜叉是一位夜叉大将,他离开时有五百名将军眷属随行,坐着由象、马、大鹏金翅鸟所驱动的战车。同一时间,雪山夜叉亦正前往七岳夜叉的处所,希望邀请他前往雪山(今喜马拉雅山)欣赏众多正在盛开的天界花卉。他也是带领着随行的许多将军眷属与车乘。[11]他们在天际中奔驰,雪山夜叉往南,而七岳夜叉向北。于是他们在王舍城的上空碰面了。

当这两位朋友看到对方,雪山夜叉便说:「我的朋友七岳夜叉,雪山正绽放着前所未见的奇花异卉。我特意来邀请你一起庆祝这个难得的盛会。」

七岳夜叉问他为何雪山会异常地盛开着花朵?雪山夜叉说他也不晓得个中原由。七岳夜叉说:「不但雪山突然绽放众多花卉,其它地方也是,花儿到处盛开。原因无他,因为正等正觉的佛陀成道了,至今已经两个月。今日他讲了第一部经《转法轮经》,所有树上的花朵悉皆盛开,对这位觉者稽首示敬。我在听经时常常想起你,因此我特意来邀请你一起去听经。」[12]

无意中听到两位夜叉对话的女人

当两位夜叉在谈话的时候,一个名叫卡利的富豪女儿刚好开着自己房间的窗户,享受阵阵的清风。王舍城的七月气候很热,犹如缅甸的曼德勒或雪布。卡利当时正怀孕,由于觉得天气很热,所以打开窗户,享受凉风。就在那时候,她听到上方两位夜叉的声音,她很专注地聆听他们谈话的内容。她可以分辨出对话的不是人类,想必是两位天神。她当时的年纪应该是十六或十七岁,那个时代的印度女孩都很早结婚,而且通常在那个年纪怀第一胎。她所怀的胎儿是佛陀将来的一位弟子——首楼那长老(Soṇa-Kuṭikaṇṇa,又译二十亿耳),他被誉为「解法第一」。

七岳夜叉的邀请

Ajja pannaraso uposatho, (iti sātāgiro yakkho)

Dibbā ratti upaṭṭhitā;

Anomanāmaṃ satthāraṃ, handa passāma gotamaṃ

(七岳夜叉说)『今天是十五日的斋戒日,这是个美好的夜晚;

让我们去见乔达摩,这位最着名的老师。』[5]

七岳夜叉说:「我的朋友雪山夜叉呀,今天是十五,是斋日,[13]诸天的光芒照亮着晚空。这是佛陀第一次讲经的日子,因此不但雪山的树木盛开着花朵,连七岳山甚至全世界也如此,在这个吉祥的日子,花朵均绽放着向佛陀敬礼。参与法会的天人及梵天人数之不尽,使世间都被天人的光芒所包围。东方的满月皎洁明亮。因为这样,晚空被所有这些不同来源的光明所照耀,是神圣净洁的一个晚上。

在天人开阔的眼睛中,那时候的世界一定非常美丽,充满着天界的光芒和盛放的天花。就算是人的肉眼,那时候也必定十分美丽。有一次,我到大金石佛塔(Kyaikhtiyo Pagoda)朝圣。那一天是一九三一年二月十四日的晚上,月亮将近饱满,月光清澈明亮。从山脊遥望,我发现在月亮的光明照耀下,所有山丘和溪谷都显得十分美丽。有些树木花朵盛放,有些树木耸立于山坡,构成一幅亮丽的图画。[14]从天人的角度看,在初转法轮的那一天,整个世界必定非常美丽。所以七岳夜叉邀请雪山夜叉前往礼敬佛陀。

七岳夜叉跟雪山夜叉说:「现在,让我们一起去礼敬佛陀,出身于圣种乔达摩的伟大导师。」

他继续说,这位伟大的导师,释迦族的悉达多·乔达摩(Siddhattha Gotama)曾于优娄频罗村的树林(Uruvela Forest)修行六年并成佛,他具备以阿罗汉(arahaṃ,或译「应供」)为首的九种德行。现在,让我简单讲解佛陀的九种德行。

阿罗汉的特质

阿罗汉意思是「应供」。那么佛陀应受什么供养呢?他应受到特别的恭敬和礼拜。世间的人礼拜不同的对象。有的礼拜树木、森林、山丘、海洋、天空、太阳、月亮、星体等等。某些人礼拜各类天神:有的礼拜欲界天的神,有的礼拜梵天。连人也有[15],有的礼拜某个宗派及组织的领袖。好了,为什么人们会礼拜这些呢? 因为他们希望远离危险和灾难。每个人都希望脱离危险和灾难,希望人生可以丰盛、健康、长寿和富有。不但人类如此,天神也希求丰盛的生命。人们希望获得超越他们能力所及的更大成就,因此他们依赖各类天神,譬如树神和山神。他们礼拜和供养这些神。有的人幻想一个超级的个体,他创造世界及其人民和事物,并礼拜这位幻想的个体。然而,没有人曾经见到过他及描述他的外貌。这些人礼拜这个个体,因为某人在过去宣称曾经见到过他,但这个人可能只是发梦。

每一个宗教信仰者会按照代代相传的信仰进行礼拜,从不会批判。就算到了科学探索的时代,传统信仰亦依旧流传。事实上,并没有实质的证据可以支持,这些祈求免于灾难的人,真的能够透过纯粹的祈祷而被救度。如果这些神明或主能够救助所有祈祷的人[16],那么他们全部都应该富有、健康和丰盛。但事实并不是这样。有的人没有祈祷而致富,实际这些人只是工作,从事任何可以谋利的贸易和职业,没有祈祷便致富和成功。每一个人都是量工衡酬。很明显懒人是不会致富的。一个人的努力会得到酬报,成功不是透过敬拜神明而得到的。

佛陀从来没有说:「礼敬我,我将救度你。」他说一个人需要承受自己所作的善业和恶业所带来的后果。一个人可以透过礼敬一位具备戒律和其他圣洁特质的人,获得殊胜的功德。如果此功德成熟,礼敬的人可能在现生中获得果报,不然,此果报也会在后世中获得。这是佛陀所说。如果礼拜一位没有具备圣洁德行的人,此种礼拜是无益的。那就好像不收藏宝石,反而收藏砖头和砂石,以为它们很珍贵。[17]如果你卖砖头和砂石,怎么可能预期获得宝石的价格呢?如果,你收藏的是真的宝石,那么你可以用它们的基本价格进行售卖。同样的,如果你礼敬圣人,你将会得到你所预期的功德。他所具备的戒行和圣德,是一切圣者中最高的。因此天人、梵天人及世人均应礼拜佛陀,让他们可以获得功德和殊胜的果报,得生人天乃至证得涅槃。这些功德并不是佛陀所给予的,而是他们从礼敬佛陀所累积的。因此,佛陀获得「阿罗汉」(应供)的称号,应受人天之所敬仰。这是一个高贵的圣号。因此,七岳夜叉赞美佛陀。

阿罗汉另一个意思是「远离」,远离什么呢?意思是佛陀远离于内心的烦恼(kilesa)。在各种世间的众生均会追求可爱的事物,换言之,他们都有贪欲(lobha)。[18]他们在遇到刺激瞋恚(dosa)的事情时会发怒,存在愚痴或错误的观念(moha)。相反地,佛陀远离及消除了贪欲、瞋恚和愚痴。这是为什么佛陀应受阿罗汉这个圣号。

下一个是Sammāsambuddha(正等正觉)的特质。Sammā意思是「真正的」;sam意思是「透过自己」;buddha意思是「觉」。因此,整个意思是「亲身彻底觉悟真理(法)」。佛陀在早期的修行中,曾经在阿罗逻迦蓝(Alāra Kālāma)及优陀罗(Udaka)的指导下学习奢摩他(止禅)[6],但当他成佛的时候,他并不是透过这些隐士所教导的知识而证悟,而是透过他自己所了悟的方法和他自己的智慧。他以智慧分辨了色法(物质现象,rūpa)和名法(心理现象,nāma),最终成佛。这简单地概述了佛陀自证真谛的情况。这是为什么佛陀应受到「正等正觉」这个圣号。[19]

佛陀的特质

当佛陀证得佛果,他证得洞察过去、现在和未来的智慧──他能够立刻知道任何所忆及的东西。没有任何事是他不知道的。因此,他完全及彻底了知一切「法」,所以佛陀应受「佛」这个圣号。故七岳夜叉赞颂「佛」。

七岳夜叉告诉雪山夜叉,佛陀的圣德是无量的,不可数不可释,纵使经过累劫的时间也不能够确知。他邀请雪山夜叉前往聆听佛陀讲经。

在听到朋友所说的话后,雪山夜叉作一番审察,考量多个方面以确定他的朋友所指的人是真正的佛陀。因此他提出一些问题,而七岳夜叉作答。在那个时代,有多个宗派的领袖如富兰那迦叶(Purāṇa Kassapa)、末伽梨拘舍梨子(Makkhali Gosāla),还有其他四位外道老师,均声称是佛陀。因此,有必要审查这种特质。[20]

雪山夜叉的疑问(一)

Kacci mano supaṇihito, (iti hemavato yakkho)

Sabbabhūtesu tādino;

Kacci iṭṭhe aniṭṭhe ca, saṅkappassa vasīkatā.

(雪山夜叉问)『这样的一个人其心是否善待所有众生?

不管面对可意或不可意,他是否能自在地思惟?』[7]

「七岳,你的老师能够保持其心处于友善的状态?即是说,你的老师能否无分别地善待一切众生?」

「七岳,在这个世界有很多人声称为佛陀。让我问你:你指的佛陀,能否不偏不倚地对待自己及他人的弟子,以及善待一切众生?他能否对所有众生怀有慈心(mettā),并祝福他们健康和快乐?他能否对所有众生存有慈和悲?」

这问题是应该提出的,因为某些声称是佛的人是存在偏倚的,他们的慈爱和悲悯只限于追随和恭敬他们的人,他们只会救那些恭敬他们的人,而惩罚其他不这样做的人。他们说那些不追随和恭敬他们的人将被打入地狱。这种声称是佛的人,不应被视为佛陀,因为真正的佛陀会保持其心善待一切众生。[21]

雪山夜叉继续说:「贤友,你的佛陀能否控制其心,对于可意或不可意的事情保持中立?」在这个世上,许多人在接触到可意的事物时,会感到欢悦并享受它,而在接触到不可意的事物时,会感到不悦,而且不能够控制他们的反感。他们会愤怒和失落,不能控制他们的瞋恨。事实上,他们让心追随于感官现象,不能控制其心。但真正的佛陀能够控制其心。雪山夜叉的问题是很重要的一问。

现在,人们都让他们的心追随感官和感官现象。他们对于引人笑的事情会发笑,对于引人蔑视的事情会撇嘴以表示蔑视。他们对有趣的事情发笑,对伤感和引人涕泪的事情哭泣。他们起初抑制自己前往不好的地方,但后来,当欲念冲击突袭,他们便会前往这些地方。同样地,在经过一段短时间的抵抗后,他们会受到引诱,说和做他们不应该说和做的事情。这就是所谓让心跟随感觉走。

别的不说,就说有些禅修者,他们觉得失望[22],因为他们不能够在他们的禅修功夫上获得进步,想放弃和准备离开,他们的导师需要透过劝告制止他们。当他们受过劝导,再开始禅修并获得相应的进展,他们感到愉快。但有一些禅修者不接受劝导,回家去了。这也是让心跟随感觉走的一个例子。还有其他禅修者的例子,他们在证得厌离智(Nibbidāñāṇa)后感到失望,因为他们觉得所有事情都是乏味的,因此也回了家。如果这些禅修者继续禅修,他们便能够彻底证得所有观智。但他们无法控制他们的心,于是放弃了。这是多么大的损失喔!然而,大部分禅修者都愿意聆听导师的劝告,学会控制他们的心。

在世俗生活中也如此,有很多事情都需要一个人控制自己的心。佛陀的讯息是要控制心。那些重视佛法的人,能够相对地控制他们的心。[23]那些没有重视佛法,而且在佛法的影响范围外的人,相对比较没有羞耻或怖畏感,随意造作或说他们所喜欢的事。因此雪山夜叉问他的朋友,佛陀是否能够控制其心。这是一个颇为有意义的问题。

对质问感到尴尬

提出探究性问题是重要的。有一次,在某户人家的供斋仪式上,一位尊者告诉我他被一位美国的访客质问。当时的问题很尖锐和深入,那位尊者在被质问的时候感到很难受。然而这位尊者是出名的有口才的人。那位访客问他学习佛法多少年,他以哪种所缘(ārammaṇa)修习。那位尊者说这种问题很尴尬。但我觉得,这些问题是恰当的,因为一位深入佛法的聪明提问者,是应该向那些知道佛法的人提出这种探究性问题的。对于一位年届七十,以丰富学问而着名的僧人,提问者应该提出这种探究性的问题——对这位僧人的个人禅修体验提问。[24]重点是他应该对这些问题作出清晰和明确的回复,而不是感到尴尬。

雪山夜叉并非凡人。他过去曾经在迦叶佛的时代,生为一位受人尊敬的比丘,教导五百名弟子。这是为什么他提出的问题与佛陀的德行相关。七岳夜叉那时候也是一位受人尊敬的比丘,与雪山夜叉一起加入僧团,指导着五百名弟子。

对于雪山夜叉提出的问题,七岳夜叉作出这样的回答。

七岳夜叉的回答

‘‘Mano cassa supaṇihito, (iti sātāgiro yakkho)

Sabbabhūtesu tādino;

Atho iṭṭhe aniṭṭhe ca, saṅkappassa vasīkatā’’.

(七岳夜叉答)『他(能慈)心善待所有众生,

面对可意或不可意,他能自在地思惟。』[8]

「贤友雪山啊,我们的老师佛陀,拥有平等看待所有众生的德行,对于好与不好的感受,他也能够完全控制心思。」

这是七岳的回答,意思是说佛陀对于一切众生的态度,都是基于一切众生是平等和相类的原则,不论众生尊敬他与否。[25]佛陀有的近身弟子因为听闻《转法轮经》而获得证悟,有的普通弟子只是向佛和法礼敬,因此成为佛陀教化时期的弟子。当然,有的人是在佛陀的教化时期以外,还有魔的追随者,专门反对佛陀。七岳夜叉说:「我们的老师佛陀,对所有众生都是平等的,没有分别,向他们发送慈爱和悲悯。」

那个时候是佛陀教法刚开始之际,就后来的情况而言,我们可以说佛陀平等地善待他的忠实信众、那些提供比丘四资具的人、以及那些一直反对他的婆罗门和外道。佛陀对待与他为敌的人,例如提婆达多,正如对待自己的儿子罗睺罗一般,把他们均看作众生对待。佛陀没有对任何人特别偏爱。他散播慈爱和悲悯给一切众生。

因此七岳回复说:「我们的老师佛陀,充满了如是(圣洁的)德行(tādiguṇa),[26]对三界中所有众生无有偏爱。」

非常值得敬重

谈到偏爱,世界上的人会偏爱那些与他们亲近的人,不爱那些疏远他们的人,还有偏爱那些在内部的人,而不爱那些外来的人。因此,我们对佛陀实在不得不彻底地拜伏敬仰。偏爱在人类活动的每一个范畴均可以看到。对那些我们喜欢的,我们会尽所能地给予一切协助,尽量迁就和宽恕他。然而,对于那些反对我们的,我们不会有施与援手的意欲;就算那些可能没有反对我们及未曾帮助我们的人,当我们被要求为他们做一些事情时,我们只会勉强的帮助。对一切人没有偏爱及同等对待是很稀有的。不用说外边的人,我们对于自己家里的所有成员,也不能采取一种公平对待的心呢。

不单普通人,就算是在其他宗教,那些被敬拜为神明的,也很少采取平等的态度对待一切众生。你会发现有一些神明会说:「我只会救度我的追随者,并放逐其他人到地狱去。」与这种神明比较,佛陀实在非常值得敬重。[27]

佛陀希望所有众生快乐,犹如他希望儿子罗睺罗快乐一样。他希望所有众生证得涅槃,一如他希望罗睺罗证得涅槃。他怀着同等的慈悲心对待所有众生,就像他对罗睺罗那样。人们是很难平等对待所有众生,但是当佛陀散发大悲(mahākaruṇā)时,他会平等地遍及所有生命界的一切众生。

大悲怎样生起

根据《无碍解道》(Paṭisambhidāmagga),佛陀观察到一切众生的老、病、死苦,次第地,达致无常的体会,于是心中生起了大悲。佛陀在审视整个世间界时,观察到这种可悯的状况,于是在其心中升起了巨大的悲心。好像一位善人遇到身受重创的人而感到怜悯那样。不过,普通人的悲心还是平凡的;其深度是不足道的。佛陀所发的悲心,是至为深广,遍于一切的。[28]佛陀怜悯众生受苦的现状,观察到在下一生,某些众生会投生至地狱、畜生及饿鬼道等恶道。他还观察到众生在未来数不尽的来世将承受老、病、死苦,所以对所有众生深感悲悯。

现在,讲讲人的一生。在生为人后,人们需要学习知识以谋生,到了约二十岁左右,他有责任工作,一直到他衰老,那时候他可能有着各种各样的病,在最后,那些病因为治不好而死。人们只是想着干活而没有真实地察觉身体逐渐地衰老,疾病一个接着一个,直到最后一刻,病无法治疗了,死亡便出现。那时候,他才发现一个悲惨的事实,家人在旁边尽力照顾垂死边缘的他,减轻他的苦,但是已经无能为力做到了,他最后在环绕着的亲友的哭声中过世了。[29]亲人在之后的数个月中怀念他并感到忧伤,但后来开始逐渐地遗忘他。这就是人生的概要,而它只是无尽的轮回中的一个阶段。

同样的情况在未来世也会再发生;身体衰败,老和病的出现乃至最终死亡。这是佛陀所观察到的。他审视百千万亿的病苦和垂死众生,还有那些亲近他们的人所受的悲伤,大悲在佛陀的心中生起。平常我们会说「百千万亿」,但事实上那个数字是无尽的,如果我们把一个众生历来受生的经过以图画描述,那么用来描述的图画需要覆盖的范围,会超过整个地球的表面加上其它空间。佛陀观察到众生的生、老、病、死的相状,因而对众生产生大悲;这是佛陀生起「大悲」的过程。

因此我们学到:「无常的逼迫,驱使人类导向老、病、死。」

佛陀看到,如果要救度众生脱离老、病、死的苦,除非他使众生追随佛法,[30]

使他们自己修行而解脱,否则众生将继续轮回并堕入恶道。因此,佛陀对世间界的所有众生的悲心,正犹如他对其子罗睺罗一样。所以七岳夜叉回答雪山夜叉的第一个疑问时说:「世间界的所有众生孤苦无依,他们找不到依怙和保护。因此,佛陀对一切众生存着大悲。」

不过,人们在现世可以找到一些能够帮助和支援他们的人,例如儿女依靠父母、年老的父母依靠儿女、老师照顾弟子、弟子照顾老师、亲朋互相帮助和支援等等。这些帮助和支援是平常的。但真正的帮助和支援并不能由任何人提供。譬如说,儿女不能够帮助他们的父母不衰老。同样的,父母也不能够帮助儿女不衰老。儿女无法抽出催使父母衰老的因素然后彼此分担。还有他们无法抽出导致别人病痛的因素,不能够分担它而让病者的情况得以舒缓。[31]当然,医生及物理治疗师可以在某种程度上做一些事情,但对于不治之症,他们无法做任何有具体效用的事。他们不能够避免死亡的来临。不管临终者的身边是儿女、亲戚还是好朋友,都无法做任何事情避免他的死亡。他们只能够看着临终者。人都是这样死去的。没有帮助或支援能够使一个众生解脱老、病、死的苦,或死后堕入恶道。

只有佛陀能够救度众生免离这些厄难,透过佛法引导众生踏上正道,依法而住。这种救度的方法,类似医生治疗病人的方法,透过开药和指示病人避免服食不当的食物及造作不当的行为。这里并没有神迹,不能说一句「让他好起来」就行。如果病人没有依照医生的指示,病是不会痊愈的。同样地,佛陀只能指出正道和给予正确的方向,那些跟随他指示的人[32],就能够免离于地狱、老、病和死的苦。一句话就是,这些众生可以脱离轮回,那无尽的生死循环。

佛陀是经过许多「劫」(kappā)才出世的,而每一位佛陀的寿命长短会视乎所处的时代而定,通常是那时候的一般人寿。因此,听到佛陀讲经说法是稀有难得的机会。虽然佛陀已经去世,人们仍可以从有学养和圣洁的僧人和在家人那里聆听佛陀的法,并按照当中蕴含的指示修行,让自己解脱于地狱乃至未来的轮回。但这种机会,不是每一生都可以获得的。这个世界存在很多种信仰,如果一个人追随了错误的信仰,这是很危险的,因为如果一个人跟随错误的指引,为着错误的目的而修,他将会越来越沉沦于轮回的漩涡中。对佛陀而言,他对所有众生都怀着怜悯,不论他们所信仰的是什么。在观察到那么多众生在不同的世间界中走上邪道,佛陀的悲心因而更大。[33]

邪教的追随者更可悲

邪教的追随者相较其他人真的更为可怜,因为他虽然希望寻找导向快乐和圆满的正道,但却错误地将邪道当作正道,跟随一条为他带来更多苦难的道路,越往前走越苦。佛陀的信徒不应该因为找到了正道而感到自满。他们应当努力证取至少第一阶段的解脱(初果),只有到那时候他们才可以确定免于苦厄。不然,下一生他们将不会再与今生的父母和师长在一起;他们可能投生到其他信仰的家庭里。那时候他们可能会走向邪道。因此,佛陀对于无法免于老病死苦、恶道及邪教的众生存着大悲。他的悲心对一切众生平等无私、不偏不倚。[34]

高拉巴国王与护国尊者之间的问答

在这个世界,有许多国王拥有大批军队保护他们,对于这些国王来讲,他们可以依赖这些军队来处理世间事务。然而,这些国王也会日渐衰老,军队并无法保护他们免于老病死苦的来临。在佛陀的时代,有一位阿罗汉名叫「护国」(Raṭṭhapāla),他是高拉巴国王(Korabya)一位富翁朋友的儿子。有一天,国王问这位尊者为何出家为僧。尊者回答说,是因为听到佛陀说法,有关一切众生被老病死苦逼迫无助的事,而毅然出家。国王不明白「无助」的意思。他说作为国王,他拥有庞大的军队保护他免于一切伤害,他不明白无人可助的意思。[9]

然后护国尊者说[35]:「大王,你曾否患上严重的疾病?」国王回答说:「有,我曾经患重病。」尊者再问他能否透过要求亲友分享他的痛苦而舒缓他的疾病,国王表示:「不可能,我完全只有独自承受。」尊者说这正是佛陀所讲的意思,所有众生都没有人能够帮助他们,或寻找任何能够帮助或救济他们的人。

显然地,纵使一个人在世俗事务上有很多人协助和保护,与老、病、死相关的事他是全然无助的。按照经论,在众生界里面,没有任何一样事物能够真的称为是自己的,因为当一个人死的时候,他必须要离开所有一切并投生到下一世。这是佛体悟的事实,因此他对一切众生怀着巨大的悲悯,也就是说,大悲(mahākaruṇā)在佛陀的心中生起。

一般而言,人们拥有其所声称的个人及私有财物,譬如金、银、食物、牛只、车辆等等。但当一个人面临死亡时,他必须将这一切弃之于后,当然还有他的身体[36]。对所有人而言,死亡是可以在今天或明天就来临;因此我们不能够说离开这些财物还有很长远的日子。在一个人的人生中,这些世俗的物品都可以因为某些力量而被偷盗和夺走;它们不是真的属于任何人的。

一个人真正拥有的东西,其中包括他的善业,譬如布施饮食、持戒和禅修。这些善业是不能够被偷走或抢走的,而它是可以从一生带到下一生的。拥有深厚善业的人们,将会获得美好的生命。因此有必要努力增长善业,进行布施、持戒和禅修(修习毗婆舍那),最后两项是最重要的。你们应该尽力修习至少一两天,就算你只能够做到这么一段时间,这种善业都是很宝贵的,而且不需要花费什么就做得到。

曾经造作这些善业的人,在临死的时候便有一些依靠。在临死之前,透过一直禅修至最后一口气尽,一个人便能够安祥地逝世,并在死后肯定投生天界。[37]因此,你们应当精勤不懈地修习这三类善业(布施、持戒和禅修)。

世俗的财物不是个人的而是共有的财物。你必须在死后离开这些东西给在世的人。如果你在心里面执着于世俗的财物,你可能会变成饿鬼(堕落成为恶道的众生受着难以言宣的痛苦和哀伤。)

佛陀由于观察到一切众生的无助,因而对他们生起大悲悯。佛陀也看到众生对世俗事务有无尽的渴爱(taṇhā),被它们所淹没,成为欲和贪的奴隶,因而对众生的怜悯很深。他观察到所有众生常常被渴爱所缠绕,追逐好的和舒服的事物来满足其六根,对于因为福报所感得的长寿和名声从不满足,对于生命中所得到的一切良好天赋和恩物也从不知足。

他们的欲望以倍数递增,这些欲望控制着生活的方方面面,而他们是得不到满足的。现在某些国家有许多百万富翁。他们的钱多到花不完,[38] 但他们的欲望及渴求却没有穷尽,他们是不能被满足的。众国王也从不停止扩充他们的帝国蓝图,他们想要更多的国家受其统治。

据说天人是更加的贪心。有威势的天人常常有五百到一千位天女在其宫室,但他们永远想要更多,从不满足。他们享受天界各种乐事和快意,但他们仍然想要更多并从不满足。因此,帝释天王比喻这些天人好像得不到食物的饿鬼一样,常常感到饥渴。佛陀见到一切众生均是贪欲的奴隶,这让他生起巨大的悲悯。

诚然,所有众生都是贪欲的奴隶。他们为了服侍贪欲,甚至冒上生命的危险。他们追求贪欲想要的东西,并冒死取得它们。他们的一生要整日工作以满足贪欲,而且在死后的下一生,仍然继续服务同一个主人——渴爱。[39] 生生世世从无休息之日。

在这个世界,当奴隶的人可能只在一生中作奴隶,但作为贪欲的奴隶,奴役期是无尽的,一直到证得阿罗汉的解脱时刻为止,才结束轮回之流。无明(Avijjā)熏染了一切事物,让它们变成值得渴求,而渴爱(taṇhā)让它们变得可乐,催使所有众生努力去获取它们。他们付出所有生命,但从不满足于所得到的一切。他们常常饥渴,而没有一刻满足的时间,因此他们经常都处在一个可悲的状况。这是佛陀所观察到的,亦因此对三界一切众生生起甚深的悲悯。

『不能被满足,众生是渴爱的奴隶』

『人们都会老、病和死』

『众生是脆弱和无助的』

『没有真实的私人财产,一切均需要舍离』

这四点是护国尊者向高拉巴国王说法的四个重点。尊者说佛陀看到一切众生这种悲惨的处境,所以生起大悲悯。佛陀对自己说[40],除了他以外,再无人可以帮助这些众生了。

因此,七岳夜叉(Sātāgiri)说佛陀对一切众生的大悲心,是平等无私、不偏不倚的。

七岳夜叉继续说:「此外,我们的老师佛陀,能够对一切可意或不可意,保持平等心。「这是对雪山夜叉的问题所做的回复,他问佛陀是否能够在接触到可意的东西时,保持不纵欲,而在遇到不可意的东西时,不生瞋恨;不像其他各类众生被各种类型的感受所触动和摇摆。这是直接到点的问题,而答复也很恰当。

现在这个时代,当有一个人邀请其一位不关心宗教事情的朋友,前往聆听他尊敬的老师讲解佛法,受邀的人会提出一些不到位的问题,如这样子:

「你的和尚能做什么?他熟悉天文占卜吗?他能帮我祈福,使我变得富庶吗?他能否做一些事情使分开的夫妇复合吗?或者寻回丢失的财物?他能够为人祈福让他升职吗?「 [41]

有智慧的提问

雪山夜叉在这个背景下的问题是非常到位的,很聪明的。在佛陀时代,有许多人声称他们是佛陀(觉悟者)。其中最有名的这类外道是:

  1. 富兰那迦叶(Purāṇa Kassapa)
  2. 末伽梨拘舍梨子(Makkhali Gosāla)
  3. 阿耆多翅舍钦婆罗(Ajita Kesakambalī)
  4. 迦罗鸠驮迦旃延(Pakudha Kaccāyana)
  5. 尼干陀若提子(Nigaṇṭṭha Nātaputta)
  6. 删阇夜毗罗胝子(Sañjaya Belatthiputta)

这六位外道各有徒众,深信他们对过去、现在、未来的种种说法。其徒众数目都颇大。

然而,雪山夜叉知道这些所谓的大师,并没有能力以平等心看待可意和不可意的事。所以他想知道,他的朋友七岳夜叉的老师是否也如此。七岳夜叉对这个问题做了一个明确的答复。[42]

「面对可意或不可意的事能完全掌控自己的心的反应,佛陀的这种能力是怎么回事呢?」佛陀能够以具有正念的中舍心,观察这些事,也就是,不生起喜欢或不喜欢,保持中舍心,他对这样的心全然掌控。不论一样事物有多美或可爱,佛陀会看到它、明了它最后是不可爱着的。他看到美丽的女人,如婆罗门玛甘迪的女儿(Magandhiya)[10],会立刻看到她是由三十二身分(koṭṭhāsa)所组成,没有任何东西可以被视为舒服及可爱着的。同样地,他看到摩罗的三位漂亮的女儿,并视她们仅仅为可厌的色法(物质)元素的聚合。

不仅是佛陀,而且他的弟子们,那些阿罗汉们,也可用同样的方式看待事物,并保持他们的心完全不会失控。就算不是阿罗汉,那些曾经修习不净观业处(asubha-kammaṭṭhāna)的修行人,也可用同样的如实的方式看到物质元素。有一次,在斯里兰卡[43],支提山的摩诃帝须大长老在托钵时,看到一位正在笑的女孩,然后看到那些物质元素的不可意,于是证得禅定,透过这种定境通达阿罗汉果。那些禅修而又证得「坏灭随观智」(bhaṅgañāṇa)的人,是可以看到事物在不断地坏灭的,因此看到它们是不舒服和不可爱着的。

把不舒服的东西看成舒服的能力

使不舒服的东西看起来变得舒服,佛陀透过他的慈心(mettā),把可厌的众生转化为可爱。他以悲心(karuṇā)看待这些众生,使这些众生犹如其子罗睺罗一般可爱及可悯,因此在看待他们时没有不舒服及不可意的现象在其中。佛陀视提婆达多,这位尝试在灵鹫山(Gijjhakūta)滚下大石来取他性命的人,犹如其子罗睺罗一般友善和可爱。他对提婆达多有着对他的儿子等同的善意,因而能够转化不舒服的现象为舒服。[44]

因为能够把不舒服的现像看待为舒服的缘故,佛陀能够从一位女奴仆——潘那(Punnā)的尸体身上捡起其卷布,并穿作僧衣,全无任何厌恶的感受。他吃了以茉利夫人(Mallikā)的裙子所包裹的糕点而无厌恶,也吃了一位婆罗门潘查卡(Pañcaggadāyaka)的遗食而不感厌恶。

大迦叶和一位麻疯病人

有一个关于大迦叶长老解脱于厌恶感的例子。有一次,这位倍受景仰的阿罗汉站在一位麻疯病人正在进食的地方托钵。他这样做是为了让这位麻疯病人可以获得功德,让他于下一生享受幸福和快乐。

这位正在进食的麻疯病人,对于布施饮食充满了善意,因此他把所有余下的食物都倒进尊者的钵里面。在这样做的时候,他不小心地掉了自己一根已经腐烂的手指到钵里面。这位伟大的阿罗汉虽然知道,但他没有移去那根手指,在完全没有厌恶感的心态下吃完了所有食物。[45]

这就是一个例子,透过看到组成这些事物的元素,怎样平等地看待不舒服的犹如任何舒服的现象。所有阿罗汉都能够这样看待事情,不只是佛陀。

佛陀也能够以不动心(中舍之心)看待舒服及不舒服的现象。最重要的是他能够对于身体出现的病痛不动心。因为被提婆达多从山上推下的大石碎块所伤,佛陀曾经因为脚伤而感受到(身体的)痛,但他视这痛为无物。而且,在佛陀人生的最后一年,他受着严重的病痛,仍能够毫不动心地看待这身体的病痛。

不单是佛陀,阿罗汉们也能够以不动心看待舒服及不舒服的现象。这种能力是一种称为「六支舍」(chaḷaṅgupekkhā)的特质。

修行禅法的禅修者,以及证得「行舍智」(saṅkhārupekkhā-ñāṇa)的人能够不为苦乐所动摇,他们能够标记观照苦乐的认知过程,而立刻不为所动。这些禅修者可以说,暂时获得了佛陀及阿罗汉们所证得的部分特质。[46]这些证得此观智的人应该感到欣庆。

有三类邪思惟(saṅkappa):

  1. 欲思惟(kāma-saṅkappa),想得到可意及舒服的东西的思惟;
  2. 瞋思惟(byāpāda-saṅkappa),恶意的思惟;
  3. 害思惟(vihiṃsa-saṅkappa),伤害他人的思惟。

这三种邪思惟必须要从一个人的心中祛除,然后培养三种正思惟:

  1. 出离思惟(nekkhama-saṅkappa),脱离欲望的思惟。
  2. 无瞋思惟(abyāpāda-saṅkappa),滋长幸福和快乐(慈心)的思惟。
  3. 无害思惟(avihiṃsa-saṅkappa),怜悯他人的思惟。

这是三种必须修习的正思惟。世俗的人们对舒服的东西产生欲求,对不舒服的东西生起瞋恨及希望破坏和摧残它。

对佛陀而言,这类邪恶的思想已经彻底消除。他充满着正思惟,[47]解脱于对舒服东西的欲求,以及对不舒服的东西的破坏和摧残的想法。佛陀自发地对一切众生生起慈心及怜悯心,无论事情是舒服和可欲,或者不舒服和可厌。他的心永远保持清明及完全受控。

事实上,佛陀可以控制他的内心,按其意愿进入禅定(jhāna)及果定(phala samāpaṭṭi)。他可以保持一种善意及慈心一段时间、一整天或整个星期,随其意愿。

因此,七岳夜叉说:「我们的老师佛陀,对于三种邪思惟以及三种正思惟,能够保持其心受控制。对他而言,心完全受控。」

佛陀是值得尊敬的,他不分别那些人对他特别尊敬或那些人反对他,平等地以慈心和悲心对待一切众生。他对所有令人舒服及不舒服的众生均存有善念,完全控制着他的心。佛陀的确是值得尊敬的。[48]

第一讲完

第二讲

就第一个问题的回复,已经给了雪山夜叉充分的理由,证明七岳夜叉所说的佛陀是真的。但为了进一步确认,雪山夜叉作了第二个提问。

雪山夜叉的第二个问题

‘‘Kacci adinnaṃ nādiyati, (iti hemavato yakkho)

Kacci pāṇesu saññato;

Kacci ārā pamādamhā, kacci jhānaṃ na riñcati’’.

(雪山夜叉问)『他是否会不与取?是否对所有众生不具瞋心?

是否远离放逸?是否精勤于禅定?』[11]

雪山夜叉说:「贤友七岳,您的老师是否不会拿取物主没有通过行动或语言答应给予的东西?他是否不会抢或偷?」

完全不会偷窃

拿取任何物主没有给予的东西便是偷盗。偷盗包括秘密地偷取,或透过暴力强抢。这条问题对佛教徒而言是无礼的。质问佛陀曾否有明抢或暗偷的性格是明显地很不礼貌的。[49]就算同样的问题向现代的僧人提出,也会是被看作粗鲁的。被这样问的人会被严重地冒犯。「你的老师,那位出家人没有偷盗吗?」这确实是一个傲慢无礼的问题。不过,在那个时代这一问题并不是不切题,也不是无礼的。因此那时候的人很渴求找到真正的佛陀,当时有很多假佛出现。

其中最著名的假佛,是富兰那迦叶(Purāṇa Kassapa)及其他五位声称是觉悟者的外道。他们的信徒尊敬和皈依他们,相信他们是真佛。这些假佛在说法的时候,忽视善恶业报。

七岳夜叉及雪山夜叉在迦叶佛的教法(sāsana)后期已经是天神,一直到释迦牟尼佛觉悟之初仍是。在这么久远的时期中,当人们热切渴求遇到佛陀出世,这两位夜叉便目睹不少冒充佛陀的人。就好像国民期待明君登位一样,但却出现许多冒充者夺位。[50]雪山夜叉知道假的佛陀不会远离偷盗,因此他提出这个问题。他希望验明七岳夜叉的老师是否有恶行。

今天,我们可以与许多人敬拜的所谓神比较一下。按照他们的圣典,他们的神看来并没有远离恶业。他们的神或造物主,据说曾惩罚一些人死刑及破坏他们的财产,这些行为在佛教是被视为恶业的。因此,雪山夜叉的问题不是不恰当的;它蛮切合当时流行的情况。接着雪山夜叉提问。

他是否对所有众生不具瞋心?是否远离放逸?

「怎么样?你的老师,那位佛陀,是否对所有众生不具瞋心及远离放逸?」放逸是一种忘失。当一个人被性欲吞噬的时候,他很容易会忘失邪淫是一种恶业。性交是不圣洁的行为,而这种行为在不正当的环境下进行是恶业。[51]「忘失」这个字在原来的巴利典籍中,是不道德行为的委婉词。

邪行迦叶的粗恶语

有一位外道名叫迦叶(Kassapa),当然这不是那位假佛富兰那迦叶(Purāṇa Kassapa)。这位迦叶在佛陀去世后约五十年,参访了巴沽拉尊者(Bakula)。他是属于一个要求弟子不穿衣服的苦行派系(裸形外道)。这位迦叶是尼干陀若提子(Nigantha Nataputta,简称「尼干子」)的追随者,尼干子是此派著名的领袖。这个派系的信徒现代被称为耆那教徒。

当我参观印度鹿野园的时候,我见到一座耆那教庙宇,在那个庙宇里挂了许多僧人的照片,称为牟尼(muni)。在佛教,牟尼有出家人的意思。我们佛教的僧人是全身穿着土黄色的僧服,而他们的僧人是全部裸体的。我们可以在恒河沿岸见到这些裸体僧人。

这位迦叶是一位阿罗汉圣者巴沽拉尊者在俗家时候的朋友。迦叶问巴沽拉尊者:「贤友,你在佛教多久了?」巴沽拉尊者答[52]:「八十年。」迦叶问:「在这段期间,你有多少次放纵而性交?」这显然是一个无礼的问题。

巴沽拉尊者说:「贤友,你应该问:『你想到性多少次?』这才是一个文明的提问。」迦叶于是重新组织他的问题。巴沽拉尊者答:「我在出家后第八日证得阿罗汉果,而成为阿罗汉表示彻底脱离淫欲。因此我说『我并没有淫欲的想法』。自从我出家之后,再没有想过淫欲,八十年间一次也没有。」

这个回答让迦叶感到惊讶,他其后皈依佛陀的教法,在禅修之后成为了一位阿罗汉。雪山夜叉是有礼貌的,因为他对于佛的教法并非无知,所以他委婉地说「忘失」或「放逸」。他的意思其实是七岳夜叉的老师是否于淫欲清净。

他是否精勤于禅定?

雪山夜叉问七岳,他的老师佛陀是否能够进入禅定,换言之[53],他是否能够完全处于觉知,除去一切欲念,所有这些妨碍人成为阿罗汉的障碍。爱欲是一个基本的障碍。(渴望可意的事物及纵容于欲乐(kilesakāma))如果一个人能够脱离它,一个人就能够证得初禅(jhāna)。现在这个问题只是对放逸那条问题的引伸。因此,雪山夜叉先提出了一些关于身体方面的错误行为,分别是偷窃、杀生和性行为,然后再问到禅定。

七岳夜叉的回答(二)

‘‘Na so adinnaṃ ādiyati, (iti sātāgiro yakkho)

Atho pāṇesu saññato;

Atho ārā pamādamhā, buddho jhānaṃ na riñcati’’.

(七岳夜叉答)『他断绝不与取,他对所有众生不具瞋心;

他已远离放逸,他精勤于禅定。』[12]

「贤友雪山,我们的老师远离偷盗的过失。」佛陀不偷不抢,不像那些伪圣者。为何我这么确定呢?因为佛在《转法轮经》中说,他发现了中道(majjhima-paṭipadā),他亦提到其修行八正道(maggaṅgas)。这八正道包含正业(sammākammanta)。这表示远离杀生、偷盗及邪淫。这些行为是人们必须避免的;避免这些行为称为「离」(virati)。

「离」(virati)有三种:(一)自然离(sampatta-virati),没有正式受戒(sīla),但远离于恶业。[54](二)持戒离(samādāna-virati)是在正式受戒后远离于恶业。(三)正断离(samuccheda-virati),透过圣道(ariyāmagga)永久地完全远离恶业。[13]

七岳夜叉知道佛陀远离了这些身体上的恶行及过失,因为佛陀已宣布彻底完成圣道的修习,其中包括一切的「离」,远离了所有身体的恶业。因此他说:「我们的老师佛陀,远离了偷盗的过失。」

伪佛陀

我希望就偷盗的问题给大家进一步的解释。伪佛陀的出现远早于真的佛陀,那六位伪佛陀之一,富兰那迦叶(Purāṇa Kassapa)说杀生、偷盗、抢劫都不是恶业,而且布施饮食及其他善行均不是善业。

另一位伪佛陀,末伽梨拘舍梨子(Makkhali Gosāla)说痛苦和快乐都是无因的,这些状态都是命定的,因此,无论一个人做了多少恶业,他都不会受苦[55],同样地,透过造作善业也不会得到任何功德。他认为没有所谓轮回(samsāra),时间到了,所有众生便自然得解脱。

迦罗鸠驮迦旃延(Pakudha Kaccayana),另一派的领袖,说所有众生均是由四大、苦、乐及命我所组成,因此如果一个人想要用刀割一个众生,那把刀只会割入这七种元素,那个众生不会被影响到。

阿耆多翅舍钦婆罗(Ajita Kesakambalin),另一个伪冒者,主张任何众生都没有所谓下一生,而善业和恶业都不会产生任何作用。

从这些伪佛陀的教导,我们可以推论出,他们鼓励造作恶业,他们看来在劝导人们杀生和偷盗。

没有人想被杀或抢劫

事实上,每一个众生都想长寿,而不想被杀,或者被抢去他辛苦得来的财物。因此,没有人应该杀任何人[56]。也不应该因为某些错误的观念,而杀害众生作祭祀,以为这些牺牲祭祀是善业。同样地,没有人应该偷盗任何人的财物,不论是为了他自己或其他人。

然而,在当时,那些伪冒教派的领袖们,却认为杀生或偷盗是没有过失的,他们这么说,可能表示他们本身并没有远离这些恶行。就真正的佛陀而言,这些行为是被宣称为恶行的。他没有犯这些恶行,也不会教人犯。这是为什么雪山夜叉提出关于偷盗的问题,而七岳作出一个实时的回答说,他的老师佛陀,远离于偷盗的过失,因为佛陀圆满地修习了正业(sammākammanta)。

透过「正断离」戒除恶行

如果一个人没有圆满「正业」的修习,他是不太可靠的,纵使他可能曾经宣称不会偷取物主不给予的财物。他可能在有机会偷盗的时候偷盗,而不能够抗拒那个诱惑。举一个明显的例子[57],在英军撤退及在日军进入缅甸前,市镇的人们都逃难了,遗留下他们的财物,郊外的人们纷纷涌进市镇掠夺。据说有个奇趣现象,那些被盗的衣柜大到连掠夺者所住的房子也装不下。

这些掠夺者在正常生活时,是持守五戒的人,但当他们有机会可以有恃无恐地偷盗时,便破除自己的戒律。这是因为缺乏了「正断离」(samuccheda virati),即是透过「圣道」(ariyā magga)远离恶业。就佛陀而言,他圆满地修习了「正业」,因此远离了偷盗及杀生的过失。

有同情心者不会偷盗

偷盗其他人的财产是一个缺乏同情心的行为,一位有道德的人是不应该如此的。没有人喜欢被抢劫,因此没有人应该抢劫。同情心是一位有道德的人必然有的,因此不应该有偷盗的欲念,纵使那人未曾正式地受戒。[58] 这种远离称为自然离(sampatta virati)。在正式受戒后的远离则称为持戒离(samādāna virati)。

有关偷盗,一位耆那教导师曾说:「一个人的财产是他的外在生命,因此偷盗就是夺取他人的生命。」这说法是蛮合理的,虽然有些许造作。他的意思是说,杀生是明显地夺取他人生命的行为,而偷盗是另一种夺取他人生命的方式,因为他的财产构成了他的外在生命,因为他需要依靠它来生存。这个人透过勤力工作和努力储蓄来取得财产,因此财产是他生命的一部分。有些人因为其财产的损失而忧伤至死。这是为什么那位耆那教导师指出财产是一个人的外在生命。

透过毗婆舍那解脱于偷盗的恶业

纵使一个人没有解脱于贪欲(lobha),一个人应该远离于偷盗,这可以透过培育同情心或严格受持戒律。对于那些观察到现象不断地快速生起和消失的禅修者,远离偷盗的过失是一个已经完成的行为。[59]对于他们而言,所有现象都是处于不断出现和消失的过程,表示无常(anicca);所有现象都处于这种过程,因此不受任何人的控制,这表示无我(anatta),因此想要杀生或偷盗的欲念不会产生。对于禅修者而言,「离」(virati)的修习已经是一个完成了的行为。

透过圣道解脱于偷盗的恶业

当禅修达到一个高的阶段。一个人可能看到名法(nāma)和色法(rūpa)的灭尽,并证得「圣道」(ariyā magga)的内观智。在那个时刻,永远不会生起任何偷盗或犯任何恶业的欲望。这是透过「圣道」根除所有恶念的时刻。这种彻底的去除称为「正断离」(samuccheda-virati)。这种去除不单只在高阶的证悟会出现,就算是在较低阶的证悟,当一个人证得须陀洹(sotāpanna)时也可以产生。在这个阶段,所有涉及违反五戒的恶业已经被根除。[60]

根据《大般涅槃经·法镜的教法》(Dhammādāsadhammapariyāyā,Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ)[14],须陀洹拥有一种观智,让他能够圆满地了解「佛」的特质并对他怀着甚深的敬意。同样地,他对「法」及「僧」的特质也有强烈的信心。因此,须陀洹拥有圆满持守五戒的能力,五戒是圣者所高度重视的。

因此,当一个人到达须陀洹的阶段,观智会让他深信佛法僧的特质,并成为圣者,拥有圆满持守五戒的能力。

圣者们均尊重五戒。他们不愿意破五戒。他们永远会谨慎不违反戒律。他们持守戒律不是因为他们害怕被他人谴责,而是因为想要保持心的清净。心的清净只有透过持守五戒才能够获得。不只在此生,在所有未来世中,他们都不会违反戒律。他们可能不知道过去生中已证得须陀洹[61],但他们会知道必须圆满持守五戒,不可以有缺失。

有时候我们可能会遇到,从小开始就不曾作任何恶业如杀生或偷盗的人。他并没有从父母获得任何特别的指导,但却自小知道什么是恶行并远离它,保持戒行的清净。可能这个人在过去生中获得了佛法的特别观智。另外,有一些人出生于非佛教的家庭,也会远道而来到缅甸学习禅修。可能这些人在过去生中,曾经修行过佛法。这些是有趣的个案,这些个案需要视乎其修行佛法的深广度来评定。

真的须陀洹已经达到圣者的境域,因此他严格遵守五戒,因此完全根除了一切违反戒律的恶行。虽然他没有彻底地远离贪和瞋,这些贪瞋不至于大到促使他造作一些违反五戒的行为。[62]他不会想到要偷盗,而如果他想要一些对他有用的东西,他会尽量购买,或者请拥有者布施予他。这是一位圣者的行为。透过三种「离」(virati),佛陀已经移除了所有恶业,因此说到偷盗,完全不切题。当佛陀讲《转法轮经》的时候,他宣称已经除去所有恶行。因此七岳夜叉说:「佛陀乔达摩,清净于不与取的恶行,不论是身或口。这是我可以深信并宣称的。」

雪山夜叉关于偷盗恶行的提问,不仅是要知道佛陀是否能够短暂地及偶然地断除偷盗,而是希望确切地知道佛陀是完全没有偷盗的恶行的。七岳的回答是明确的。然后第二个回答是:「还有,佛陀远离于残害及杀害众生。」这个回答看来并不符合佛陀的特质[63],但之所以有这个提问,是因为在那个时代存在一些假佛陀,那个用意是为了分别真佛与假佛。在这些日子,也有信奉神的信徒,一位创造所有众生和事物的造物主,在他们的经书中,这位造物主据说曾对违反他的意愿的众生作出惩罚。

这个神的惩罚,包括掀起大风暴和洪水杀害人们,还有制造大地震和对农作物作出破坏。如果真是这样,那么他们的神便没有远离杀害众生的恶业。雪山夜叉有关偷盗和杀生的提问,是符合当时流行的情况背景的。

倾向于杀生者不是须陀洹

曾经有一位作家,在一份刊物上说须陀洹不会杀害别人,但如果有任何人想要杀他,他会杀害那位施袭者。关于这一点,该作者声称是在研究人的心理本质后作的说明。

这观点是荒谬的。他对谁的心做了研究?而且是怎样研究那些心呢?他可能以为自己是一位须陀洹,又可能试着问自己[64],当他持有武器可以自卫反击时,会否允许施袭者杀害他,并因此而得出自己的答案,会先袭击那位施袭者。从他个人的推理,他取得结论然后在那篇文章中表达他的观点。按照佛教经论,这是一个无稽的说法。

一个人认为他可以并应该反击施袭者,单是这一点就已经证明那个人不是须陀洹了。按照佛教经论,有这种想法的人只是一个凡夫,绝不会是须陀洹。一位真的须陀洹,连一只跳蚤或虫子也不会杀,人就更不用说了。这一点必须要铭记于心。

对于佛陀而言,这种恶业已经彻底去除。因此七岳夜叉的答案是明确的:「我以深信宣称,我们的老师佛陀,永远不会杀害及残害任何众生。」然后第三个回答:「我们的老师佛陀,永远不会忘失(放逸)。他彻底远离于忘失。」[65]

「忘失」在世俗的意思是浅白易懂的。你忘记了做一件事情或你忘记了名字等等。或者你失去意识,从高处堕下或遇溺。但「忘失」在这里的背景并不是这一类。「忘失」的意思是沉溺于五种欲乐(kāmaguṇa)里面;这是让心忘失于感官欲乐里面。在巴利语,这称为pamāda(放逸)。

就像解开了那些绑住牛只颈部的绳子,让它们随处游荡及吃草一般,如果心被放纵及允许享受各种感官欲乐,这是pamāda或称为「忘失」。这种「忘失」是让人非常享受的,如果你随之的话。享受男女的美色、甜美的声调、香的气味、可口的美味、悦愉的触感都是舒服可意的。想着人生中美好的东西,就算不能够真的拥有它,只是想着感官的欲乐,那种幻想也可以为你带来某种舒服的感受。

你醒着的所有时间,都是放在思惟感官欲乐,及作一些可以享受它们的安排。你这样做不仅仅是一天[66]、一个月或一年;你的一生都在这么做。如果你没有机会想这些欲乐,你会感到沉闷。如果没有可以想的感官欲乐,以及可以取得它们的方法,人们就不再想生存于世了。

这样忘失于感官欲乐的想法和享受,就是pamāda(放逸)。这些感官欲乐之中,性欲是最显著的。因此,雪山夜叉问他的朋友,他的老师佛陀,是否远离淫欲的恶业。

对于这个问题,七岳夜叉给予一个肯定的回答:「我们的老师佛陀,是绝对脱离于欲念的。」

这个表面上无关的问题,在那个时期的情况是蛮相关的。那个回答也是肯定的。佛陀不单是脱离于生理的欲乐,而且也远离于对外表、声音、香味、味道及其他触感的享受。还有,他远离「忘失」修行四念住(satipaṭṭhāna),经常处于禅定中。[67]

禅定(jhāna)有两种:(1)奢摩他禅定(samatha jhāna),专注于单一目标;及(2)毗婆舍那禅定(vipassanā jhāna)[15],持续觉知身心现象,深入观照现象的生起和消灭,如实观察一切现象的无常、苦和无我。

奢摩他禅定

将心专注于某一个特定目标称为「奢摩他禅定」。譬如「地遍」(pathavī kasiṇa),是将心专注于「土地」。这种专注是不会观察到现象的生起和灭去,心只是专注于同一个目标,感官欲念不会有机会进入心里。一个人可以透过这个方法,证得四种「色界禅」(rūpa jhāna),以及再进一步的四种「无色界禅」(arūpa jhāna)。这些禅定不会给予修行人智慧,不会观察到生命现象的无常。它们只能提升定力(专注力),使心平静及不散乱。

禅定的进一步发展,可以导致证得天眼通(dibbacakkhu)、天耳通(dibbasota)[68]、宿命通(pubbenivāsa-ñāṇa)及他心通(cetopariya-ñāṇa)。

 

以奢摩他禅定为基础,一个人可以修习内观,最终证得「道智」与「果智」。因此,大家不应该看轻奢摩他禅定。如果一个人修习「出入息业处」及「三十二身分业处」,他可以使心平静不散乱,并证得禅定;基于这种禅定,如果他继续修行内观(毗婆舍那),他可以证得「道智」与「果智」。但如果他不观察现象的生灭,只是单纯地修习奢摩他禅定,那么他只会获得心的专注和平静。

毗婆舍那禅定

观察三种特相(lakkhaṇa),就是毗婆舍那禅定。这三种特相是「无常相」(anicca-lakkhaṇa)、「苦相」(dukkha-lakkhaṇa)和「无我相」(anatta-lakkhaṇa)。观察这三相即是毗婆舍那禅定。不过,一个人不可能一开始就观察这三相。他必须透过观察六根门生起的心识开始,譬如「看到」、「听到」等等。要观察身体的活动,他必须在这些活动生起的时候标记[69],譬如:腹部的「起」、「伏」;在走路时脚的「提」、「推」、「放」。同样地,他也必须标记「站」、「坐」及「卧」的姿势,或者在肢体「弯曲」及「伸展」的时候标记它们。[16]

在标记这些身心活动时,一个人会明白到这些活动的生起与消灭,过后又再有一连串新的活动。透过这样的观察,一个人会明白到「无常」,即是不断的变迁及不稳;它导致逼迫、痛苦、悲伤——「苦」;这些活动都是不受任何称为我的东西控制的——「无我」。

觉知这些身心现象的无常苦无我,可以引领禅修者到达初步的「思惟智」(sammasanañāṇa)。在这个阶段,禅修者可以反复标记任何动作或活动,不论是身体的或心理的,从而生起一种由「正定」(samādhi)产生的平静。这种正定称为「心一境性」(ekaggatā)[70],相当于「初禅」(paṭhama-jhāna)。

到了下一个阶段,当禅修者继续进展,那些动作或活动会自己呈现给禅修者去观照。他已经过了那个需要投入心力去观照它们的第一阶段。此阶段的观智称为「生灭随观智」(udayabbayañāṇa)。

在这个阶段,「寻」(vitakka)和「伺」(vicāra)消失,而「喜」(pīti)、「乐」(sukha)由于正定的进一步深化而充满。因此,初期的「生灭随观智」相当于「二禅」(dutiya-jhāna)。

在高阶的「生灭随观智」,由「喜」的状态所散发的光明会被「乐」和「定」掩盖,它们会变得显著。这个阶段相当于「三禅」(tatiya-jhāna)。然后,随着「坏灭随观智」(bhaṅgañāṇa)发展,当注意力放在现象持续的散坏和灭去,「乐」会减弱并消失。在此阶段,「舍」(upekkhā)会变得明显,这相当于「四禅」(catuttha-jhāna)。

事实上,[71]「舍」和「心一境性」会在后来的内观智——「行舍智」(saṅkhārupekkhā ñāṇa)变得更明显。禅修者达到这个阶段将会明白这是怎样的。当七岳夜叉说佛陀精勤于禅定,他的意思是佛陀进入所有这些禅定。

佛陀在信众三称「善哉」时入定

佛陀是恒常进入禅定的,因此他是值得尊敬的。在讲经的最后一部份,当大众一同称赞「Sādhu!Sādhu!Sādhu!」(善哉!善哉!善哉!)的时候,佛陀都会在这么短的瞬间进入禅定。然后才继续下去。这种恒常性是非常美妙的。

缅甸的「善哉」和斯里兰卡的「善哉」

在我的讲法的过程中,听众有时会称赞「善哉」(sādhu,或音译『萨度』),然而次数不多。但在缅甸传统,一般在弘法的僧人翻译了一段巴利偈颂后,大众都会称赞「善哉」。当僧人在结束一段讲法的时候说到这句缅语「phyitkya le dawt tha dee」[72],大众就会立刻随之称赞「善哉」。他们并不会留意那段偈颂或者译文是需要称赞与否的。他们只会留意到结尾有「tha dee」(音『达底』)这个缅语,然后就会念「善哉」(萨度)。

举个例子,在《毗输安呾啰本生经》(Vessantarā Jātaka)里面,毗输安呾啰王布施了他的两个孩子,一男一女,年纪约四、五岁,给一名叫如迦卡(Jukata)的婆罗门。相关的巴利偈颂描述了如迦卡如何虐待这些孩子,如毒打并拉扯他们,让孩子们难受痛哭。当讲经的僧人诵出这些偈颂并翻译作缅文,然后以「tha dee」作为结尾,那些听众会如常地称赞「善哉」。可是,这部分提到的故事其实是唤起大家的同情与怜悯,而不是赞扬,因此那个「善哉」显得突兀。但这在缅甸,人们似乎不太注意分辨。

不过,在斯里兰卡,听众只会对讲法中与证得阿罗汉或涅槃相关的段落,才称赞「善哉」。因为那是值得赞扬的时候,以「善哉」唤起一种随喜赞叹的情感。[73]

在佛陀的时代,称赞「善哉」的做法必须像斯里兰卡那种模式。当听众赞叹三次「善哉」,佛陀会停下来,在那么短的时间内,佛陀会进入禅定,在听众说完「善哉」之后不久,他会继续讲法。他永远不会闲着的,这是多么值得尊敬!

现在弘法的僧人可能不会进入禅定,在这么短的时间,他可能会休歇他的声音,或思考在后面的讲法中所要用的词语。

还有,佛陀以大悲看待一切众生,每天进入「大悲三昧」(mahākaruṇā samāpatti)以及「阿罗汉果定」(arahatta samāpatti))各一亿二千万次,总共两亿四千万次。这表示佛陀没有遗留一刻是不在禅定的。因此,七岳夜叉回答其友人的询问时说:「佛陀彻底明了一切法,从不离开禅定。」

重温一遍:

『他断绝不与取,他对所有众生不具瞋心;[74]

他已远离放逸,他精勤于禅定。』

因为佛陀彻底了解一切法,他不需要提前思考在讲法的时候应该讲什么。他永远都已经预备好。他也知道任何人的根性成熟程度,以作适当的教导。所以他不需要花时间去作任何的准备。他不但会在讲法结束后进入禅定,如之前所讲,他会在听众称赞「善哉」的短暂时间进入禅定。他永远不会有一刻是闲着的。

考虑到这一点,我们应该知道佛陀是多么值得尊敬,我们应当一心专注,归命敬礼佛陀,当我们正在这么做时,我们应该观照从敬礼所引起的喜悦,以及这个喜悦的消失,如此观察那个喜悦的消失,便是以毗婆舍那(内观)的方式来禅修。这样可以提升内观智,从而让我们证得究竟的「圣道」。[75]

现在,为了总结今天的开示,我希望鼓励新的禅修者,首先观照身体的动作来练习禅修,譬如说腹部的起伏、心里的想法和念头。观照心的现象是「心念住」(cittānupassanā)。观照肢体的僵硬及痛楚,以及其他身体的不舒服感觉均是「受念住」(vedanānupassanā)。观照看到、听到等等、瞋恨、失望以及其他心理的现象,对这些现象进行的禅修是「法念住」(dhammānupassanā)。观照身体的移动和动作是「身念住」(kāyānupassanā)。

在这个禅修中心里的学员,一直都在进行这一种禅修练习。他们所有人都是为了远离忘失(放逸)。在几天或者是一个月内,他们就会证得高级的内观智。

在四种「道智」(maggañāṇa)里面,「须陀洹道」(sotāpatti-magga)使一个人可以证得很深的定力。然后再晋升下一个智「斯陀含道」(sakādāgāmi-magga),禅修者将进一步证得更强的定力,而当他到达下一个阶段「阿那含道」(anāgāmi-magga)[76],心不会再有任何的散乱,而定力会更深。从这个位置,禅修者透过努力精进的修持,可以提升至最终的「阿罗汉道」(arhatta-magga),因而证得阿罗汉的境界。在这个最终的阶位,失念是绝不可能的,正念一切时都在。因此在赞叹阿罗汉的观智时会说:「阿罗汉行、住、眠、寤均保持正念。」

一位阿罗汉永远不会在觉知身心现象中忘失一秒,而他的觉知是全面的。这里「眠」的意思是说觉知到睡着前的一刻,而正念在醒来的一刻延续。当然在一个人睡着的时候是不会有正念的。这是按照佛陀的教导「精勤努力不放逸」(appamādena saṃpādetha),也就是一个人在清醒的时候,如何在每一刻都练习正念。

我们的禅修者一直都在禅修,这是一件很让人欣喜的事。他们必须要很努力,最少证得第一阶的「道智」,也即是「须陀洹道」。当他证得这个智时,他不会再堕入四恶趣或地狱。[77]

到这里,《雪山夜叉经》的介绍部分完毕。[78]

第二讲完

第三讲

雪山夜叉提出了佛陀是否有身体上的作恶,及远离禅定。接着他提出关于语言上的作恶问题。

‘‘Kacci musā na bhaṇati, (iti hemavato yakkho)

Kacci na khīṇabyappatho;

Kacci vebhūtiyaṃ nāha, kacci samphaṃ na bhāsati’’.

(雪山夜叉问)『他是否会妄语?是否会恶口?

是否会两舌语?是否会无义语?』[17]

「贤友七岳,你的老师佛陀,是否远离说谎?他是否远离使用粗暴的、无礼的及恶骂的语言?他是否远离说挑拨是非及破坏融洽的话?」雪山夜叉问。

雪山夜叉希望知道佛陀是否有违犯语言上的恶业,譬如恶口、妄语、两舌(挑拨离间)。朋友及同伴之间的融洽关系,可以因为某个人所说的几句话而被破坏,有礼貌地暗示某些事情就足以制造误会。[79]

禹舍的诽谤

在佛陀的时代,阿阇世王(Ajātasattu)欲侵略由离车族王子们所管治的跋耆国。离车族的王子们当时管治国家很融洽和团结,他们的团结是很强的。阿阇世王尝试以诡计,破坏离车族的王子们之间的团结及削弱它。他派了大臣禹舍(Vassakāra),假装放逐他到离车族王子那儿寻求庇护。一些王子互相诉说:「这位属于婆罗门种姓,叫禹舍的人,是一位狡猾男子,不要庇护他。」其他人则说:「这位婆罗门被放逐是在其大王面前,为我们说好话才这样。因此我们应该接纳他。」因此禹舍被离车族的王子们接纳,并委任作王子们的孩子的老师。

禹舍教导王子们的儿子甚佳,因此赢得了王子们的信任和信心。禹舍于是开始了他离间王子的计划。他使用的诡计是精巧的。他在一旁跟一位王子以低声的说:「你吃饭了吗?吃了哪种咖哩?」[80]

其他王子见状,便问王子禹舍老师告诉他什么。那位王子如实作答说,他只是问了他吃饭没有和吃了哪种咖哩。其他王子不相信他,他们想「哪里会有人低声问人这种问题,肯定有什么重大秘密。」

接着,禹舍叫了另一位王子并问他:「你的父亲有没有耕田?多少只牛耕作?」当其他人问这位王子禹舍和他之间讲了什么,那位王子诚恳的回答他们,但也是没有人相信他。然后禹舍再叫了另一位王子并低声问他:「你很胆小吗?」这位王子很惊讶地反问:「什么?谁告诉你的?」然后禹舍说:「喔,你的朋友,那位王子。」然后指着另一位王子。这位王子因为这个评论而感到很愤怒,开始跟其他王子产生误会。

就这样,使用简单的语言,禹舍离间了这些王子,在三年内他成功地在王子之间制造误会。那份团结被彻底破坏[81],每位王子都不愿意看到彼此的脸。后来禹舍秘密地把信息传递给阿阇世王,让他带领军队攻击离车族王子们的跋耆国。因为王子之间彼此误会,以为自己被指胆小,他们都不愿意领军抗敌。他们觉得:「如果他们说我胆小,那么就让他们自己出去打吧!」。因此阿阇世王轻易地夺得这个国家。这是说明背后中伤人(挑拨)的一个很好的个案。因此,雪山夜叉问:「你的老师佛陀,是否远离了蛊惑的、制造误会的语言?」

第四个问题是:「你的老师佛陀,是否远离了无关重要和无意义的话语?」这类语言包括今时的小说和传说,缺乏道德及有价值的讯息利益人们的世俗生活或精神健康。这些东西是写给人们作阅读上的畅快,它们只是一些故事及描述,以带来阅读上的快乐。雪山夜叉问他的朋友七岳,佛陀是否远离这种无义语。[82]

七岳夜叉的回答

‘‘Musā ca so na bhaṇati, (iti sātāgiro yakkho)

Atho na khīṇabyappatho;

Atho vebhūtiyaṃ nāha, mantā atthaṃ ca

[atthaṃ so (sī. pī. ka.)] bhāsati’’.

(七岳夜叉答)『他不妄语,他不恶口,他不作两舌语,

他是智者,不作无义语。』[18]

七岳回复说:「贤友雪山,佛陀不会妄语,他永远离于过失。」自从他成为一位菩萨(未来佛),并得到过去佛的授记后,他便远离于说谎。他一直都远离这个过失,并如实地说话。说谎的人对于作恶是毫不犹豫的,因为当人们问他的时候,他总会对自己的行为说谎。他敢作任何类型的恶业。

《法句经》(Dhammapāda)云:「欺妄不真语,无恶而不作,违犯真谛法,不信于来世。」(第一七六偈)

违犯真谛法意思是弃舍真相,而这个意思就是妄语。一个人不犹豫地说谎会无恶不作,因为他已经准备好以谎言来解释。这类人会不择手段达成个人的利益。一个胆敢作任何恶业的人,来生不会有好结果,这表示他不顾来世。他只顾今生的利益[83],不理会来生会有什么事发生在他身上。这样的人会做任何类型的恶业,只要这能够为他在今生带来物质的利益。因此妄语是众罪之头领。

这位未来佛在所有的投生中均远离妄语。这种对于过失的远离,是透过「自然离」(sampattavirati)和「持戒离」(samādānavirati)而不是「正断离」(samucchedavirati)。只有当他成为佛陀的时候,才会透过「正断离」来远离这种恶业,也就是透过「阿罗汉道智」来远离。

进一步说,这位未来佛虽然没有正式受戒,但已经远离妄语。他不妄语而且永远说实语。这是透过「自然离」的远离。如果一个人已经正式受戒,说「我愿正式地受持戒律」及说「我愿受持不妄语的戒律」,这样他是透过「持戒离」来远离妄语。这些远离过失的例子通常考虑到几个因素,譬如高龄、名誉、害怕责难或害怕犯恶。[84]

然而,如果一个人透过禅修证得「须陀洹道」,他将彻底远离妄语。在那个阶段,说谎是有异于其本性的。佛陀自证得「须陀洹道」之后,就免离于这种过失。当他证得终极的「阿罗汉道」的阶段时,这更是无庸置疑。佛陀表示他已经证得了这个最终的阶位。因此七岳夜叉对于这个提问作了很确切的回应:「我们的老师佛陀,彻底免离于妄语的过失。」

对于第二个问题他也回复说:「同样地,佛陀远离于使用粗恶的、暴力的、轻蔑的语言,以及远离挑拨是非及破坏和睦跟融洽的话语(两舌)。」

在阿罗汉的故事中,有一些例子是使用粗俗的语言,这是因为他们的习惯使然,但他们背后没有任何不善的动机。譬如说,毕陵伽婆蹉(Pilinda-vaccha)在还是婆罗门身份的时候常常叫人作「vasala」,意思是「贱民」。就算他已经成为阿罗汉,他也没有改变这种习惯。然而,就佛陀而言[85],他在成佛之后并没有留下任何习气的例子,无论好坏。他完全没有任何通常会在一连串的投生中形成的习气。

对于第四个问题,七岳回应说:「我们的导师佛陀,只会说对世间及出世间是善的、适切的和有益的话语。」就这个意思,佛陀透过其智慧见到任何事的真相,所以会说有利于世间及出世间的话,永远不会放纵于无意义的话。

「正语」有四种,它们分别是:(一)不妄语,说实话;(二)不两舌,不说一些会影响团结与和睦的话;(三)不恶口,使用柔和的语言;(四)不绮语,不说没有价值和无益的话。这四种语业适用于世俗的及宗教的层面。如果一个人能够受持这四种正语业,便称为是「语业清净」。[86]

六种言语之中两种是允许的

在人类的说话中,有六种语言:

(一)那个语言是谎话,没有任何利益,并且不受人们欢迎。

譬如说,如果一个人诬告一个清白的人作不道德的事,那个指控的人说的话是谎言。他的指控可能会被人相信,以为清白者有问题,人们因而不知情地犯了恶业。那位清白者也会感到很伤心,被人诬告是不好受的。那位提告者的错误指控,不会被智者及有德者喜爱,故此这类言说是邪恶及不适当的。

(二)那个语言是谎话,没有任何利益,但受很多人欢迎。

这一类包括故事,制造误解和不和睦的言语,以及邪教的教言。故事、语言、小说或传说只是虚构的东西。这些东西并不是真实事件的描述,因此阅读它们不会为读者带来利益,人们可能会因此而感到性兴奋或导致悲伤、愤怒或沮丧。然而这些故事和传说,受到很多人的欢迎。[87]中伤人者制造对他人的虚假指控及描述,旨在破坏和睦与团结。现今的宣传包含很多这类谎言,及无根据的指控。这类诽谤对听者造成困扰,但他可能感到这些言说是为他好而喜欢它。

我应该引用一些在佛陀时代的经文内容。在佛陀成佛之前,在很古老的时代便已经有宗教说,以动物作牺牲祭祀可以消除恶业及带来福报和快乐。就算是侨萨罗国国王波斯匿王(Pasenadi),也曾经进行动物的牲祭,希望安抚神明。他曾经想安排屠宰五百头乳牛、公牛、山羊和绵羊,并准备用作牲祭。在那个时候,他的王后茉莉夫人(Mallikā),去见了佛陀并报告了这件事情。佛陀说,因为国王准备祭神的事情,使他早前听到一些声音和说话声,杀害动物用作祭祀有伤于国王的利益,反过来,如果放生这些动物,让它们继续生存[88],这种善行会为他带来平静和喜悦。国王因此明白到他犯了错误,并下令将那些祭祀动物放生了。

用杀害动物的方式以取得自身的福德和快乐,是不合逻辑的。以他人的悲痛来换取自己的快乐,这是不合理的。然而有很多人喜欢这种牲祭。在佛陀的时代,一位外道派系的领袖──阿耆多翅舍钦婆罗(Ajita Kesakambalin)认为:「没有善,也没有恶,这些行为没有业报,因为没有来世。」如果大家考虑一下善恶业可以带来的立刻果报,大家就会看到这个论述是站不住脚的。按照佛法,这种见解称为「邪见」(ucchedadiṭṭhi)。信仰这种见解的人,是不会造作任何善业的,他也不会避免恶业。因此,这个人不会有任何值得赞赏的道德素养,在其死后会再次投生,纵然他拒绝接受轮回,他还是会堕落到恶趣然后受大苦果。按照佛陀的教导,这会是他悲惨的下场。

这类信仰是没有利益的[89],然而很多人相信。那句话说:「没有业,没有果报,因为没有来世」是错误的,对任何人都没有利益,但很多人喜欢。这是第二种语言的例子。这类话必须要避免,因为它们不是真相及没有利益。佛陀避免了这种话语。

(三)那个语言是实语,但没有任何利益,并不受人们欢迎。

譬如说,称呼一名盗贼是贼、说一名骗子是骗子、说一个笨蛋是笨蛋、说一个瞎子是瞎。这是真的事实但没有任何利益,相关的人也不喜欢这种话。这种语言是佛陀永远不会使用的。

(四)那个语言是实语,没有任何利益,但受很多人欢迎。

这是例如引述某人,然后将使他与他人的立场敌对。这类语言造成涉事人士的误解及苦恼。纵然苦恼,他可能会喜欢听,因为他会以为那个报导员让他知道他人怎么说他。这亦包括政治传闻以及私语,它可能是真的,而且很多人可能会很享受[90],但对一般人而言是没有利益的;它会干扰到那些投身于弘法工作的人们的心。这类语言是佛陀永远不会说出的。

佛陀所使用的两种语言

(五)那个语言是实语,有利益,但不受某些人欢迎。

这类语言包括一类劝诫,譬如:「你在前生曾经造作很多恶业,因此现在处于愁苦。如果你不改变做人的方式,而继续行恶,这将难以让你免于地狱之苦。」这种劝诫是基于善意,为了相关的人的利益着想而作出。这种直接的方式可能不被相关的人喜欢,纵使这是一个真实的话,但这类语言是应当说出的。佛陀会作出这类言语。

佛陀曾说,试图建立一个类似僧团组织的提婆达多(Devadatta),透过劝谏僧团的僧人叛离而犯下「破和合僧」(saṅghabhedaka)的过失,他将堕入地狱并在那儿受整劫(kappa)之苦。这种预言并不受到提婆达多的团体所喜欢,但这是为了他人的利益,让他们不会造作类似的过失。[91]佛陀作出这种语言因为他知道,这是实语而且对很多人有利益,虽然不受某些人欢迎。

(六)那个语言是实语,有利益,以及受欢迎。

这类别包括布施(dāna)、持戒(sīla)及禅修(bhāvanā)。这些都是实语、有利益及被智者和有德行者所喜欢。因此佛陀在适当的场合都会使用这类语言。佛陀的主要目的是作出这类语言。

现在我们已经完成了列举各类语言。在这六种类别的语言中,错误及没有利益的不应该作出,纵使它可能受他人欢迎或不受欢迎。这类语言永远不会被佛陀所使用。真实而没有利益的,纵然它可能受他人欢迎或不受欢迎,佛陀也永远不会使用。这四种佛陀都永不使用。真实而有利益,纵然它可能受他人欢迎或不受欢迎,佛陀则会使用。当然,佛陀会选择在适当的场合使用这类语言。他永远不会说任何与该场合不相关的东西。

在正确的场合选择正确的话语是重要的事。真实而有利益的话,不适合在节日庆典举行的地方讲。[92]譬如说,在婚宴或出家的典礼,人们的心都是比较轻松的,这并不适合就严肃的题目进行讲演,譬如说死随念或证入涅槃的观智。同样地,在殡仪的地方举行的供僧仪式并不适合以吉祥(maṅgala)为题作演讲。

总言之,佛陀只使用表示真实的话语,而且对许多人有利益。因此,七岳夜叉回答了雪山夜叉的提问,佛陀在审视世间和出世间利益之后,会说应当说的话语。

「善说」的特质

因为佛陀在适当的场合会使用适当的语言,他拥有「sugata」[19]的特质,意思是「说好(适当的)话」。换言之,佛陀说真实的及有利于许多人的话,虽然有些人可能会喜欢或不喜欢。因此我们说:「佛陀拥有说好话的特质,不论她们喜欢与否。」[93]

在七岳夜叉回应了有关佛陀远离口业的四种过失后,雪山夜叉再提问关于意业的过失。

雪山夜叉的疑问(四)

‘‘Kacci na rajjati kāmesu, (iti hemavato yakkho)

Kacci cittaṃ anāvilaṃ;

Kacci mohaṃ atikkanto, kacci dhammesu cakkhumā’’.

(雪山夜叉问)『他是否不染着于贪欲?是否心清净无扰?

是否超越愚痴?是否具法眼?』[20]

雪山夜叉问:「七岳夜叉,你的老师佛陀,是否脱离于感官欲乐?」在心的三种污染里面,贪(abhijjhā)表示希望取得别人的财物及谋求达到此目标的欲望。雪山夜叉希望知道佛陀是否脱离于贪。人们一般想要拥有能够娱乐感官的东西,就算那些声称自己为佛陀的人,都不免于贪。

雪山夜叉又问:「你的老师佛陀,他的心是否清净无杀害及破坏的念头?」意思是佛陀是否脱离于瞋(vyāpāda),那种乐于看到讨厌的人死或损伤的愿求。人们一般希望他们讨厌的人死亡,有些人甚至以语言作出这么一种愿求。那个时代的假佛都不免于这种愿求。他们说可以杀生而不受惩罚。以死亡来惩罚他所造的生灵,这样的神[94]肯定不能说没有这种愿求。想要他人死的愿求,也就是瞋,是一种愤恨的表现,因此这永远不能够称为清净的心。

雪山夜叉希望知道佛陀是否心清净。因此他问:「你的老师佛陀,他的心是否清净,没有坏念头的染污?」

然后,雪山夜叉再问:「佛陀有没有超越愚痴(moha)?」邪见(micchā diṭṭhi)是愚痴及无明(avijjā)的结合。因此,询问佛陀是否清净于邪见,亦即心的三种污染之一,这问题看似是对佛陀无礼,不过在那个时代声称觉悟的外道炽盛,这条问题是有意义的。

三种邪见

在这些假佛当中,富兰那迦叶(Purāna Kassapa)教导说,杀生、偷盗及其他恶行不会构成罪过,同样地布施饮食及其他善行也没有功德。这种信仰拒绝「业」的原则及其果报。这称为「无作论」(akiriya diṭṭhi,或道德虚无论)。[95]

另一位外道,阿耆多翅舍钦婆罗(Ajita Kesakambalī),教导善恶业行没有果报,因为死后没有再生。死亡是生命的终结。这种见解称为「断见」(natthika-diṭṭhi,或无见)。

下一位外道,末伽梨拘舍梨子(Makkhali Gosāla),教导众生所有的烦恼、悲伤、快乐及清净全部都是没有因的。这种见解称为「无因论」(ahetuka-diṭṭhi)。这种见解也否定「业」和它的果报。

另一位外道,迦罗鸠驮迦旃延(Pakudha Kaccayana),说所有众生均是由四大,加上苦、乐、命组成。这七种元素不会被任何力量所灭。任何善恶业都不能影响这些组成物。因此,他认为善恶业都没有意义。

这些邪见外道都存在错误的观念,被愚痴与无明所吞噬。雪山夜叉询问佛陀是否远离邪见,这个问题是适切的。

雪山夜叉问:「你的老师佛陀,有没有看见一切法的智慧眼?」[96]

有关于身口意造罪的问题已经系统地解释了,但这样并没有完全解答到佛陀是否是真正的正等正觉者──佛陀。因为辟支佛(paccekabuddha)及阿罗汉(arahat)亦可以拥有这些清净的特质,辟支佛是一位不弘扬佛法者,是小的佛。因此,雪山夜叉问了一个重要问题:「你的老师佛陀,有没有看见一切法的智慧眼?」

七岳夜叉的回答(四)

‘‘Na so rajjati kāmesu, (iti sātāgiro yakkho)

Atho cittaṃ anāvilaṃ;

Sabbamohaṃ atikkanto, buddho dhammesu cakkhumā’’.

(七岳夜叉答)『他不染着于贪欲,心清净无扰,

他超越所有愚痴,他已具法眼。』[21]

七岳夜叉说:「贤友雪山,我们的老师佛陀,永远没有任何感官欲望及没有贪欲。」这是回复雪山夜叉的第四个提问中的第一部分。

自佛陀二十九岁出家以后,佛陀便无着于感官欲望。就算当他受着极端苦行的苦,他的心并没有退缩到从前的快乐及享受之中。他已清除了那种希望拥有别人东西的欲望。当他证得佛果的时候,佛陀透过阿罗汉道智,消除了一切贪欲的成因。[97]这是他在《转法轮经》中,宣说他已经彻底断除一切形成集谛(samudaya saccā)的成因。

对于第二部分的问题的回复:「我们老师的心不受污染,永远清净。」佛陀的心永远对一切众生散播慈心,而且没有丝毫的瞋恨与愚痴。当年央掘魔罗(Angulimāla)拿着刀追杀佛陀,佛陀是以充满慈爱和悲悯的清净心对待这位追杀他的人。当醉象那拉吉利(Nālāgiri)冲向及攻击佛陀,他仍然是心地清洁。同样在提婆达多滚下大石袭击他时,佛陀也是如此。就算在这样严峻的情境下,佛陀的心依然无欲,更不用说其他时候。透过阿罗汉道智,佛陀已断除内心的一切贪瞋,常时心清净。这就是七岳夜叉的回答。

解脱于愚痴

对于第三部分的问题,七岳回复:「我的老师佛陀,以四种圣道智,超越愚痴和无明。」[98]

雪山夜叉想问的意思是,佛陀有没有因愚痴而起的恶行邪见(ducarita-micchādiṭṭhi),但七岳夜叉的回复更全面地否定了他的问题。七岳说佛陀超越了所有愚痴,这明显地是一个彻底的答案。

从授记起已远离邪见

自从被过去佛——燃灯佛(Dīpaṅkara)授记将会成佛后,在还是一位未来佛的时候,他已经远离否定业力原则的见解,譬如常见(sassata-diṭṭhi)和断见(uccheda-diṭṭhi)。当他证得佛果的时候,他去除了一切烦恼,这当然包括恶行邪见。他指出富兰那迦叶等外道领袖的错误教法,引导大众不要跟随邪道。

佛陀说那些相信造作杀、盗等恶行不会产生恶果的人,是执取了色、受、想、行及识——五蕴。[99]如果色蕴是无常及苦的,那么其它四蕴也是如此。佛陀指出,明白了这个道理是不可能让人走向邪见的。

佛陀比喻外道末伽梨拘舍梨子为一个拖网,并劝导他的弟子否定这种错误的见解。这里我们简单地说一下末伽梨拘舍梨子的见解。他认为贫穷或富裕是无因的,没有方便能更改或改善这些情况,因为所有众生均被命定,因此他们都会遭遇一定份额的贫穷或富裕;所有众生的生命均是预先被决定的,因此他们都会遭遇一定份额的贫穷或富裕;所有众生的生命均是按宿命而生,因此才生到较高或较低的世界。贫穷及愚笨的众生所受的苦不会较长,富裕和聪明的众生所受的也不会较短,每个众生均有其苦乐、贫富的定份。如同线球,当人把一边的线抽出并滚动该线球,到了某一点,那个线会到达尽头;这就如同每个众生的轮回,当他活出所定的生命期之后,轮回就终结。[100]

符合「人死再为人」的理论

这种命定的观念,指出人们只需要活出他在轮回的时间,不需要作出任何努力上进,因为他会自动和逐渐地成熟,这十分迎合到那些不作任何努力作善业,及想要作恶业的人。对懒人和腐败的人,这是一个蛮好的想法。这看来也附和在缅甸这些年来流行的一种信仰,认为人既然已经获得「人」这个身份,他死后将不会堕落,他将会自动逐渐成熟。在缅文我们称之为lu the lu phyit(人死再为人)。

佛陀将末伽梨拘舍梨子形容为一个拖网,因为当一个人被拖进他的邪见之网中,他便不能逃出并在其中死去。佛陀指出,那些喜欢其邪见的人,不会造作任何能够上升至天界及涅槃的善业,因此他们会堕入地狱。

现在我听说有人告诉大众[101],只需要听他的讲经说法便足够,人们不需要禅修。这种弘法者,应该要注意佛陀对邪见外道末伽梨拘舍梨子所作的拖网的比喻。不单末伽梨拘舍梨子的邪见,还有富兰那迦叶和阿耆多翅舍钦婆罗都堕入邪见的拖网中,让众生失去了到达天界或取证涅槃的机会。

邪见什么时候生起?

否定业力和果报的邪见是什么时候生起的?按照《转轮圣王狮子吼经》(Cakkavatti Sutta)所说,当人寿为千岁的时候,这类邪见就会生起。可能在那个时期,人们比较少贪瞋痴,所以他们并不在意关于业力和果报的论说,但自此人们越来越堕落,便开始沉溺于这种邪见。不过,这类邪见还没有很流行,就算在佛陀的时代,人寿已减至百岁,这种否定业报的观点并非广受欢迎。[102]

但现在道德逐渐沦丧,人们越来越不道德,这些邪见正在增炽。根据《转轮圣王狮子吼经》,在人寿减至十岁的时候,道德会彻底消失,「恶业」这个词也不会被使用。这种否定业力的理论会逐渐取得更多注意,因为人们的贪欲增加,他们对感官欲望的渴求相应增大。到了今日,有人主张如果一个人不作恶业,就不能达到任何目的。这种见解让人们走进邪见之中。

解脱一切愚痴

对业力及果报的无知之所以在现代这么流行,是因为愚痴支撑着巨大的贪欲而导致的结果。佛陀亲自证见到这一点,所以他教导人们努力减少贪、瞋的程度。弟子们跟随佛陀的指导方向,透过禅修尝试达至证悟,从而解脱于这些邪见。[103]他们发现过去世的业力,让他们成为今生的存在,而今生的业力,如果没有解脱于渴爱,将决定下一生的存在状态。因此,他们确定其见解为真实的信仰。

佛陀是显然地脱离了邪见,在那个时代因为有很多假佛,雪山夜叉因此提问佛陀是否已超越导致邪见的愚痴,这是颇适合的问题,而七岳夜叉的答案也超过所需,指出佛陀已超越一切愚痴(即是包括所有愚痴衍生的附属物。)

证得慧眼

对于第四部分的问题,七岳回复:「我们的老师佛陀,拥有看穿所有法的智慧眼。」

眼有五种(五眼,pañca-cakkhu),分别是:

  1. 肉眼(maṃsa cakkhu):血肉所成的眼睛,或普通的眼睛。
  2. 天眼(dibba cakkhu):神通所成的眼睛。[104]
  3. 法眼(dhamma cakkhu)[22]:智慧所成的眼睛。
  4. 普眼(samanta cakkhu):普见一切的眼睛。
  5. 佛眼(buddha cakkhu):佛的眼睛。
  6. 肉眼可以很清澈地看见一由旬(yojana)距离内的东西。
  7. 天眼,或神通(abhiññana)的眼可以看见所有物质形态、大小、远近,它可以看见天界和梵天界,恶道如地狱、饿鬼和畜生,也能够看见宇宙。此眼可以看见任何地方或东西,任何形状或颜色。它也能够看见一个众生死后投生的状态。佛陀证成佛果前的那个中夜证得了此眼。他睹见三十一界的所有众生的形形色色,或在享乐,或在受苦。不用说,他彻见整个人界和动物界。
  8. 至于法眼(或智眼),「智」是指透过内观的道智和省察(Paccavekkhanā)所得的智慧,尤其指「圣道」。智眼经常被指为「法」的眼睛,因为法是须陀洹道智的同义词[23]
  9. 普眼与一切智(sabbaññutā)同义[105]。这是看到一切法的眼睛。佛陀在宣说第一部经《转法轮经》时,表示他已经证得此眼并成为佛陀。

佛眼

  1. 佛眼意思是「佛陀的眼睛」。这构成了「根上下智」(indriya-paropariyatta ñāṇa),了知一切众生心性成熟的不同阶段之智慧。信、精进、念、定和慧构成了「根」。佛陀能够看到所有这些方面的不同程度和阶段的成熟。他审视众生心的根器状况,以确定那个众生怎样观见法,从而证得涅槃。如果一个众生仍未成熟,佛陀不会教导他法。佛陀会等待他到达成熟的阶段,而这个等候的时期可以长达数年或数月,也可以只是数小时或分钟。

举一个这种等候期的例子[106],一名叫婆酰(Bāhiya Dārucīriya)的人,他来自西印度(Aparanta)的苏帕拉喀村(Suppāraka),离舍卫城(Sāvatthi)祇园精舍200由旬。他抵达精舍的时候,佛陀正在外托钵。他没有留待在精舍内而前往城中觐见佛陀。当他见到佛陀的时候,他敬礼佛陀并请求他说法。佛陀观察到他未成熟以接受教法,因此说在托钵期间不适宜说法。婆酰再作第二次的请求,佛陀再拒绝。当他作第三次请求的时候,佛陀看到他的「根」(indriya)达至成熟,于是给了他以下的说法:

Tasmātiha te bāhiya, evaṃ sikkhitabbaṃ:

“diṭṭhe diṭṭhamattaṃ bhavissati, sute sutamattaṃ bhavissati,

mute mutamattaṃ bhavissati, viññāte viññātamattaṃ bhavissatī”ti.

Evaṃ hi te bāhiya, sikkhitabbaṃ.

Yato kho te bāhiya, diṭṭhe diṭṭhamattaṃ bhavissati,

sute sutamattaṃ bhavissati, mute mutamattaṃ bhavissati.

Viññāte viññātamattaṃ bhavissati, tato tvaṃ bāhiya na tena.

Yato tvaṃ bāhiya na tena, tato tvaṃ bāhiya na tattha.

Yato tvaṃ bāhiya na tattha, tato tvaṃ bāhiya nevidha,

na huraṃ, na ubhayamantare. Esevanto dukkhassā”ti

「然则婆酰!汝应如是学:

『见则如见,闻则如闻,思则如思,知则如知。』

婆酰汝应如是学:『汝见唯如见……知唯如知故。』

婆酰!汝则非在其处,婆酰!汝非在其处故,

婆酰!汝则非在此世亦非在彼世,又非在于两世之间。

如是则苦终尽。」(《小部‧自说经》1.10)

婆酰在听了此经之后[107],证得内观智、四道智与果智成为阿罗汉。这是等候了数分钟时间的例子。

意乐随眠智

意乐随眠智(Āsayānusaya-ñāṇa)意指了知众生的心理倾向。这些倾向称为「āsaya」,有两种元素组成了众生的心性,分别是「见」(diṭṭhi)及「智」(ñāṇa)。世间的众生一般会有很深的「见」潜在其心,这一般是「常见」或「断见」。那些喜欢前者的不会喜欢后者,他们喜欢灵魂不灭论。喜欢后者的不会喜欢前者,因为他们喜欢众生死后一切皆灭的理论。虽然他们可能因为某些理由而在后来改信前者,这就好像狗只在日间流浪然后在晚间回到睡眠的地方。佛陀知道一个人是倾向于「常见」还是「断见」,然后依之施行教法,因此那个人会体会正见并迅速证道。[108]

那些希望出离轮回的牢狱并证得涅槃的人,有的证得了内观智而有的证得了「圣道智」。虽然他们并没有到达圣道智,并仍然持有常、乐、我的观念,当他们听到佛陀说法的时候,他们会再次获得无常、苦、无我的观智。这是就那些曾经证得内观智,但有一段时间没有观照无常、苦、无我的人而言,他们只要再次禅修,他们便会再次证得观智。这好像回家一样。

由于须陀洹和斯陀含并没有彻底清除欲(kāma)、贪(rāga)和恶意(byāpāda),他们可能在没有禅修的时候,又再此陷入一定程度的贪瞋。当再次禅修,他们便会再次证得对实相的洞见。这就好像一个人,因为某个原因在日间要离开自己典雅的大宅,前往不同的地方,然后晚上返家去。佛陀看到了这种心态[109],会给予最适合这个众生的倾向和习惯的教法,以便让他证得道智和果智。

随眠烦恼(anusaya kilesā)包含七种:欲贪(kāma rāga),有贪随眠(bhava rāga)、瞋(paṭigha)、慢(māna)、见(diṭṭhi)、疑(vicikicchā)及无明(vijjā)。佛陀分辨什么是一个众生心中最高尚的质量,并给予他适切的教导。这是为什么那些有机会听到佛陀讲经的人很快证得涅槃。

这两类智:「根上下智」及「意乐随眠智」合起来被称为佛眼,即佛陀的眼睛。这两类智只有佛陀拥有,其他阿罗汉均没有,就算是舍利弗尊者也没有。舍利弗尊者不能断定一个众生的心智成熟程度以教他适切的法。

有一次,舍利弗尊者教授一位弟子「不净观业处」(asubha kammathāna),并在整个雨安居期间修习。[110]那位弟子后来不能获得任何进展,因此舍利弗尊者带他去见佛陀,并报告这件事和转介这位弟子予佛陀。佛陀看到了这位僧人的倾向并给他一朵佛陀故意做的褐金色莲花,并教导他专心于它,留意它的红色。

那僧人照着指导并观察那褐金色的莲花,并递进四种禅定。佛陀于是使花朵枯萎,变成棕黑色,那位僧人出禅定并留意到那腐败的状态,透过省察,他体悟到自己的身体也如此腐陋。然后佛陀再在他面前讲一次法,在听法的过程中他证得了阿罗汉果。

在这一个公案中,那位僧人已经五百世为金匠,很自然地喜欢每样东西都很整齐和干净。他因此并不喜欢涉及观想尸体分解的不净观业处。舍利弗并不知道他的喜好,于是教导了他一个不适合的观想方法。相反地[111],佛陀很清楚那个众生的偏好,在给他一朵金色莲花后,教导他「赤遍处」(lohita kasiṇa)。由于教导得宜,那僧人于数小时内获得证悟。

由于只有佛陀拥有这两类智,七岳夜叉肯定地回答说:「我们的老师佛陀,拥有看穿所有法的智慧眼。」如前面的段落所解释,五眼除了第一个肉眼是很明显的与法的智慧无关外,佛陀亦拥有其余四种眼。这是七岳的回复。

这里复述一次,七岳夜叉告诉雪山夜叉说,佛陀已净除一切贪欲和欲望,其心是清净的,他在证得阿那含道智时已经除去瞋恨和恶意(vyāpāda),意思是说他的心永远不会被恼怒或忧虑所染污。

有次舍利弗尊者因为他的「无瞋」而备受赞誉。他从不发怒。一位婆罗门不信此事,他认为那是因为没有人刺激舍利弗尊者的怒火所以才如此[112]。因此有一天当舍利弗尊者出外托钵时,他以掌猛烈拍打这位阿罗汉圣者的背部,不过舍利弗尊者连转身看他一眼都没有,以从容安祥的姿态继续行走。于是这位婆罗门不得不相信此事实并恳求这位阿罗汉的原谅。事实上,不止是舍利弗尊者,所有其他阿罗汉都没有瞋恨。不过,他们仍然还有一些瞋恨遗留下来的习气。[24]只有佛陀能够清除所有性格上的特质。他的心永远无比的清净。

七岳夜叉说,佛陀已经克服一切愚痴。「愚痴」是指不明白四圣谛。反过来说,它是指对四圣谛存在颠倒见,譬如说,将「苦」视为「乐」。当一个人看到现象生起和消逝的过程,其中是没有快乐或稳定的,一切都是不快乐和不稳定的,因此没有乐只有苦。然而,愚痴会使一个人将苦误解为乐。

同样地,所有听到的、嗅到的、尝到的、接触的或思惟到的[113],只不过是名色法的不断生起和消逝。但愚痴会促使人们以为这是好的和快乐的,并推动人们内心执取这些现象。这种「执取」(集圣谛,samudaya sacca)会制造新的生命(轮回)。生命的熄灭便是「灭圣谛」(nirodha sacca)。愚痴会使人们不喜欢灭圣谛,因为这代表着最终的死亡,所以人们都不感兴趣。

愚痴使人不喜欢布施(dāna)、持戒(sīla)和禅修(bhāvanā),这些都是证得涅槃的因。这些被人们视为是艰巨的修行,毗婆舍那也是如此。这就是愚痴,存在错误的知见。七岳夜叉表示佛陀已经完全克服愚痴的一切方面,净除了愚痴和无明。

下面是雪山夜叉另一系列的提问:

‘‘Kacci vijjāya sampanno, (iti hemavato yakkho )

Kacci saṃsuddhacāraṇo;

Kaccissa āsavā khīṇā, kacci natthi punabbhavo’’.

(雪山夜叉问)『他是否具足诸明?是否所行清净?

是否诸漏已尽?是否不受后有?』[25]

(1)「七岳贤友,你的老师佛陀是否完全具备称为明(vijjā)的智慧?」

(2)「他是否具备称为行(cāraṇa)的道德行为?」

(3)「你的老师佛陀是否完全断尽所有漏(āsavā)?」[114]

(4)「他是否脱离了生命的轮回?」(即是说他已经没有再生?)

对于这些问题,七岳夜叉给予了系统的回答,佛陀是如何完全具备雪山夜叉所指的各种特质的。

如我们早前所提及,那位富人的女儿卡利在听到这两位天上的夜叉对话时,证得了「须陀洹道」。她成为须陀洹是因为她明了了佛陀的特质,并且喜悦地敬仰佛陀。当她在这样禅修的过程中,她看见了身心的无常、苦和无我。卡利的体证是十分微妙的。

七岳夜叉的回答会在下一讲说明,这部分到此完结。[115]

第三讲完

第四讲

雪山夜叉的疑问(五)

‘‘Vijjāya ceva sampanno, (iti sātāgiro yakkho)

Atho saṃsuddhacāraṇo;

Sabbassa āsavā khīṇā, natthi tassa punabbhavo’’.

(七岳夜叉答)『确实他具足众明,所行清净,

诸漏已尽,不受后有。』[26]

对于这四个问题,七岳夜叉说佛陀完全和彻底地具足一切的智慧,称为「明」。

「明」(vijjā)的意思是「特别的智」或「智慧」,这可以是三种或者八种。佛陀完全具备这些。

「此外,我们的老师佛陀,其德行是清净的,所有通往涅槃之行均备。」

「我们的老师佛陀,没有任何烦恼漏,即是欲漏(kāmāsava)、见漏(diṭṭhāsava)及无明漏(āvijjāsava)。」[27]

「我们的老师佛陀,不再受生;他脱离于生死轮回。」[116]

之所以七岳夜叉对雪山夜叉的四个问题,作出这么明确的答复,是因为他已曾听闻佛陀在《怄转法轮经》所宣示,他已圆满「道圣谛」(magga saccā),即八圣道。八圣道中的「正见」(sammā diṭṭhi)和「正思惟」(sammā saṅkappa)是与「慧」相关的道,即是所谓的「明」、特别的智及智通。「正语」、「正业」(sammā kammanta)和「正命」(sammā ājīva)是与「戒」相关的道,「正精进」(sammā vāyāma)、「正念」(sammā sati)及「正定」(sammā samādhi)则构成「定」相关的道(samādhi magga)。这些戒和定的道成就了所谓的行,或德行。

在《转法轮经》中,佛陀曾宣说证得「正等正觉」(Sammāsambuddha),是觉悟者,真正的佛陀,完全具备「明」和「行」(明行足)的智通。这是为什么七岳夜叉以深信念来作出回答。

另外,对于烦恼漏的确切回答,是因为佛陀在《转法轮经》中,宣说他已经彻底断除「集圣谛」(samudaya saccā)。连同先前证得「正等正觉」的宣示[117],让七岳夜叉确信佛陀是真正的佛。

对于第四个问题有关佛陀不再受生,那是因为佛陀在《转法轮经》中宣示:「我于诸烦恼已舍。」意思是佛陀所舍断的烦恼是彻底的而不是短暂的,不是一阵子或者一段时间,是永远不再受侵扰的。佛陀补充说今生是他最后一生,未来不再受生(轮回)。

三明

有三种明(vijjā)及八种明。三种是指宿命智(pubbenivāsa-ñāṇa),天眼智(dibbacakkhu-ñāṇa)和漏尽智(āsavakkhaya-ñāṇa)。它们很多时候被简称为「pu、di、a」(音『普、弟、阿』)。

宿命智

这种智(ñāṇa)是指能够追忆观察前生的神通力。佛陀在缅历二月(公历约五月)的月圆初夜证得此智[118],那一日是佛陀将成佛的一天。自此以后,他知悉有关前生并回忆它们。

天眼智

这种智是类似天眼的能力。这个比喻只是让人容易明白这个智的功能,实际上它远远超越天眼的能力。此智所见的是天眼也看不到的东西。拥有此智的人,可以遥见远处,越过许多由旬(yojana,一由旬约七英哩)并看见那里的众生的种种形色。这个智也可以看到肉眼所看不见的东西。可以穿墙、越过山丘及其他障碍物。它可以看到地狱、饿鬼及畜生界的众生。它可以看见整个人世间以及各类天界。

肉眼看不见森林、山及附近的树的守护神明。有的人会说没有所谓的神,因为这种众生不能被看见,[119]但说这话的人们不敢在据称有鬼神出没的树下或地方逗留。他们不敢冒犯这些鬼神。某些事物的守护灵及鬼神,有时候会示现他们的形态以吓唬人们。在《慈经》中有一宗个案,一些从精舍到森林安住的僧人,遇到鬼神以各种形式示现,尝试吓到他们。这些鬼神是那儿的树神来的。

有些个案是鬼道众生所作的吓唬。有次频婆裟罗王(Bimbisāra)在供养佛陀及僧众钵食之后返回王宫,那天晚上一群饿鬼在王宫的国王住处徘徊,并尝试吓唬国王。这些饿鬼众从前一尊佛迦叶佛(Kassapa Buddha)听闻得知,他们今世只要在国王供养钵食后分享其善行的功德,而他们又「随喜善哉」(sādhu)时,便可以获得饮食。他们之前都在佛陀所住的精舍附近等候赞叹善哉的机会,但国王忘记了要分享其功德,便返回王宫了。国王并不了解这些事情[120],所以饿鬼众便到他的宫室,藉着吓唬他来提醒他。

当国王向佛陀述说此事的时候,佛陀告诉国王这些鬼众在九十二劫之前曾经是他的眷属,而之所以他们会徘徊在王宫吓唬他,是为了提醒他忘了把功德分享给一切众生。因此国王在翌日再次供养佛陀和僧众钵食,并分享他的功德给一切众生。那些鬼道众生赞叹善哉后,获得天界的饮食。[28]因此有各类型的闹鬼及吓唬人的事,一类依附于物体的鬼众,亦算属于某类神明的鬼道众生,可以造作恐怖及吓唬人的事。这些鬼神用肉眼看不到,但天眼智通则可以。

能见饿鬼的天眼

在佛陀的时代,一日目犍连尊者(Moggallāna)和勒叉那尊者(Lakkhaṇa)从灵鹫山(Gijjhakuta)下来接受钵食,途中他们看到了不同类型的饿鬼。有的饿鬼只有骷髅,有的只有肉,有的身体着火。[121]鹰、乌鸦、刀剑不断反复噉食和攻击那些只有骷髅或肉的鬼众,他们在空中因痛苦大声叫喊及奔走。[29]

目犍连尊者见到这些现象后微笑,思惟自身已经从这种苦中得脱。勒叉那尊者询问目犍连尊者为何微笑,尊者说请在钵食后才问他。在饮食过后,勒叉那尊者在佛陀面前,询问目犍连尊者的微笑因缘,尊者回应说那是因为他看到鬼道众生各异的形象。佛陀说:「我的弟子众已经获得智眼,所以能够看到肉眼所不能见的鬼众。我也曾在晚上看到他们,那时我将要证得佛果,坐在菩提树下的无能胜座(aparājita)上。我因为怜悯那些会因为疑惑这些事而犯恶业的人,所以没有讲关于这些鬼众的佛法。那个奇怪的鬼过去是王舍城的一个屠夫[122],他曾堕落地狱受了数以百千年的苦果,之后才成为现在的鬼形态,以偿还其恶业的余债。目犍连所说看到奇怪的鬼道众生是对的。」

佛陀继续描述了二十多类的鬼道众生,有的鬼众受着剑、矛、箭和针等飞入和刺穿他们的身体。有的则有不同大小的铁块坠落击中他们的身体,因为受着这些极端痛苦,他们四处奔走,大喊大叫。住在那一区的人类都没有看到他们。勒叉那尊者由于没有天眼智,所以也看不见。这些可怜的众生不但在灵鹫山可以发现,就是在其他地方,那些他们前生曾经造作恶业的地方,都可以遇到。只有具备智通能够看见他们,一般肉眼是看不到的。

天眼智通不单只能够看到鬼道的众生,还有其他各类在地狱、欲天界、梵天的众生。[123]阿耨律陀尊者(Anuruddha)能够以其天眼观见大千世界中的一切,而佛陀则能够观见无尽的世界。佛陀在缅历二月的月圆中夜,将要证得佛果前证得此智通。

漏尽智

这个智是净除一切欲求和其他烦恼的能力。这是指四种圣道智:须陀洹道智,斯陀含道智、阿那含道智和阿罗汉道智。在这四种智中:须陀洹道智断除邪见(diṭṭhi),斯陀含道智断除粗的欲贪和瞋恨,阿那含道智断除微细的欲贪及瞋恨,阿罗汉道智断除余下的贪(色界、无色界贪)等烦恼。因此,这四种道智被统称为「漏尽智」,然而由于只有阿罗汉道智才能断尽一切烦恼,漏尽智相当于阿罗汉道智。它是佛陀在缅历二月的月圆后夜所证得的。[124]

这个智是佛陀在修习「缘起」(paṭiccasamuppāda)后证得,是当日的后夜分,他从出入息的定境,转向观察五取蕴的生灭,这是在随观生灭。即是现在我们的禅修者所修习的,观照眼、听、知等等。但与佛陀的修法不同的是,佛陀进入了各个禅那,并同时观察身体内外现象的生灭,其中并没有任何遗漏,这是重要的差别。观察的过程则是一样的。[30]

佛陀从这里进而修习毗婆舍那,并顺着各观智证得圣道智。当他证得阿罗汉圣道智时,他体证到涅槃,证得一切知智(sabbaññutā-ñāṇa)而成佛,以及具备各种佛陀持有的德行。因此佛陀在《转法轮经》中宣说已证得「正等正觉」。[125]这是为什么七岳夜叉说佛陀证得三明,简称「pu、di、a」。

八明

三明已经被讲解了,现在再加上五个简称「vi、ma、id、ce、di」(音『维、玛、依、策、迪』)而成为八明,这分别是毗婆舍那智(内观智,vipassanā-ñāṇa)、意所成神变智(manomayiddhi-ñāṇa)、神变智(iddhividha-ñāṇa)、他心智(cetopariya-ñāṇa)及天耳智(dibbasota-ñāṇa)。

毗婆舍那智

毗婆舍那智(内观智)是透过观察名色法的无常、苦、无我来证得的,它不能透过简单的观察证取,需要深入地观照现象出现的活动并且没有遗漏。因此需要在所有看、听、嗅、尝等的活动出现时观察,不能遗失任何单一的活动。刚开始时,一个人应当观察某类活动,在《大念住经》里面提到[126]:「gacchantova gacchāmi’ ti, pajānāti」,意思是「行走时,知道我在行走」。佛陀在这里的意思是一个人应该观察行走时「风大」(vāyodhātu)的活动。他也说:「坐时,知道我在坐」。

当你把注意力留意着坐的活动时,你会观察到由坐这个行为所出现的身心现象。当你观察弯曲、伸展或移动等行为的出现也如此。我曾经教导你们坐禅时观照腹部起伏的简单练习。《大念住经》对于观察身体的各类活动作了全面的指导,我所教导的坐禅观照腹部起伏,是按照其内容作出的。

如果在观照腹部起伏的过程中,观照存在间隙,你可以观照坐的姿势,起、伏、坐、起、伏、坐。这样地填补间隙,就可以全面地作身体的观照。[127]这就是「身念住」(kāyānupassanā)。在坐的过程中,如果你感到身体中的紧绷、热、或痛,你应该观照这些感受(vedanā)。这就是「受念住」(vedanānupassanā)。如果一个想法生起,你应该标记它,这就是「心念住」(cittānupassanā)。然后如实地观察见到、听到等过程就只是一连串的现象,这就是「法念住」(dhammānupassanā)。总结而言,你的禅修便圆满了四念住。

现在,当你的修行包含了四念住,你的心将不会到处游走而完全专注,并在现象出现的时候毫无遗漏地观照它们。其中只会有专注的观照。因此心被净化了,达至「心清净」(cittā visuddhi)。在这种心的状态,被观照的对象及观照的心,会分别变得清晰。当你观照腹部胀起,胀起的现象与知道胀起的心是分开的。同样在腹部收缩下降时,以及肢体弯曲、伸展等等也如此。因此,对象和观照的心变得独立开来[128],即是说被知道的身体活动及知道的心,是两个独立现象。这样,禅修者便分辨到「名法」(心,nāma)与「色法」(身,rūpa),这阶段的内观智称为「名色分别智」(nāmarūpa-pariccheda-ñāṇa),是内观禅修的重要基础。没有获得这个智的话,以后其他内观智是无法证得的。

继续着修行,禅修者将会分辨到身心活动的因果关系,譬如移动的出现,是因为想移动;知道出现,是因为有感知的对象出现;看见发生,是因为被看的对象出现等等。禅修者会明白这些存在于身心现象之间的因果关系,这种内观智便是「缘摄受智」(paccayapariggahañāṇa),即看见因果关系的内观智。

当禅修者继续修习,他标记现象和感受的生起和消失。譬如说,当痛发生,禅修者标记痛为「痛、痛」,直到痛消失。就这样,他标记着整个过程的开始到结束。[129]这种持续对各类现象的标记,会达至对「无常」以及「苦」和「无我」的观察。这连串的体悟便构成了内观智。

当禅修者继续修习,他的觉知力变得更敏锐和快捷,这个内观智,一般禅修者都可以证得。在佛陀而言,由于他已证得禅定和心清净,达到这内观智是十分容易的。

意所成神变智及神变智

意所成神变智(Manomayiddhi-ñāṇa)及神变智(iddhividha-ñāṇa)都是属于神变的智。「意所成神变智」是变化出自己的身形,而「神变智」是变化各类事物,随个人的意欲变现,后者的范围比较广。天可以变成地,在空中变现一条泥路然后在上面行走。也可以将自身变得柔软如棉,可以随风飘荡。土地可以变成水或一条坑道,然后让人跳进去。另外也可以隐身,或变化任何东西[130]。这种神变力称为「神变智」,是依第四禅而证取的「神通智」(abhiññaṇa)。

他心智

他心智(cetopariya-ñāṇa)也是依四禅而证取,具备此智的人可以知晓别人的想法,并知道过去、未来七日曾发生或将会发生的想法。别人的当下想法对他而言均表露无遗,与这种人生活可能让人困扰,但是与其同住,可以检查自身所作的恶行。以下是拥有这种智的老妇人——玛蒂迦玛妲的故事。

玛蒂迦玛妲──证得神通的女居士

有一次,佛陀在舍卫城(Sāvatthī)衹园精舍的时候,六十名僧人来寻求他的禅修指导,并希望找到适合的地方禅修。他们来到一个名为玛蒂迦的村落[131],村长的妈妈玛蒂迦玛妲请他们在村里雨安居,并为他们建一些居所可以安顿。

那些僧人聚集在一起并相互警戒:「我们不应粗疏及不谨慎。」并说:「八大地狱犹如敞开的房子,我们从佛得到禅修的指导,便应该依教而行,独处及不共住。」因此他们独住并开始禅修。

一日,玛蒂迦玛妲因为不理解比丘们的行为,所以便问:「你们吵架了吗?」那些比丘说:「没有。」然后当被问及为什么他们不如常地集合,并前往她家受饮食供养,他们表示正在修习「沙门法」(出家人的责任,samaṇadhamma)[132],所以分开居住。他们在分开的地方,修习「沙门法」以助证得「定」和「智」。

玛蒂迦玛妲从没有听过「沙门法」,并询问那些比丘这是什么。那些僧人说,那是对各个身分的臆想,并观察它们的腐化与散坏。她继续问道,这种法是特别给僧人的还是也可以给一般在家人修习,他们表示这可以给任何人修习。玛蒂迦玛妲于是请教他们禅修的方法,那些僧人用了不到一两个小时,便把那些指导说明了。在现代,有的人说,禅修必需要在一个人学了「阿毗达摩」(论典,Abhidhamma)后才能够修习,事实上这是劝退人们学习禅修。

玛蒂迦玛妲回到家中并开始禅修。我们不晓得她用了多少天证得阿那含的道智与果智,但她较那些僧人更早证得这果位。当她证得阿那含道智之后,她拥有「四无碍解智」(paṭisambhidā-ñāṇa),因而证得「神通智」。[133]她作了观察并发现那些僧人并没有证得任何禅定,甚至没有内观智。这是因为没有足够的营养。因此她把有营养的食物送给那些僧人,由于得到适当的饮食,他们更努力地禅修并在雨安居期间证得阿罗汉果。从这宗个案,我们应该注意到食物在禅修中是一个重要的元素。

在安居结束之后,六十位比丘前往衹园精舍礼敬佛陀,并在佛前赞叹玛蒂迦玛妲,说这位老夫人明了他们的心,满足他们的愿,让他们能够有耐力投入修行,获得定与慧。一位比丘在听到这个消息之后,也希望到那村落禅修,于是请佛陀教导禅修的业处,并前往该村落的精舍。

当抵达该处之后,他思惟着:「这位老夫人据称懂得他人的心念,我经过今日的旅途甚为疲累[134],没气力打扫精舍,希望她能够派人到精舍打扫。」玛蒂迦玛妲知道比丘的心念,并派了一位男士打扫精舍。然后,那位比丘因为口渴,于是希望可以有人送他一些糖浆。随后糖浆便送到了。第二天早上,他希望食肉粒沙律和米粥,后来亦遂愿。

后来,他希望见到这位老夫人,老夫人知道他的心意,带同食物前往精舍看望他。在受食后,僧人问老夫人是否就是玛蒂迦玛妲。她回答说是,并问僧人为何询问关于她的事。僧人说因为他发现老夫人知晓他的每一个意愿。老夫人说很多僧人具备这种能耐。僧人说他想知道老夫人是否知道其他人在想什么。老夫人说具备这种能力的人都可以做得到。她的回应是一种间接的承认。这是每位圣者的态度。[135]圣者没有骄傲,他们不会想表现自己的真正能力。当被直接问及的时候,他们通常会给予间接的回复。

当这位僧人知道老夫人真的具有透视他人想法的能力时,他感到很难再住在她所捐赠的精舍里面。他想自己只是一介凡夫,可能会享受某些邪思及欲求,当老夫人知道他的想法和欲求时,他会被抓到、谴责和羞辱。所以他说要离开精舍,并真的走了。老夫人问他到哪里去,他说回到其导师佛陀那儿。老夫人请他继续留在精舍,但僧人不受劝,他真的怕了老夫人。

当佛陀问他为什么回来,他说害怕住在精舍,因为玛蒂迦玛妲知道他每一个心念,他既然是凡夫,她最终一定会抓到他在想一些不善的念头[136]。佛陀于是思惟着哪里才适合这位比丘,并确定那个精舍是最适合的,因为他习惯地享受众多不同想法和欲求。老夫人的存在,可以自然地遏止他的胡思乱想,这位僧人会感到受约束而修习禅定。

偶尔地,某些禅修者的确需要一位懂得他们心念的禅修老师,当他们被要求观照身心现象和努力修习,他们无法自拔地放纵于妄想及欲求,有些更浪费时间与其他人聊天。当禅修老师对他们作出质问,他们的行为便会被揭露,如果加上彻底的调查,他们就不敢胡思乱想及想要这样那样。

对于这位僧人,老夫人的存在可以监察他的想法,这是最适合他的地方。因此,佛陀要求他返回那个他离开的精舍,他告诉这位僧人只需要控制他的心,并说如果他可以标记他每一个心念,那么是没有什么值得害怕的。佛陀说:

Dunniggahassa lahuno, yatthakāmanipātino;

Cittassa damatho sādhu, cittaṃ dantaṃ sukhāvahaṃ.

此心随欲转。轻躁难捉摸。善哉心调伏。心调得安乐。[31]

心是难以调御的[137],心是轻浮跑动及随感觉而走的,如果这个心能够被调伏和制约,这是甚善的。被调伏和制约的心,能够达至安乐。

心的确是难以控制的,如果被要求不要想某些事情,心仍会到处攀附这些事情。它不能够被打倒及责罚,是真的难以调伏。心是轻浮的,在禅修刚开始的时候,心会随着各类想法和欲求而走。跟物质不同,心不可以阻挡或禁闭。虽然身体在禅修的房子里面,心却可以走出外面,想到哪儿就到哪儿。能够调伏心是非常好的,被调伏的心会获得安乐。

人们想获得快乐,没有人会想不快乐的。最好的让人快乐的方法,是调伏这个狂野及不受控制的心和制约它。调伏心的方法,是透过「如理作意」(yoniso manasikāra)。当心被调伏,安乐便自然呈现。[138]

如果一个人能够持受「三皈依」(皈命佛、法、僧三宝)并调伏心,他将会获得人界、欲界天的快乐。不然,他将无法获得快乐,并会堕落在恶道中。如果一个人在皈命三宝之外,能够持守五戒,心会进一步被调伏和制约。如果全部五戒都能够正当地守好,这很好。此外如果加上「布施、持戒和禅修」(dāna,

sīla,bhāvanā),这更加好。「禅修」可以做得更多。「禅修」分两种,修习「止禅」(samatha bhāvanā)可以获得色界及无色界的悦乐,而修习「观禅」(vipassanā bhāvanā)可以最终让人证得涅槃之(寂灭)乐。

对初学者而言,要标记快速变化的现象是不容易的。他们需要坚持标记,直到生起及灭去的过程清楚被见。心是难以被调伏的[139],这个你们都知道。它轻浮及难以捕捉和驯服。要描述心的不稳定性,我造了另一个偈:

此心随欲转。轻躁难捉摸。

当观照标记,此躁动心行。

若心得调伏,即得获安乐。

这个不被驯服的心,会随意从一个想法跳到另一个想法。散乱和无聊的想法,在那些不懂标记心的活动的人心中时常出现,让他们全然在幻想的笼罩中。因此,无关重要的妄想及欲求不断催生,有的想法和欲求,甚至会让这些人鲁莽地作出一些行为和暴力。这些罪恶的行为会带来无尽的苦,这些妄想和欲求都在推动人至地狱或恶道之中。

在巴利文有句话:「cittena nīyate loko」,意思是「心引导世间」。换言之,心引导一个人到不同的世间,如果是善的心,它会引导人前往快乐的世间,如果是恶的心,它会引导人前往不乐的世间。因此[140],我们的工作便是调伏这个心,让它可以带我们前往较高的世间。

之所以禅修练习一开始标记腹部的起伏现象,是为了抓住这个浮躁的心,让它可以远离不善的贪求。如果这些控制心的努力,能够透过反复标记心的现象来持续,那么心将会变得调柔。当禅修者达至「行舍智」(saṅkhārupekkhā-ñāṇa),心会变得相当平伏和调柔。这般平伏和调柔的心,最终将引导人达至终极的内观智,证得阿罗汉的「道智」和「果智」。

现在我们回到那位证得圣果的老夫人那儿,她在定中看到那位僧人在返回的途中,并准备好食物在他到来的时候供养。这位僧人恢复了禅修,并在数天之内证得阿罗汉的果位。我想说明的是,除了佛陀之外,还有像玛蒂迦玛妲那样的人,拥有「他心智」,透穿别人想法的能力。另外,我希望说明的是,当一个人除去欲求和不善的想法,便能证得最高的内观智。[141]

在证得他心通者前不敢无礼

确实如此,靠近一位能够知晓别人心念的人,会让人们不感放纵于任何不善念。一九三一年,在我第八年戒腊的时候,我到了一个墓园中居住,那时候还没有学习禅修,正想找一位禅修的老师,那是在缅甸南部直通镇东温(Donwun)铁路站瑞洋票山丘(Shweyaungpya Hill),找到了大德长老安盖大师(Sayadaw U On Gaing)的寺院,他是一位专修苦行的大师,并在墓园中禅修,在那儿度过许多个晚上。他会前往不同的墓园,并在邻近的村庄接受钵食。

当我抵达大师的寺院时,我与他的弟子一起跟随他前往一个墓园。此前不久,有一些村民觐见大师,请求他到那个墓园,帮忙看守一个新埋葬死者的坟墓。这是一名十五岁自杀的年轻少女的坟墓。之所以村民作出这个请求,是因为希望大师在看守墓园的时候,能够防止一些巫师们挖掘坟墓[142]。这些巫师们通常会割下自杀者尸体的前臂骨,并用于修练巫术。

大师与众弟子和我,接受了邀请并到了那个埋葬了那少女的墓园。我们在日落前到了墓园,全部共八人,在墓园各处铺放了席子,并在适合的地方摆放了一些水壶供饮用。当我们选择坐处的时候,我选择了那个自杀少女坟墓最近的位置而坐。我大概离她的埋葬地只有不到一米,当时其他比丘都比较有经验,而我没有。那是我第一次在墓园里面,所以觉得有些不安。我不能够与其他人换位置因为我是戒腊最资深的。有的人在诵慈经,有的躺下睡觉,而我没有躺下,也不想这样做,因此只管坐着。我记得在《清净道论》(Visuddhimagga)中,食人夜叉时常会占据坟墓并在尸体附近安坐,所以只管坐着,如是我坐了四个晚上。

当我这么坐的时候,我必须要控制想法[143],因为如果墓园的神明及那些食人夜叉在尸体的附近,他们可能会知悉我的想法并吓唬我。所以当时我制约着想法的生起。从那次的经验我可以推断,那位在玛蒂迦玛妲身边的比丘,必须要制伏心,并保持清净。因此才会如此快地证得阿罗汉果。

天耳智

到了「八明」中的最后一明,类似「天眼智」可以看到无论远近及形状的所有对象,「天耳智」是可以听到无论远近及大小声量的一切声音。不只是人界的声音,还有天界或梵天界的声音,拥有天耳智的都可以听到。其它世界的也可以。

因此,七岳夜叉告诉雪山夜叉,佛陀圆满具备「三明」及「八明」,这些高尚的心理能力。七岳说:「的确,我们的老师佛陀,具备『行』,清净和超脱的德行。」[144]

十五行

七岳夜叉回答雪山夜叉所问及的佛陀所具备的「行」有十五种,内容如下:

(1)别解脱防护戒(pāṭimokkha saṃvara sīla,又名「戒律仪」):这个词汇的意思是遵守这戒律的人,将能够被它所保护。此戒会保护遵守它的人于现世及来世的轮回中不遇诸祸。对在家人而言,别解脱防护戒是「五戒」,对出家比丘而言,二百二十七条戒(细说则有九千俱胝戒)便是「别解脱防护戒」。如果一个人持守这些戒律,他便能够远离诽谤或轻视,以及不受王法之所责罚。在轮回中,他也可以不堕地狱乃至四恶趣。这种防护性的戒律称为「别解脱防护戒」。

(2)防护诸根之门(indriya saṃvara sīla,又名「根律仪」):此戒律是防护一个人在看、听、嗅、尝等(根门)的过程中,备受嫉妒、贪、爱欲、恶意、沮丧及瞋恨之所侵扰。这种戒律只能够在一个人进行某类禅修的时候遵守,在其他情况下,只能够守得一部分。[145]

(3)于食知量(bhojane mattaññutā):这是在一个人进食、接受钵食、或使用日常用品的时候所需要的省察。当一个人进食时,他必须注意佛陀所教导:「不应于好食增心贪着,于恶食减心厌弃,平等舍苦乐,是所应当作。」

若进食时,不是为了侨逸、也不为陶醉、打扮、装饰。仅仅是为了这个身体可以相续维持、以防止饥饿的伤害,远离饥饿带来的苦受及健康的侵损。一个人需要有健康的体魄,以实践佛陀对人们的嘱咐,严持戒律。

同样地,在穿僧衣的时候,那仅是为了御寒和保暖、防止蚊、蝇、蛇、蝎等之所侵扰。因此,在衣食上,均应省察所用之目的。这便是「于食知量」。

(4)警寤策励(jāgariyānuyoga):jāgariya的意思是「要警觉」,而anuyoga的意思是「要努力」。这是指减省睡眠的时间,让身心保持清醒。[146]当然,这是为了禅修而做的。若是为了做其他事情,这样目的便不能达到。曾经有一次,一位比丘告诉我说,他需要尽量多睡觉,因为当他清醒的时候,心会沉醉于许多不善的想法中。他说得是有点道理,如果一个人在清醒的时候都住在邪思里头,这样是会增长恶业的。如果一个人在睡眠中,他是比较少机会住在邪思上,这是有些理据的。

不过,这里所指的「行」,是指一个人必须要勤于禅修,佛陀教导人们只要透过整天的往来行禅及坐禅,便能够远离于那些妨碍善法培养的念头,让心可以保持清净。所以,人们应该遵从这个教导,透过行禅和坐禅,将心净化,远离贪、爱欲及其他不善的渴求。当然,在行禅及坐禅中,还有站立,这个身体行为是应该包括在内的。在四威仪(行住坐卧)中,还剩下「卧」没有规范说明。[147]一个人应该整天透过行、坐及有时候站,来保持身体的警觉,一直到晚上十点。然后可以躺下,睡四小时以维持身体的健康。但在躺下后睡着前,他应该保持禅修。然后凌晨两点起床,再次禅修。每日六时中[32],只应该用一时(即四小时)来睡觉,其余五时应清醒并勤于禅修。这就是所谓「警寤策励」。

(5~8)这是指「四色界禅」(rūpa jhānas),不过可以把「无色界禅」(arūpa jhāna)包括在第四禅里面。

(9~10)这是指「信」(saddhā)和「精进」(vīrya),这两者没有需要详述。他们也包括在这些「行」里面。

(11~15)然后是「念」(sati)、「慧」(paññā)、「惭」(hirī)、「愧」(ottappa)及「多闻」(bahusacca)。

「多闻」在这里的意思是指一个人应当听闻及忆持佛陀的教诲。忆持那个教法,取得佛法知识是属于「听」,又称为「教理之闻」(āgama-suta)。透过实际修行,分辨和体证实相是属于「见」,又称为「证悟之闻」(adhigama-suta)[148]。这两者加起来便成「多闻」。那么一般的知识应该懂得多少?对一个普通信徒来说,最少懂得一四句偈(gātha)便足够。那些要教导别人的人,则应该深入学习很多佛理。

不过,这里出现一个问题:「在佛陀的情况,他没有机会从其他圆满『闻』和『见』的人学习,那又怎么算?」答案是,佛陀已彻底具备「见」,他已知所有一切,并无需向他人学习。这如同一个人,不需要从别人了知自己家中的事物,因为他很清楚家中的一事一物。佛陀知晓一切法亦如是,他的智慧是圆满及无上的。七岳夜叉强调,他的老师佛陀是圆满具足「三明」、「八明」及「十五行」的。

如我早前所说,那位年轻的少女卡利,在家中听到两位天界的夜叉神在对话。由于这些话语是从天上传下来的,她知道说话的声音必定来自天神,于是乎很注意地听。卡利是赋有波罗蜜的[149],因此她才听到一般人无法听到的天神之间的对话。而且她能够明白他们的话,并对佛陀生起敬信。

明行足者最尊贵

印度存在着一种「种姓制度」,将人类分为不同的等级,「婆罗门」(Brāhmaṇa)及「剎帝利」(Khattiya)被视为高尚和贵族,高于「吠舍」(Vessa)及「首陀罗」(Sudda)这些平民。另外还有一些族姓,「侨尸迦」(Kosiya)和「婆罗堕阇」(Bhāradvāja)族被视为低于「乔达摩」(Gotama)及「目犍连」(Moggallāna)族。然后一般人都会避免接触乞丐、拾荒者等等一类称为贱民的「旃陀罗」种(caṇḍāla)。这些旃陀罗种人,需要居住在自己的村落,远离城市。当他们进入城市的时候,他们要以木棍敲打地面,让那些高级种姓的人避开与他们有身体接触。

在旃陀罗种人摩登伽(Mātaṅga)的故事中,一位名叫提陀曼伽利佳(Diṭṭhamaṅgalikā)的长者女儿,碰巧遇上乞丐摩登伽,于是说这是不祥之兆。这类对种姓的看法,在当其时十分流行,在今日的印度仍然存在。[150]

这里讲一个听来的故事,是已故仰光巴汉区的费卢温大师(Veluvun)的亲身经历。在缅甸的英治时期,当大师前往印度及斯里兰卡朝圣的时候,他接受了一位印度富人的接待,被安排住在一个客房中。那位富人跟他说:「您其实可以住在我家中,但我们不能够住在您曾逗留的地方,所以我们会安排一个特别的地方给您。另外也会给您一个特别的浴间,因为我们不能使用您用过的浴间。」

这是只会给予来自缅甸的人的特别待遇。在他们的国家,一个来自低下种姓的人,是不能够进入属于高级种姓的人所礼拜的寺院的。按照他们的信仰,一个人生于低级种姓的家庭,就不能够改善他的社会地位,而一个生于高级种姓家庭的人,无论曾做过多少不良行为,都仍然是高人一等及尊贵的。这种信仰在他们的圣典中有记载,在佛经中也有提及。

斯里兰卡也有种姓的分级,但情况并不那么严重。在那儿,一位出身高级种姓家庭的出家僧人[151],不会向来自低下种姓的僧人行礼;而那位低下种姓的僧人对高级种姓的在家人,也会自觉卑微。在缅甸,这些阶级分别是不存在的。

在印度的世俗人而言,剎帝利种,或称为管治者的阶级,地位是最高的。这个种姓的人不能够与种姓外的其他阶级的人通婚,因此他们说其阶级是「清净」的。这个阶级的人强悍和忠于其种姓和国家。他们是权力的拥有者。所以在种姓制度里面,他们被视为最尊贵的,如此,也被视为拥有「明」和「行」的人。只有具备这些特质的人,才是人天中最尊贵的。

在世俗的角度看,剎帝利种姓被视为最尊贵;但是从修行的角度来说,拥有真正「明」和「行」的人才是最尊贵的。佛陀对娑婆世界主梵天王(Sahampati Brahmā)的说明支持这一点。高级种姓的人,他的尊贵性质只是随其生存而在,当他死后,他没有任何东西可以依靠。但一位具备「明」和「行」的人,其尊贵是永恒的,越高的德行,越显出他的尊贵。[152]

人们对于那些能够飞天遁地、能够知晓别人内心或见到别人来世的人,都会很崇拜。对于那些具备「闻」和「见」的人,也会很敬仰。其实这些能力,某些定力强的禅修者都可以得到。

这里分享一个个案,有一位妇人住在仰光帕克库区的一个岛上,她按照我们的指导禅修,据说证得「闻」和「见」的能力。有一天,她的妹妹有珠宝不见了,便向她询问丢在哪里了。这位妇人于是进入禅定,并在心眼中看见是妹妹家里的仆人偷走了,并藏在其家中厨房的阁楼。她妹妹于是带同警察到仆人的家中搜寻,果然在所指的位置找到失物。那些在场的警员也感到惊讶。

这是现代有关这类能力的一个例子,类似的个案也不少。如果展示「通智」的力量,人们便会很敬仰。[153]在这些「通智」之中,最重要的是「内观智」和「漏尽智」。如果一个人证得「内观智」,他便可以成为「小须陀洹」(cūla sotāpanna);如果他证得「漏尽智」,他将彻底成为一位「须陀洹」圣者,脱离于堕落四恶趣的危险。最多再过七世,他必定能够脱离忧苦,在期间证得阿罗汉果,证得究竟涅槃。如果证得更高的「智」,他肯定可以取证高于「须陀洹」的果位。

那些在世间善趣中的众生,人、欲界天人及梵天人,都具备「行」和「戒」的特质。像大家现在一样听经闻法的人们,都拥有已证得道果智的圣者们所具备的「行」。不过,具备「明」和「行」两者,才会让人变得尊贵。[154]

在此的禅修者也有这些特质

那些在这里禅修的人们,首先,也具备「内观智」的特质。而那些证得道、果智的,当然也具备「漏尽智」。至于首五个「行」,禅修者具备「戒律仪」、控制着身心(根律仪),而且保持警觉。因此,在这个禅修中心的人们,可以获得符合佛陀教法的「明」和「行」的特质,变得尊贵。这是十分让人满意的。

就佛陀而言,他彻底具备所有「明」和「行」的特质。我们已经圆满讲解了佛陀的特质——明行足。

须巴布达的故事

在这里讲一个故事给大家参考,很久以前有一个穷人叫须巴布达(Suppabuddha),他是佛陀时代的人,他在小时候便被双亲所弃,成为一位乞丐,而且患了麻疯病。无家可归的他,只可以在路边栖宿[155]。因为病苦,所以整晚他都会呻吟着,吵到别人的睡眠。因为他被人给予了须巴布达的名字,意思是「唤醒睡眠者之人」。

有一日,在行乞期间,他看到一大群人聚集。他想或许可以从这些人中得到好的施予,所以走近人群,发现原来是佛陀说法的集会。他想听闻佛法,于是乖乖地坐在人群的边缘。佛陀以天眼看见,这天须巴布达将会见到法的光芒。于是佛陀讲说布施和持戒,教诫人们要远离杀生、偷盗等行为。须巴布达于是决定持守这些戒律,因此具备了戒行。当佛陀讲到四圣谛,须巴布达思惟它们,后来便证得须陀洹果。

在说法的集会结束之后,须巴布达随着与会群众四散而离开。后来不久,他回去找佛陀。在途中,欲界天天王希望测试须巴布达的正直心。于是天王问他:「须巴布达[156],你是一位非常穷困的人,而且有麻疯病,如果你听从我,我会给你财富和让你健康。」须巴布达回答说:「你是谁?你的指示是什么?」天王说:「我是诸天之主,刚才说法的乔达摩并不是真的佛陀。他的弟子们也不是真的比丘。你应该要说:『我不皈依佛、我不皈依法、我不皈依僧』。」

须巴布达说:「作为天王,你实在无礼。你不应该向我说话。你为什么说我很穷及没有皈依?我现在是佛陀真正的儿子。我并不穷。现在我很富有及尊贵,因为我完全具备佛陀所讲的七圣财,『信』(saddhā)、『戒』(sīla)、『惭』(hirī)、『愧』(ottappa)、『闻』(suta)、『施』(cāga)及『慧』(paññā)。你不配与我谈话。」然后把天王赶走。

须巴布达去见佛陀,并报告他对法的体悟。这就跟现在的禅修者,在禅修营期间很热切地向指导老师报告其体验差不多。在须巴布达向佛陀报告所证之后[157],他便离开了。由于业力所牵引,他在离开佛陀精舍的途中,被牛撞死。之后他成为忉利天的天人,在那儿,他享有比其他天人们更殊胜的力量,因为他们所造作的善业在佛陀教法之外。

那些天人感到不满,为什么须巴布达在人间时低贱如此,死后却拥有高于他们的地位。天王于是向他们解释,为何须巴布达获得更高的地位。天王说那是因为在人间的时候,须巴布达具备了七圣财,因而在成为天人的时候,他靠着从前的善业功德,获得了这些利益。

这个故事说明了,即使一个人在世俗社会地位很低微,但是精神道德高尚,远比其他人高级。须巴布达只是在死前数个小时获得七圣财,但他已经具备了「明」和「行」的特质。之所以他为人时患麻疯病[158],那是因为他的过去世曾经骂过一位患麻疯病的辟支佛。另外他之所以被牛撞死,是因为他某一世曾经劫杀一名妓女。佛陀用这个个案,劝告大众要避免造恶业,正如一个人走路时会避免障碍物及地陷的位置一般。我们的禅修者,应当从这个故事中学习因果,避免造作恶业。

雪山夜叉问:「你的老师佛陀是否远离贪欲?是否没有来生?」七岳夜叉回答:「我的老师佛陀远离贪欲,没有来生。」

这里我们重温他们的问答,重点是贪欲的断除及轮回的止息。如果一个人没有完全净除贪及欲,即使他可能具备一些「明行」,他仍会有来生,并受着生、老、病等各种忧苦。只有再没有来生,他才可能彻底除去一切忧苦。这两点至为重要。[159]

女居士卡利

回到卡利,我们提到这位年轻的女人听到两位天界的夜叉对话,在听见佛陀的特质时身心愉悦。当她沉醉在喜悦中的时候,她继而禅修并很快证得须陀洹道智与果智,成为初果圣者。后来她诞下一位孩子,其为后来的首楼那亿耳长老(Soṇakuṭikaṇṇa)。卡利是第一位证得初果的女性。她是因为听到佛陀的特质,对佛生起敬信而证得果位的。她后来从佛获得「第一」(etadagga)的印记。

雪山夜叉也变得对佛陀的德行感到有信心,并渴望礼敬佛陀。于是他对七岳夜叉说:「佛陀的心彻底清净,他的身心远离过失,佛陀具足明行,我尊敬他。」

我们这一讲到此为止。下一讲我们将会提到更多关于礼敬的部分。希望大家能够努力修行获取明行的特质,好好地用功直到证得涅槃的解脱境界。[160]

第四讲完

第五讲

‘‘Sampannaṃ munino cittaṃ, kammunā byappathena ca;

Vijjācaraṇasampannaṃ, dhammato naṃ pasaṃsati’’.

‘‘Sampannaṃ munino cittaṃ, kammunā byappathena ca;

Vijjācaraṇasampannaṃ, dhammato anumodasi’’.

(七岳夜叉)『牟尼经由身和语的正业,具足(完善的)心志,

他具足诸明与戒行,你应如法赞美他。』

(七岳夜叉)『牟尼经由身和语的正业,具足(完善的)心志,

他具足诸明与戒行,你应如法随喜他。』[33]

雪山夜叉对于七岳夜叉回答指佛陀具足「明」和「行」的德行,感到十分之欣悦。因此他说:「贤友七岳,你所赞叹的佛陀内心真纯净,他清净无犯于不与取,全无妄语及恶口。佛陀拥有一切明行的德行。我的贤友,你已真诚地赞叹了佛陀。」为随喜七岳夜叉对佛陀所作的赞叹,雪山夜叉说:「善哉!善哉!善哉!」

‘‘Sampannaṃ munino cittaṃ, kammunā byappathena ca;

Vijjācaraṇasampannaṃ, handa passāma gotamaṃ.

(七岳夜叉)『牟尼经由身和语的正业,具足(完善的)心志,

他具足诸明与戒行,让我们去见乔达摩吧!』[34]

对于雪山夜叉能够以信心接受他对佛陀的赞美,七岳夜叉感到庆喜。然后邀请雪山夜叉与他一起亲近和礼敬佛陀。雪山夜叉欣然接受这邀请。

‘‘Eṇijaṅghaṃ kisaṃ vīraṃ [dhīraṃ (syā.)], appāhāraṃ alolupaṃ;

Muniṃ vanasmiṃ jhāyantaṃ, ehi passāma gotamaṃ.

(雪山夜叉)『他有像鹿王一样纤细的脚,大雄取用很少的食物,

无贪嗜,牟尼在林中禅修。来,让我们去见乔达摩吧!』[35]

他说:「贤友七岳,我们一同去礼敬佛陀吧,他有像森林的鹿那样光滑的腿,纤瘦的身形,富有勇气和勤奋[161],远离欲望和困惑,取用很少食物,常常在如优楼频螺林(Uruvela)的森林中进入禅定,这就是乔达摩氏的佛陀。」之后,他面向众天神,并邀请他们跟着七岳夜叉和他一同前往。

当雪山夜叉说佛陀有像森林的鹿那样光滑的腿,他的意思是佛陀的腿肚没有肿块、很平滑。当他说佛陀瘦,那是因为佛陀作了六年苦行,两个月前才舍弃。在苦行期间,他还未成佛,还是一位菩萨,是消瘦的。他不可能在两个月左右恢复正常体重。一般而言,根据经典记载,所有的佛陀,乔达摩以及他之前的佛,都从不笨重。有关佛陀进食很少食物这点,根据经典,佛陀的习惯是「日中一食」。在需要展开旅程的时候他才会进食多一点。[162]

‘‘Sīhaṃvekacaraṃ nāgaṃ, kāmesu anapekkhinaṃ;

Upasaṅkamma pucchāma, maccupāsappamocanaṃ.

(雪山夜叉)『大龙不着于贪欲,像雄狮一样独来独往,

让我们问如何能脱逃死亡的罗网。』[36]

讲到那些跟随他的天人众,雪山夜叉说:「诸天众,让我们一起亲近佛陀,他犹如雄狮,不易接近,他单独来去,没有任何烦恼的伴随、远离于恶业、不染于欲望和渴爱。让我们请示于佛陀,以取得怎样可以逃离死亡陷阱的答案。」

‘‘Akkhātāraṃ pavattāraṃ, sabbadhammāna pāraguṃ;

Buddhaṃ verabhayātītaṃ, mayaṃ pucchāma gotamaṃ’’.

(雪山夜叉与七岳夜叉)『让我们问渡过一切法的彼岸、

超越瞋恨与恐惧的乔达摩,他是法的宣示者与教导者。』[37]

当他们到达了佛陀的跟前,雪山夜叉请求提问。他说:「世尊,圆满的觉悟者,能够善巧倡导四圣谛,遍知一切法而无人能及,超越一切危难,让我们提出一些问题。」

这是礼仪之邦所常见的表示。在古代,社会的高级阶层,如国王、贵族、智者,在想作出提问前,一般都会先作出提问的呈请。只有那些未受教育的人,才会在没有任何礼仪之下突然提问。[163]雪山夜叉在投生为天人之前的过去世,曾经是一位有学养的僧人,知书识礼。因此他懂得礼数。

雪山夜叉的提问(一)

‘‘Kismiṃ loko samuppanno, (iti hemavato yakkho)

Kismiṃ kubbati santhavaṃ [sandhavaṃ (ka.)];

Kissa loko upādāya, kismiṃ loko vihaññati’’.

(雪山夜叉与七岳夜叉)『世间从何升起?世间以什么和合?

世间以执着什么而存在?世间在那一方面被苦恼?』[38]

当佛陀答允让他提问,雪山夜叉这样提出了第一个问题:「世尊,有情众生(sattavā)是怎样生起的?有情世间(loka),以什么相伴?它执取什么?有情众生的世间,所受的忧苦涉及什么?」

这个疑问的四点带有很深的意义。一位普通的天人不会提出这种问题。雪山夜叉能够提出,是因为他在迦叶佛的时代,是一位受了良好教育、有学养的僧人。

佛陀的回答(一)

‘‘Chasu [chassu (sī. pī.)] loko samuppanno, (hemavatāti bhagavā)

Chasu kubbati santhavaṃ;

Channameva upādāya, chasu loko vihaññati’’.

(世尊)『世间从六升起,世间于六和合;

确实,它执着六而存在,世间在六苦恼。』[39]

世尊这样回答:「雪山夜叉,有情世间的生起为六。众生的世间有六种相伴(和合)。此六被执取。此六涉及世间的有情众生所受的忧苦。」[164]

(a) 世间从六生起

这里佛陀所指的「六」,是「六入处」(āyatana),它们分别是眼、耳、鼻、舌、身及意。它们被称为「内六处」。如果有这六入处,便成为一个有情众生。有情众生亦称为世间。所有众生必定有这六入处(感官)。雕像和画像有这些感官描绘,但这些不是(活的)有情众生,所以并没有任何感官。

如果具有四或五个感官,也可以是一位有情众生。一个人可能没有眼睛但有其他感官;同样,一个人可能没有耳朵或鼻子。我曾经遇到过一位僧人是鼻子不灵的,他嗅不到任何味道。如果具有舌头、身体和意识,都可以是一个有情众生。有一些海洋生物看似木头或藻类,但它们是有情众生。因此,可以有众生只有舌头、身体和意识。在色界的众生,并没有鼻子、舌头或身体,就只有眼睛、耳朵和意识。在无色界的众生,就只有意识。在无想天(Asaññasatta),所有六个感官都消失。佛陀在这里的回答,似乎排除了无想天[165]。所以我们可以总结说,只要有意识就会有众生。当然,全部具足六入处的更不用说。在佛陀所述的这个回答里面,具备一、二、三、四、五个感官的众生,都包括在最多六个感官的里面了。

那么内六处呢?在人界,结生识在母亲子宫的胚胎形成时同时生起。因此身心是一起出现的,一个众生就此形成。只有在出生之后,物质感官──眼处,和心理感官──看见(意处)同时出现。耳处和听、鼻处和嗅、舌处和尝、身处和触也如此。意处、法处随之出现。所有这些感官形成了一个众生。[40]

如果没有眼处就不能看、没有耳处就不能听;没有嗅、触、知也如此,那么人界就没有众生。譬如说一具尸体,在死亡后的一段短时间,它表面上看似是活人,但有个区别是它再没有任何感官[166]。因此尸体不是一个众生。如果一个人割截尸体,他并不会犯杀戒的。不过,如果一个人对圣者的遗体作出冒犯,那么他就会制造恶业。有些人会执取一个没有任何感官的尸体,那并不能够称为一个众生。

有些人以为,死亡代表某个生命体从身体的终结,事实不然。如果那些感官继续运作,那么一个人就是活着的。在临终前一刻,这些感官停止运作,死亡出现(死亡心)。一旦它们停止运作,而那个人并没有解脱烦恼,一个新的心识(结生心)会生起在某个物质处所(生命界)。

一个众生生命结束时的最后一个心识,称为「死亡心」(cuti citta),之后在新的物质处所生起的那个心识,称为「结生心」(paṭisandhi citta)。这个心识是「意处」(manāyatana),而那个物质处所就是「身处」(kayāyatana)。因此,在众生投生的一刻开始[167],就会有二、四、五或全部六处。有这些感官的出现,就出现新的众生。因此佛陀说:「有六,就有世间。」然而,这不是说(真的)有一个新的众生产生,或有一个旧的众生转移到新的生命界。事实上,新的感官出现,是因为过去的「业」。没有六入处,就没有众生。像一条流动中的河流,水的流动没有间隙,旧的流水被新的流水紧密地跟随。「处」也是一路生起没有间隙或中止。一般人没有内观禅修的体验,会将这些状态视为固定和永恒的。

对于一位持续地标记观照六入处的生起和灭去的禅修者而言,持续的生灭变动都很显而易见,因此无常性被他亲身了知,人的生命其实就是一连串的生灭过程,没有永恒的东西在这生命之中。

(b) 世间于六和合

佛陀说「世间」或「众生」常于六和合。「内六处」[168]:眼、耳、鼻、舌、身、意;时常都与「外六处」:色、声、香、味、触、法,紧密地在一起。即是说「内六处」与「外六处」紧密地连系。后者可以是有情或无情。

眼处及色处

我们透过外表,分辨男人与女人。事实上,是眼处(眼睛)、意处(看见的心)与色处(影像)的和合。一旦看见的过程发生了,意处会对那个影像留下印象。虽然那个影像已经消失并已不存在,意处的印象仍保留着。这导致人类的联想,这种联想实际只是眼睛──「眼处」(cakkhāyatana)、看见──「意处」、影像──「色处」的和合。这其中没有男人、女人或东西存在。这是按真实法(paramattha)的角度来看待这个过程。如果你深入和谨慎地思惟,便会知道这一切,只是「处」的互动作用。[169]

对于正在修行的禅修者,透过深度发展的专注力,产生这种体悟是很正常的,没有任何特别。他会标记观照感官现象的生起和灭去。因此佛陀说:「世间从六升起,世间于六和合」。

耳处及声处

在听到男性的声音、女性的声音时,人们会分辨是男是女。这是耳处(耳朵)、意处(听到的心)与声处(声音)彼此和合。意处保留了那个声音的印象,无论是男声女声、可意还是不可意的。在真实法的角度看来,这声音都没有主宰,就只是耳处、意处与声处的和合。对于有经验的禅修者而言,这是很明显的。

鼻处及香处

鼻子和嗅的感知,与各种气味和合,男人、女人和花朵等的味道。[170]意处会保留那个气味的印象。在这里,不论是那气味,或那个让心中留下印象的、男或女的气味来源(都并没有主宰)。譬如说,如果你吻你的儿子,这里面其实没有吻者及被吻者。只是鼻处、意处、香处的和合。换言之,就只是鼻子、嗅的感知与气味的彼此联系而已。

舌处及味处

吃食物(舌处)及品尝味道的心(意处),让心对那味道(味处)留下印象。吃的人会说这食物或那食物很美味、是甜的、是奶味或任何心记认的味道。然而,事实上吃的人、那食物及食物的预备者都不存在。一旦食物被吞下,味道便消失,没有常性。[171]

身处及触处

触处(触感)由三类元素组成:地大(pathavī)、火大(tejo)及风大(vāyo)。粗、滑是地大。冷、热是火大。坚挺、推、移动是风大。与其他身体或物件的接触,如衣服、床等,都是短暂的。禅修者需要标记这些触感和接触。

这是为什么佛陀教导弟子们:「行走时知道行走」。这实际上是指导人们辨别风大的特质,那个移动的现象。同样地,他们被教导要标记每一个身体动作,譬如站、坐、卧、睡。为什么这样教导?原因是如果他没有标记身体动作,他便不会明了身体动作,这种无明会产生烦恼,造作善、恶行。在标记身体动作后,他会随观无常、苦、无我。如果他深入觉察到这些性质,他会依次证得圣道智,烦恼及贪欲会被彻底消灭。[172]

在这里,我想指出,腹部的起伏已包括在身体动作中。因此我教导弟子们,在禅修者开始禅修的时候,标记腹部的起伏现象。这种指导是容易跟随的。一旦禅修者证得禅定,他会在腹部的收紧和放松的过程中,了悟「触处」;进而了解佛法所讲的「身处」和「意处」。禅修者会清楚知道当中没有「我」,只有接触感(触处)和对接触的感知(身处及意处)。

意处及法处

了别男女的心识,与想法或观念和合。即是说:「意处」(manāyatana)与「法处」(dhammāyatana)和合。人们常说:「我在注意某人」、「我在想着某人」、「我梦到某人」等。事实上,没有人见到任何人。这些想法会在日常中无间断地生起,它们一连串地运作。不善的想法,亦经常地生起。每次一个想法生起,心识会缘取它,很多人纵情于这些想法[173],不喜欢别人邀请他们去禅修的建议。

有的弘法者教导他们的听众,应该放任由他们的心及放轻松,而不用把心专注于禅修的所缘,他们说因为专注会限制内心。这是有违佛陀的教导,虽然这表面看似佛陀的教法。如果跟随这些弘法者的教导,放任内心,它肯定会放纵在想法及沉溺于感官欲乐之中。就好像一名吸鸦片烟的人迷于乱想那样。放纵于这些乱想,即是放纵于感官欲乐。

在这部《雪山夜叉经》所述,意处与法处(想法)一起运作是对的。要分别意与法,一个人必须要禅修,以证得定力。如果定力很弱,心会乱跑,缘取禅修目标以外的感官对象,禅修者必定会亲身发现到这种情况。

一些虚伪的弘法者指责禅修会造成身体的不适。[174]这是对佛陀的话不信任的表现。跟随他们说法的人会失去获得真实观智的机会,并对圣者们及其他有德者,不智地犯下很大的过失。

引致疲倦不一定是苦行

不是为着禅修而使身心疲累,这是一种「自我折磨」(attakilamatha)[41]。这与禅修并不相关。认为身体如果受到折磨,感官欲乐就不会出现的观念是错误的。与这种见解相应的身体自残是一种「自我折磨」。但是,如果是尝试证得观智,作出身体的努力,那么这并不算是自我折磨。就算那努力导致死亡,这并不属于自我折磨的类别。想一想,如果一名鸦片瘾君子,为了戒毒而冒着会产生很大身体不适的苦,这样的人并不是在自我折磨。佛陀怎会斥责一个不惜身命,为了保持其戒律清净的人呢?[175]

例如,在面对诱惑的时候,为了断邪淫而制约肉体上的欲望,会让身体很不舒服。但佛陀会斥责这样(守戒)的人吗?此外,一个人为了受持八关斋戒清净而过午不食,佛陀会斥责他吗?有一个事例关于给孤长者的仆人,他始终决意过午不食,纵使受着肠病的蹂躏并最终死亡。这并非「自我折磨」,因为他死后成为了树栖的护法神。佛陀赞扬这种为了持戒清净而立定决心的行为:「我弟子众,宁舍生命,终不犯戒。」

佛陀的告诫

佛陀告诫弟子众:「比丘们,应以精勤及努力证取圣法,纵然只剩下骨头亦如是。你们应当以决意及坚持,努力趣向此证悟。」这是佛陀一个急切的告诫。正如《牛角大经》所说[176]

Idha, sāriputta, bhikkhu pacchābhattaṃ

piṇḍapātapaṭikkanto nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ ābhujitvā

ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ

upaṭṭhapetvā– ‘na tāvāhaṃ imaṃ pallaṅkaṃ bhindissāmi

yāva me nānupādāya āsavehi cittaṃ vimuccissatī’ti.

Evarūpena kho, sāriputta, bhikkhunā gosiṅgasālavanaṃ sobheyyā”ti.

MN.32/(2) Mahāgosiṅgasuttaṃ

「舍利弗!这里,比丘从施食处返回,坐下,盘腿后,

挺直身体,建立起面前的念后:

『只要我的心没以不执取而从诸烦恼解脱,我将不打破这盘腿!』

舍利弗!这样的比丘能辉耀沙罗树林园。」

《中部32经.牛角大经》[42]

这是佛陀在《牛角大经》所说。从这些文句看,一个人可以去除关于修行上身心疲累是否犯了过失的疑惑,尤其是很努力进行内观禅修、以及在禅修中不惜身心投入努力的人。大家只需要谨记,在禅修中全力以赴不能等同于犯了「自我折磨」,那是不正当地对待身体。大家必须要慎防虚假的禅修导师,不然就会被误导。

欲乐行与自虐苦行的分别

只有肤浅的正念、无法管制内心的修行,是修证内观的最低层次,因为它任由内心随意散乱,这其实是属于「欲乐行」(kāmasukkhallikānuyoga,放纵沉迷)。[177]比丘们应该努力脱离这样的状况,至少需要在进食的时候持续觉知(省察),进食并非为了享乐,而是获得体力让禅修得以进行。另外,努力修证观智而让身心感到疲累并不构成「自我折磨」(苦行)。苦行如果并没有增进戒、定、慧,只是裸体,在火或太阳之下弄热身体,或整天把身体浸在水中等就是「自我折磨」(attakilamathānuyoga)。

为了持守在家五戒、八戒、或者沙弥十戒、比丘戒而感到身心疲累,这并不构成「自我折磨」。这是跟随中道(八正道)的「戒道」(sīla magga)。致力于修行正定(samādhi),并不构成「自我折磨」。这是跟随中道的「定道」(samādhi magga)。持续不断地标记观照身心现象以证得内观智及道果智,也不构成「自我折磨」。这是中道的「慧道」(paññā magga)。[178]

奢摩他与毗婆舍那

中道的三个部分──戒、定、慧。戒的部分已经很清晰,不需要什么说明,其他两部分则必须要分辨。定是专注于某个特定目标,例如出入息(呼吸)。这仅是让心不散乱,使心稳定。当呼吸擦过鼻尖的时候,标记它的出、入,这是出入息奢摩他禅修(ānāpāna samatha-bhāvanā)。当一个人专注于出入息,便可以逐渐增进定力,心变稳定。同样地,透过其他「奢摩他业处」(samatha-kammaṭṭhāna,修止禅的方法),譬如思惟尸体的不净,也可以获得定力。

然而这样的定,并不能够辨识名色法,没有了解身心活动的智慧,以及无常、苦、无我的道理。奢摩他禅修只是增长定力。佛陀指导弟子们透过止禅的方法控制内心。[179]毗婆舍那(内观)则只发生在你专注六根门的活动并标记观照这些活动的时候。

应该做怎样的标记?标记应该以(观察)名色法的性质及作用、行法的持续生灭来进行。同时,行者要深入观察这些行法的无常、苦、无我性。透过敏锐地观察名色法的真实性质,这个人便是在修行内观禅法。那些没有懂得很清楚的人,会以为内观只是对一个事物进行标记。他们并不知道,标记涉及观察在持续变动的身心现象,而这种观察是需要透视到无常、苦、无我的。因此佛陀说,任何从六根门(或六入处)出现的现象,都应当要标记并审察。佛陀也讲了数以千计的法,教授透过内观调治内心。透过内观,人们可以知道根、尘、识之间的活动,以及它们的互动如何构成世间或生命界。[180]

不能跨界

界别之间是必不能够跨越的,例如智慧不能跨越戒律。某些人并没有真正懂得「处」(āyatana)的性质,但是他们从书本或课堂学到这些词汇,并过度地思惟这些二手知识。从这些伪知识,他们总会作出错误的结论。他们会争论瓜只是元素的聚合物,一只家禽也是。因此,他们说如果切割一颗瓜没有过失,切一只家禽也是没过失的。糖浆他们说只是水元素,烈酒也是。因此饮烈酒是没有过失的。两个人之间的皮肤接触是没有过失的,这纯粹只是「触」(phassa),因此男女之间的接触是没有过失的;正如接触床单或枕头一样。在佛陀时代,这类愚痴的论述也被一位名为阿栗叉的比丘所传扬。

阿栗叉的邪见

阿栗叉(Arittha)[43]质疑为什么在家人可以享受性欲而还可以证得初果,而僧人则被禁制这些欲乐;虽然僧人可以睡在软床上[181],而他们却不可以接触女性身体的软触,这些触感其实是一样的。

某些睿智及已证圣位的僧人以道理向他说明及劝他归到正见上,但他表示他说的是佛陀所教,也符合佛法。因此他被带到佛陀的跟前,当佛陀质问他,他表示这是佛陀所教导的,佛陀于是说自己不曾这样教导,并宣称阿栗叉是没有希望的人,不会证得道与果。就算如此,阿栗叉也不放弃他的见解。现在很多人像阿栗叉那样,我会说他们是阿栗叉的亲戚和后裔,他们仍然争论着其见解与佛陀相符。

现在,如果他们说糖浆与烈酒一样,两者都是液体,那么烈酒应该与尿液等同;他们会愿意喝尿液吗?如果他们说瓜与家禽一样,这样的话,那他们会愿意让自己的儿女像瓜和家禽那样被切割吗?[182]

如果说床单、枕头与女人的触感都是一样的,那他们愿意嫁娶床单与枕头一生一世吗?如果我们反问这些问题,答案是显然的。真正彻知触感性质的阿罗汉,以其睿智是从不跨越戒律的范畴的。只有那些智慧浅薄的人,会在戒律范畴以外来解说事情。他们不仅会这么说,而且还会进一步犯恶。如果他们这样做,他们就好像拿着热炭而想着它不是热的。业报是不会让他们逃之夭夭的,恶报将会恰如其分地适时呈现。因此这些手握热炭的人最终只会严重地灼伤。

绝不能跨过禅定

有的人说,正定是不需要的,一个人只需要思惟「慧道」的两个元素──正见、正思惟,并不需要观照生与灭。这是跨越了正定的范畴。事实上最好是证得禅那正定(jhanāsamādhi),但如果证不到[183],那他应该证得等同于近行定(upacāra-samādhi)的剎那定(khaṇika-samādhi)。不然,这便不是真正的观智(vipassanā paññā)。因此佛陀说:「比丘们修习正定。一位比丘以平稳的心得知实相。如何是得知实相?知道『眼』是无常、『色』是无常、『眼识』是无常。」

佛陀进一步说,一个人缺了「正见」,就缺乏「观智」。因此很清楚,没有正定,一个人将不能证得观智,也不能证得道果智。因此一个人可以确定,没有正定的智慧并非观智,而没有观智则不能证得涅槃。表面的智慧并不是佛教徒的专利,非佛教徒如果研究论典也可以获得。所以人们必须要透过修习内观,持续地观察标记根门现象的性质,以获得真实的智慧。

众生从六生起

有关于(有情)世间怎样生起,佛陀的回答是世间的存在基于六入处[184]。这意指所有构成世间的众生,其生起是基于六入处。

世间在六苦恼

有关于众生如何从六入处受到忧苦。佛陀回答「世间在六苦恼」。他是说众生是因为造作想满足这六入处,所以受到忧苦。根据对此经的注释书,外在的目标(六尘)撞击六入处而产生(六种)觉受[44]。依我的看法,这些诸如色、声、香、味、触、法的觉受引致「渴爱」,并导致众生受苦。我认为这是一个更好的说明。

人们总是致力于取得好看的东西、不论是有情或无情的,如果得不到,他们就会不断寻觅直到能够得到它们。当他们拥有这些东西,他们会致力于保存它们,及防止它们被散失或破坏。因此,人们正不断造作及受苦[45]。同样地,他们尝试取得其他感受和感官对象。譬如可意的声音[185]、好的味道、愉悦的触感、美好的愿景及想法。他们尝试让自己健康和长寿,以更久地享受这些觉受。

在致力于争取这些东西时,人们总会为自己及他人感到忧虑。虽然他们持续地作出努力尝试维持及保存这些觉受,但事情并没有如他们所愿地发生。危难会介入并破坏这些东西。在这样的情境下,人们感受到很大的痛苦,不只身体上还有心理上。这关乎的不只是人、还有天人。因为天人也是为了达到相近的目的而造作类似的努力。不要以为如果一个人以善行成为了天人后,就可以到达一个所有愿望皆可达成、此后不再需要有任何愿望的地方。也即是可以完全地被满足到。事实是,没有众生会满足于他们所被给予的,而且会永远要求更多。为了获得更多,就会付出更大的努力,而苦就随之而来了。

苦会从那些涉及以其他众生进行牲祭的行为[186]而来,造作的人抱持着可以从这行为获得功德的观念。如果一个人杀、盗或者是造作一些(恶业),而认为这可以导致他自身或者亲友的利益及快乐,他将会从这些行为感得苦报。不只这样,他将会堕落恶道。

享受这些感官对象并不会带来任何真正的快乐,这只会带来苦。譬如说,一个人在饱了之后还继续吃好吃的东西。吃好吃的最初很让人享受,但逐渐地那快感会下降,随之而来就是苦。其他感官也如此,如果一个人持续地看着好看的东西,他会觉得累,也就是苦;有时候某种恶心可能会出现。一个人也不会持续享受触感,只要过了某个享受的阶段,苦必然会出现。享乐只是暂时性的,它只能够短时间内遮掩内在的苦。造作,事实就是苦。[187]

雪山夜叉的提问(二)

‘‘Katamaṃ taṃ upādānaṃ, yattha loko vihaññati;

Niyyānaṃ pucchito brūhi, kathaṃ dukkhā pamuccati’’ [pamuñcati (syā.)].

(雪山夜叉与七岳夜叉)『世间执持而苦恼的是什么?

我问如何解脱,请告诉我如何离苦?』[46]

雪山夜叉问:「世尊,世间都受着苦,而众生受着报。是什么执取让人相信此是我、此是我的?请问怎样是解脱之道。佛陀请您告诉我如何可以彻底脱离诸苦?」

雪山夜叉问佛的第一个问题,是关于苦圣谛;第二个问题是关于离苦之道。

‘‘Pañca kāmaguṇā loke, manochaṭṭhā paveditā;

Ettha chandaṃ virājetvā, evaṃ dukkhā pamuccati.

(世尊)『世间有五欲功能,而称意是第六;

于此舍断这些贪欲,如此就能解脱苦。』[47]

佛陀回答说:「雪山夜叉,意是六入处的第六,它制造欲望及导致对其他五种感官的执取。」五种欲(pañca kāmaguṇā)[48]的意思是享受色、声、香、味、触。这些联结着相应的处:眼、耳、鼻、舌、身。意处也联结着对应的想法与情绪。

对于那些没有修习内观的人,任何他看到的对象,都会让他产生「我的眼睛在看」的观念。视力良好的年轻人,会说他的眼睛很好及清晰。但是视力不好的老年人,则会怨他的窘境。[188]不论是年轻人还是老年人,都会认为那视觉是他们的。这种是「我」的观念,扩展到全身及各部分,乃至个人的财物。这观念进而到男女的认知。「此身是我,我是此身。」看到一个美丽的人,然后喜欢他或她,想要拥有,一旦拥有了就想「此是我,是我所有」。所有这些(观念),都是意处的产物。

譬如说,你到一个市集察看展示中的裙子并选择所喜欢的东西,购买它们并想着它们都是你所有的。同样地,一个人看到另一个人,倾慕他或她的美貌,并希求得到那个人,想拥有那人的身体。在这里,有眼根、色尘、眼识;这是三个「处」,而且还有「执取」。「此是我、此是我的、我拥有它。」

同样的执取或迷恋,也应用于听、嗅、尝或触的情况。每样事物都是执取的对象。譬如说,你接触某个人及你知道那触感,然后你说:「我接触了他或她。」如果你感到热或肢体僵硬,你会说:「我感到热」,或「我感到我的肢体僵硬」。[189]

因此,佛陀说:「雪山夜叉,在世间有五种欲和意处,于六入处生渴爱,若舍断此渴爱,便必然可以脱离诸苦。」

构成执取及欲望的,是对事实的无知(即愚痴或无明),不知那是色尘(或色法)、看见的心及眼睛,均是「处」。这种无知如同疯狂。疯子的心是不平稳的,不能够分别善恶、有价值与无价值。他们不知道什么是有用的、有价值的,于是只保存无用的东西在自己的袋子里。你们曾经一定见过类似这样的疯子。所谓正常的人,如果在错误的观念引导下,同样都会做出这类行为的。

二次世界大战末,那些预示到日本在缅甸的侵略快将终结的人,在日本军票将变成废纸之前,购置了不少物品。那些看不到这趋势的人,却很欣然地接受这种钞票,以为这些钞票会继续有效。结果过了一两日,改变来了。那些军票成了废纸,持有者都蒙受损失。[190]

我年轻的时候,曾经接触到一些人把盆子装满沙,希望等到这些沙变成金;因为他们相信一位伪装成巫术大师的骗子的预言。这些人士实在是愚蠢和疯狂,因为他们分不清真相与谎言、好的和坏的。一旦他们的狂性被治愈,他们将会发现所着迷的东西是无意义的。

在佛陀时代,一位叫悦行(Paṭācārā)的女士疯癫非常。她不穿衣服到处走,虽然她神经错乱,却认为自己所做是好的和正确的。当她接近佛陀,佛陀透过教诫让她恢复清醒,她顿时意识到自己的情况,最后成为了一位阿罗汉。由于是拥有波罗蜜的人,悦行才能透过佛语,顿时明了自己是裸体的,她的羞愧心于是生起并遮掩身躯,坐下来倾听佛陀的教导。就在听经的时候她证取了须陀洹果。这是获得正见,断除无意义的观念的实际公案。[191]

刚才我所说的那些人,最后发现他们所着迷的东西是不值分文的,而他们却不能丢弃这些无价值的东西。那些时刻观照(当下)现象持续变化生灭的人,不会对一般人很爱惜的任何事物产生执取。

对摩罗迦子比丘的教导

当佛陀向一位名叫摩罗迦子的比丘开示时,他先问摩罗迦子比丘:

“Taṃ kiṃ maññasi, mālukyaputta,

ye te cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā adiṭṭhā adiṭṭhapubbā,

na ca passasi, na ca te hoti passeyyanti?

Atthi te tattha chando vā rāgo vā pemaṃ vā”ti?

“No hetaṃ, bhante”.

SN.35.95/(2). Mālukyaputtasuttaṃ

(世尊)「摩罗迦子!你怎么想:你对那些能被眼识知而未见过,

以前未曾见过、你未看见、你不可能看见的色,

有欲,或贪,或情爱吗?」(摩罗迦子)「不,大德!」

《相应部35相应.摩罗迦子经》[49]

现在假如我也问大家佛陀问摩罗迦子比丘的问题,你们都一样会给同样的答案。对一个你们不曾见过的人,你们是不可能对他产生爱、恨的感觉的,对吗?这些(不曾见过的)人是很多的[192],现在于数不尽的国家、城市、村镇中都有,你们是不可能对这些人有爱恨感的。对他们你不会有任何执取、渴爱或欲望。烦恼不会从不曾见过的现象产生的。这一点应当谨记。

在这样的情况,一个人不需要透过内观来去除烦恼。那事情根本没有发生,因为没有看的过程,也没有烦恼的生起。因此你不会获得功德、也不会有不善产生。

然而,对于曾经看见的东西,烦恼在看见的过程以及看了之后都可以发生,因为一个内心的影像会在记忆中保存,并在反思或回忆中,烦恼可以再产生。这些受染污的记忆被储存在随眠(anusaya)之中。这必须要以内观来根除。

在看时消除渴爱

“Ettha ca te, mālukyaputta, diṭṭhasutamutaviññātabbesu

dhammesu diṭṭhe diṭṭhamattaṃ bhavissati,

sute sutamattaṃ bhavissati, mute mutamattaṃ bhavissati,

viññāte viññātamattaṃ bhavissati. Yato kho te,

mālukyaputta, diṭṭhasutamutaviññātabbesu dhammesu

diṭṭhe diṭṭhamattaṃ bhavissati, sute sutamattaṃ bhavissati

mute mutamattaṃ bhavissati, viññāte viññātamattaṃ

bhavissati; tato tvaṃ, mālukyaputta, na tena. Yato tvaṃ,

mālukyaputta, na tena; tato tvaṃ, mālukyaputta na tattha.

Yato tvaṃ, mālukyaputta, na tattha; tato tvaṃ,

mālukyaputta, nevidha, na huraṃ, na ubhayamantarena.

Esevanto dukkhassā”ti.

SN.35.95/(2). Mālukyaputtasuttaṃ

「摩罗迦子!这里,在你所见、所听、所觉知、

所能了知的法上,在所见中将只有所见这么多;

在所听中将只有所听这么多;在所觉知中将只有所觉知这么多;

在所了知中将只有所了知这么多,摩罗迦子!

当在你所见、所听、所觉知、所能了知的法上,

在所见中将只有所见这么多;在所听中将只有所听这么多;

在所觉知中将只有所觉知这么多;在所了知中将只有所了知这么多时,

摩罗迦子!则你不被它如何如何,摩罗迦子!

当你不被它如何如何时,摩罗迦子!则你不在那里,

摩罗迦子!当你不在那里时,摩罗迦子!则你也不在这里、

不在其他地方、不在两者的中间,这就是苦的结束。」

《相应部35相应.摩罗迦子经》[50]

佛陀给摩罗迦子比丘的教导是「看只是看」(又译「见以见为量」,diṭṭhe diṭṭhamattaṃ bhavissati)[51],或观照当下。根据佛陀这个教导,一个人必须要标记观照「看到的为看到」,没有其他。这是该教导的基本意思。[193]

然而,就禅修而言,一个人必须要在任何现象生起的开始便作标记,或如实地觉知其发生的过程。一个人必须要作相应的标记。譬如说,行走的过程:提起、推移及放下,并觉察着每个动作的过程,其持续快速的生起与消逝。只有那些拥有较高观智的人,才能够清晰地觉察这连串的快速活动。如果一个人能够清晰及逐一地专注于每个现象,他将不会感到任何执取或渴爱。因此,渴爱便被驱除。

对于一些内观行者,听只是被观察为听,没有任何爱憎伴随它。有些人会报告说,他们感受到声音进入耳朵,并能够说出它是进入右耳或左耳。气味在快速地生起和消逝,而没有任何执取产生。品尝食物也如此。

触感是较为清晰地被标记的。腹部的起伏是明显的,刺痛和痛楚也是。身体的动作也是容易标记的[194],而在标记每个动作的过程时,可以免除任何执取和渴爱。对于散乱的心,这并非很难标记,一位有修行的禅修者的心很少处于散漫,而当心如此时,一般都会被发现并立刻带回所专注的对象上。因此渴爱便从心中去除。

有时候,内心会有诸如人、比丘、花园及很多其他东西的影像出现,他们只是幻想臆造出来的事物。只需要标记它们,就会很快消失,没有执取会产生。有时候,一个人仿佛听到天人或老师在说什么,但如果标记它,这听到的现象会消失,没有执取会产生。禅修者经验到这样的听觉现象,不应该错误地觉得欣喜。如果禅修者感到开心或欣喜,他应当立刻标记这心态,然后它将会消失。这是如何断除对想法或感受的渴爱。

‘‘Etaṃ lokassa niyyānaṃ, akkhātaṃ vo yathātathaṃ;

Etaṃ vo ahamakkhāmi, evaṃ dukkhā pamuccati’’.

(世尊)『于世间解脱,已如实解说,

我教导你,如是可以离苦。』[52]

这也是如何增长内观智的方法,并最后获得圣道智以及涅槃。[195]当内观智增强、智慧也会增长,因此执取的现起会被完全地去除。因此佛陀说烦恼会被完全地去除。佛陀说当「渴爱」被舍弃,离苦便肯定可以达到。

在听到佛陀这两个回答后,雪山及七岳夜叉及眷属均证得初果须陀洹。那年轻的名叫卡利的女人,在仅仅听到两位夜叉的对话时,竟在他们获得初果前,先一步证得初果。他们理应可以证取最究竟的四果阿罗汉圣位,然而他们的因缘仅能让他们获取初果而已。[196]

第五讲完

第六讲

雪山夜叉的提问(三)

这是此经的最后一讲。本经的关注重点,在于雪山夜叉向佛陀提的三个问题。雪山夜叉在早前听到佛陀对第二个问题的回答,便证得初果。但为了尊敬法,他提出第三个问题:

‘‘Ko sūdha tarati oghaṃ, kodha tarati aṇṇavaṃ;

Appatiṭṭhe anālambe, ko gambhīre na sīdati’’.

(雪山夜叉与七岳夜叉)『谁于此渡过瀑流?

谁于此渡过海洋?谁不于深处沉溺,无所攀缘亦无住立处?』[53]

雪山夜叉说:「世尊,在这个世间,谁能够游出这个瀑流呢?」在无尽的生命链,也就是轮回中,有一条流动速度甚快的瀑流,称为烦恼流[54]。有谁能够很善巧地逃出此瀑流呢?雪山夜叉之后再以譬喻说谁能够离开这个水底很深的轮回之渊。

轮回,一条没有中断过的生命之流、一连串的五蕴生灭,恰像一条快速流动、宽广而深的河流,或者说是一个巨大的深潭。[197]无论一个人多会游泳,他都很难游离它。雪山夜叉继续说:「显然这是深不见底的,水面又没有任何可以依靠的东西,谁能够逃离这个深渊之潭呢,世尊?」

佛陀对这个问题作出以下的回答:

‘‘Sabbadā sīlasampanno, paññavā susamāhito;

Ajjhattacintī [ajjhattasaññī (syā. kaṃ. ka.)] satimā,

oghaṃ tarati duttaraṃ.

(世尊)『于一切时具戒、善入定而有慧者,

正念而内思惟,能渡过难度的瀑流。』[55]

「雪山夜叉,一个人的戒行清净和圆满、定力坚固、不错失对任何身心活动的觉知、具备高阶的世间与出世间的智慧,它将会游出这个一般人无法逃出的轮回之流。」这是佛陀对雪山夜叉提问的初分回答。

爱欲之流

(让人)快乐的对象会招引欲贪(kāma)及执取,这被喻为瀑流,称为「欲瀑流」(kāma-ogha)。[198]那些缠绕在欲贪、欲望及执取的众生,均被称为沉溺在欲瀑流中。那些喜欢和想要得到欲贪的对象的,不论是视、听、嗅、尝、触、男女、各类财物,都会作出努力去获得及拥有它们。一旦他们拥有这些东西,就会投放更大的努力去保护及维持这些拥有物。

他们会造作偷盗、谋杀、抢劫、欺骗、通奸等以获得这些爱贪的对象。由于他们作了这些过失,将会堕落地狱及其他恶趣。这就是所谓沉溺在轮回的海洋中。有另一些人行善,以此得生人、天等界,他们沉醉于拥有福报。这也被称为沉溺在轮回的海洋中。因为生在人天界预示着老、死,他们必将无法免除忧悲苦恼。这的确是沉溺在轮回的海洋中。

有之流

执取于「有」(bhāva,生命/存在),被称为沉溺于有瀑流(bhāva-ogha)之中。[199]有的人想要投生到高级的生命界,譬如「色有」(rūpa bhāva)、「无色有」(arūpa bhāva),并相应地修证「色界禅那」(rūpa-jhāna)和「无色界禅那」(arūpa-jhāna)。当他们到达这些高级生命界,所获得的寿命非常的长,数以劫(kappa)计[56],但他们并非永生的。他们还是会死亡,某些会投生人界或其他欲界天,在这些地方还是受苦所缚。他们仅得到短暂的苏息,并非从轮回的业链中出离。

邪见之流

在邪见之瀑流(diṭṭhi-ogha,见瀑流)中流转屡见不鲜。有很多种见[57],某类见是部分族群以及地区社群所持有。总括而言,见可以分为两类:一批人相信所有众生都是(灵魂)不灭的,这称为「常见」(sassata-diṭṭhi)。另一批相信众生死后永灭的,则称为「断见」(uccheda-diṭṭhi)。这些拥戴断见的人,不畏造恶,也不认为需要行善。只要避开法律制裁的罪行,他们可以肆意做喜欢做的行为。他们相信自己并不需要为此生所作的行为付出代价,因为对他们而言,[200]已经没有来生。这些人可能会堕落地狱及其他恶道,因为他们在此生所作的行为多数不会善。这就是跟随错误道路而招致恶果的例子。

今天有的人颠倒佛陀的教法,并建议信众不需要行善、不要禅修,不然他们会有不良后果。他们的信众很大可能只会作恶,大部分都会投生恶道。

这些相信众生(死后)不灭的,虽然会造作一些他们认为好的行为,但是其中会有例如仪式中进行动物牲祭,按他们所信而行。这些在错误观念下造作的不善行,将会带造作者堕入地狱。这如同吃错了药而让身体生病。又有的人相信只要他们对自己的神有信心,他们可以做任何事情,不论善恶都一样会获得赦免。

有的人祭拜太阳、月亮、山岳、精灵或神祇;也有的人相信如果他们饿其体肤、裸露身躯、曝晒太阳下、浸在水中,就可以解脱于苦恼[201];有的人相信如果他们把心处于闲着的状态就可以解脱。

可是,一个人如果没有用心努力及正确的修习,他如何能够取得戒、定、慧呢?所有不能导向轮回解脱的宗教修持,都是属于所谓「戒禁取见」(sīlabbata-parāmāsa-diṭṭhi)。这类信仰的追随者永远不能从轮回的漩涡中逃出来。他们会沉溺于轮回之流中,经历长时间的生死,这是十分可怕的。

无明之流

接着是无明瀑流(avijjā-ogha),意思是对四圣谛的无知。人们将「苦」认作「乐」,这是不知道苦的真相(苦圣谛,dukkha sacca)。所有从身心生起的活动均是苦的,然而大部分人都认为,他们想看到的影像、听到的声音、嗅到的味道、尝到的食物、接触到的感觉、想到的想法,全部都是好的。这种思维是无明(avijjā)或愚痴(moha)所引致。[202]喜欢这些现象的是渴爱,执着它们是执取(upādāna),付出努力想要获得想要的对象是善、恶行为。基于善恶行为,众生就会不停重生。所有三十一界的众生[58],都是基于无明而起。这个无明瀑流覆盖地狱的最底处,乃至有顶(bhavagga,天界的最高处)。在《广授本生》(Bhūridatta Jataka)及《瞻波龙王本生》(Campeyya Jātaka)所载,有提及菩萨(未来的佛陀)由于想要成为龙王,认为这种存在形态是好的,于是投生为龙。这无明瀑流实在是非常可怕。

要超越这些瀑流是不容易的,一个人必须要有游出瀑流的能力。这是为什么雪山夜叉问佛陀,谁能够逃出这些瀑流。在回答这个问题的时候,佛陀说明了一位成功泳者的资格。

成功泳手的第一个资格

佛陀所说的第一个成功泳者应该有的资格是圆满清净戒律。[203]这是一个非常重要的资格。因此佛陀把它放在首位。深信佛陀教法的人,必须相信一点,只有时刻具备净戒的人,他才能跨越四大瀑流和证得涅槃。某些人会引述山达地大臣(Santati)的个案,他在死前证得涅槃,而那时候「其口中的烈酒味还没有消失」,人们便问这如何算时刻具备净戒。其实,只有非常少的个案,我说只有十万分之一的机会(出现此情况)。这些人本身已具备了非常高阶的波罗密。就是佛陀的时代,这样的人是稀有的。佛陀清楚了解他们及其所具备的波罗密。

就最初期证果的弟子——五比丘(pañca vaggi)而言,只有阿若侨陈如在《转法轮经》宣说的第一日证初果。其他四位比丘需要额外修行最多四日,才依次得证初果。他们不是每个人都具备等量的波罗密。波罗密存在层次深浅的差异是应该注意的。[204]有的人能够在听一次经的时候证得法,但这些人是少数的,其他人随其对应的波罗密,需要努力修习数小时、数日、数月、数年不等才获得。

现在佛说于一切时具净戒,「一切时」的意思是从开始修行佛法的一刻算起的全部修行时间。只有这样,一个人才会感到欢喜,因为全程都戒清净,而这样的成就感会带来正定。不然,如果他对自己的戒律感到怀疑,这将障碍获得定力圆满的进度。

没有正定则不可能获得观智,没有观智则难以证得道、果智。就一位在家人而言,他必须要具备五戒;对一位僧人而言,则是具备「别解脱戒」(pāṭimokkha sīla)。戒律是第一个要求,想要游出四大瀑流的人必须要具备的资格。[205]

第二个资格

第二个资格是定。意思是具备净戒之后,一个人必须要努力获得正定及禅定。这表示一个人需要努力证得全部四禅八定(安止定),或证得其中之一二。这是就比较高阶的弟子众而言。如果一个人无法证得安止定(appanā-samādhi),他必须努力证得近行定(upacāra-samādhi)或其相等程度的刹那定(khaṇika-samādhi),也即是毗婆舍那定,这是具备心清净(citta visuddhi)的最低要求。有了这种定,他便能够证得涅槃。不然将无法取得此目标。

第三个资格

第三个资格是智慧。智慧只能透过观照身心现象的活动才可以获得。一个人只有向内标观照记身心现象,才可以获得对它们的持续活动及发生过程的真实智慧。一个人怎样可以透过标记观照他人的身心现象活动,来获得真实的智慧?[206]你可能觉得一个人是开心的,然而事实是他可能处于伤感的情绪中。同样地,你可能认为一个人在行善,但是他其实是准备在做恶事的。这只有本人才能够清楚知道。如果一个人标记观照自身所发生的现象,他将会了解到实质是什么。对自身的身心活动的现象做标记观照并不困难,只需要在它们快速生起和消逝的时候,标记观照那个现象便可以。

不要随便轻率地谈「一法」

证得禅那的人,必须要标记观照禅那的状态本身,以及所有从见、闻等活动所生起的现象。这些混合的现象被称为pakiṇṇaka(「杂」的意思)。那些没有证得禅那的人,必须要标记观照从见、闻等活动所生起的现象。事实上,他们必须要标记身心的活动。某些人说如实标记现象的生起,会导致定力的减退。[207]他们说这有违「一法」(eko dhammo)的观念。这类人并不了解毗婆舍那禅修的操作。事实上,毗婆舍那并不意指专注在单一的对象上;它是对所有身心行为与活动的标记观照。如果一个人不对它们作标记,他可能会把它们看成是永恒的、能带来快乐及代表我。这些迷惑性思惟将带来业力,并导致新一轮的存在。毗婆舍那是希望去除这些结果,透过对现象的标记,体解无常、苦、无我。佛陀说所有现象必须要以内观来观察。

在巴利经论中,基本是找不到「一法」这个词的提及,除了在《长部34经.十增经》(Dasuttarasuttaṃ)和《增支部.第一集》提到这个词[59],但是其意思并非某些人草率认为的那样。它的意思是指一个人应坚持修习某个禅修的方法,在经中提及最多「十法」。草率地谈「一法」这个词而没有了解它的正当意思和用意,是应当劝止的。

透过对当下生起的身心现象作标记[208],因而获得正定。因为观察到名法、色法的分别、及深入了解因果的性质,便获得智慧。毗婆舍那在深刻观察到无常、苦、无我的时候便证得,而当观智被获得及进一步培养,便将渐次证得圣道。一个证得圣道的人,就是能够游出轮回强大瀑流的人。这是佛陀对雪山夜叉问题的回答。

现在我会说明怎样游出这些瀑流的方法,以利益那些仍然需要进一步解说的人。如果一个人透过「须陀洹道智」证知涅槃,他会被称为已渡过「见瀑流」。这是为什么须陀洹去除了对「我」的迷执,没有了相信一个众生是(灵魂)不灭的邪见,也就是「常见」;也没有了相信众生死后身心永灭的邪见,也就是「断见」。他也去除了称为「戒禁取见」的邪见[209],认为不需要修习戒、定、慧,只需要造作一些心灵练习(譬如闲着),便可以获得解脱。

一位须陀洹圣者对佛、法、僧的信心是不坏的,并深信必须修习戒定慧。只有那些没有证得须陀洹果的人,无法对其信仰下决心,并到处寻找导师;更甚者走进邪教领袖的阵地,然后在轮回的漫长道路上受很多苦。就一位须陀洹圣者而言,他永远不会偏离正道,并在不多于七世内,彻底解脱一个众生所受的诸苦。因此很清楚,如果一个人能够游出见瀑流,他将会获得巨大利益。

经过进一步修习,证入更深阶位的涅槃,也就是达到了「斯陀含道智」。一个人便能够削弱「欲瀑流」的力量,但并没有完全消除它。一个人必须继续努力禅修[210],只有当他证得「阿那含道智、果智」的时候,他才会彻底地去除「欲瀑流」。对他而言,根本没有所谓贪欲,他不会想要任何东西:没有希求、没有期待或热切的渴求。因此,他处于很快乐的心境,远离一切由贪欲导致的苦,但是他仍需越过「有瀑流」。

证得「阿那含道智」的禅修者,必须要继续禅修,直至他证得最成熟的观智——阿罗汉道智。然后他便游出「有瀑流」。对他而言,不会有再生。那时候他已成功地越过轮回的四瀑流,走出它了。

佛陀的答案

‘‘Virato kāmasaññāya, sabbasaṃyojanātigo;

Nandībhavaparikkhīṇo, so gambhīre na sīdati’’.

(世尊)『已离弃贪欲想,超越一切结缚,

对三有的喜乐灭尽无余,他不于深处沉溺。』

 

‘‘Gabbhīrapaññaṃ nipuṇatthadassiṃ,

akiñcanaṃ kāmabhave asattaṃ;

Taṃ passatha sabbadhi vippamuttaṃ,

dibbe pathe kamamānaṃ mahesiṃ.

(世尊)『看!他具甚深智慧,看到微妙的目标,

不着于有乐,究竟解脱,这位大仙人走上梵行的道路。』[60]

佛陀说:「雪山夜叉啊,超越一切结使(saṃyojanā)的缠缚,清除了自身欲望的阿罗汉圣者,永不沉溺于轮回海的深渊。常保持无所住着,处于究竟乐的状态。」[211]

根据佛陀回答的第一部分,那持续地禅修的人证得最终极的阶位,并成为一位阿罗汉。对他而言,不会有再生,彻底地出离了轮回。然而,一名阿那含也已经越过多条瀑流,并准备全部逃出。斯陀含圣者最多不超过两次再生便解脱。须陀洹亦最多只会再有七生需要经历。这四类圣者,全部都已经关闭地狱等恶趣之门。

对一个凡夫而言,他是没有保证不堕地狱的,纵然他曾经作过一些善行。对这些人而言,轮回是一个可怕的海洋,其中没有任何东西可以抓住,或避难(皈依处),让自己可以浮起来。现在就是努力解脱于轮回海——三十一种存在世间的时候了。

《雪山夜叉经》的经文讲解快到了尾声。现在只剩下雪山夜叉他们对佛陀的敬礼赞颂:

‘‘Anomanāmaṃ nipuṇatthadassiṃ, paññādadaṃ kāmālaye asattaṃ;

Taṃ passatha sabbaviduṃ sumedhaṃ, ariye pathe kamamānaṃ mahesiṃ.

(雪山夜叉与七岳夜叉)『看!他具有大名称,看见微妙的目标,

不着于五欲,一切知,非常聪敏,大仙人走上圣路。』

‘‘Sudiṭṭhaṃ vata no ajja, suppabhātaṃ suhuṭṭhitaṃ;

Yaṃ addasāma sambuddhaṃ, oghatiṇṇamanāsavaṃ.

(雪山夜叉与七岳夜叉)『我们今天已如实见到,它明白照耀与升起,

我们见到世尊,渡过瀑流,究竟诸漏。』

‘‘Ime dasasatā yakkhā, iddhimanto yasassino;

Sabbe taṃ saraṇaṃ yanti, tvaṃ no satthā anuttaro.

(雪山夜叉与七岳夜叉)『这些着名的、具神通的一千夜叉,

都归依你,你是我们无可比拟的导师。』[61]

在听了佛陀的法语,明了到世尊的大智慧后,雪山夜叉怀着十分的恭敬心,向着诸天众,千位夜叉[212],均是他和七岳夜叉的常随众,促请他们礼敬佛陀。他对诸夜叉说,佛陀具有甚深及圆满的智慧,远离一切渴爱,是已经走过阿罗汉圣道的大觉者,大家应该礼敬皈依他。之所以这么说,是因为雪山夜叉礼敬了佛陀以及听过佛的说法,那时刚好是佛陀证悟之初。说完后,他们转向了佛陀,雪山夜叉领众说:「我们千位天界夜叉,至心敬礼和皈依于您,世间最尊贵的导师。」这千名夜叉的得法因缘,可以追溯自他们的过去故事。

雪山夜叉的往昔因缘

在过去,迦叶佛(kassapa buddha)入涅槃后,他的舍利被供养在一个巨大的金塔内。那时候,有两个人在佛陀的教法期内,加入了僧团,他们是出于自愿和高尚志愿而出家的。事实上有两种出家人(pabbajita):一、依信出家者(saddhā pabbajita) ,他们出家进入僧团是出于自愿和高尚的志愿。二、因畏惧而出家者(bhaya pabbajita),他们出家是因为害怕惩罚[213],不想接受法律制裁。前者是僧团的真正侍者,而后者则是败坏者,如果没有施予适当指导,将削弱及破坏僧团。一位僧人有两大类的责任:第一类教理,学习及最终教授佛法典籍;第二类实修,修习禅法以达致佛法的成就。

在释迦牟尼佛的时代有众多比丘,从最初的五比丘,全都成为阿罗汉。乃至富翁之子耶舍(Yasa)和他的五十四位朋友、优楼频螺迦叶(Uruvelā Kassapa)所带领的千名外道、及后来的舍利弗、目犍连和他们的二百五十名徒众。他们全部都修行佛法并成为阿罗汉。

还有就是富家子受那尊者(Soṇa,又名二十亿耳,精进第一),用尽全力修习佛法。他是一位非常温柔、和善的人。他从不会赤脚走在泥地上。因此他的脚底都长满幼小的毛。当这位温柔的人出家进入僧团后[214],为了解脱轮回诸苦,他决意努力修习一位比丘的责任。然而,一个问题出现,他用尽全力地修习。在禅修的时候,他来回在走道上赤脚行禅,由于他的脚非常软和嫩,很快便起水泡和流血。整条走道都布满了血迹。然而,他没有放弃。只是他仍没有证得圣法。后来他感到沮丧并想着离开僧团[62]。他认为自己并没有足够的波罗密所以无法证悟佛法。于是佛陀来到他的面前,并指导他不要过紧也不要过松,这才是跟随中道。尊者按佛陀的教导修习,很快证得阿罗汉的果位。在佛陀的时代,有数之不尽的人证得阿罗汉、阿那含、斯陀含和须陀洹圣位;他们都做到了佛陀所期许的,透过禅修获得佛法的成就。

回到那两位(在迦叶佛教法时代)出家的比丘,他们自己想着,那些修行佛法的人很多[215],而他们还年轻,应当先研习佛法圣典。他们计划年老了才修习佛法。因此很努力地学习佛法典籍,两人均成为三藏大师,教授五百比丘各类佛法典籍并成为了著名的老师。

现在我们来探讨一下这两位比丘所做的决定,他们便是后来的雪山夜叉和七岳夜叉。他们决定要在年轻的时候研究佛法,并在老年才修习它。谁能够保证一个人不会年轻时死?如果他年轻就死去,那么就失去修习法的机会。佛陀的意愿是希望所有人都能够在年轻的时候便修习法(禅修)。

Yo have daharo bhikkhu, yuñjati buddhasāsane;

somaṃ lokaṃ pabhāseti, abbhā muttova candimā.

比丘虽年少,勤行佛陀教,彼辉耀此世,如月出云翳。

《法句经.比丘品第二十五.三八二偈》[63]

佛陀说:「如佛教中,若有比丘于年少时,欲取道果,修行佛法,觉诸世间同其五蕴,如空中月,出于云翳,照耀世间。」这个人修习内观[216],觉察他自身的世间(五蕴),犹如月亮照耀着整个世界。

首先他以标记腹部起伏活动开始修习,然后初步了解身心现象的真实性质,随着标记观照的持续,他了解名蕴(nāmakkhanda),并明白无常、苦、无我的甚深实相。当他的修行进步,他的观智深化并觉察到其世间,又称名色法、五蕴。

有的人会问,在年老的人这种证悟是否可能。当然这是可能的,但是在老年,证悟可能会较慢地出现。年岁会使身心感官衰弱。一个三十岁的人可能在一个月内取证圣果,而一名六、七十岁的人可能要两、三个月。这个差异在于身心的健康壮健,以及处于较多担忧和焦虑。年轻人的脑筋比较敏锐而老人在退化中。老人多数有更多需要担忧的事情。因此佛陀称赞那些年轻就禅修的人。

 

就比丘而言,新出家的比丘尽早开始禅修比较好[217],因为他们都年轻和敏锐,信心也更强。他们的戒行也是没有疑惑和缺失的。无可否认,学习佛法典籍是重要的,但年轻比丘应当在最初(出家)的三个月禅修。当然这是我个人的建议。很可能当时那两位比丘(雪山和七岳夜叉的前生),在未及老年之前便逝去。他们似乎没有机会实修佛法。

这两位比丘,获得弟子们很高的崇敬,无论是比丘还是在家居士都恭敬他们,当时佛陀教法处于盛世。那时候,某寺内有两位比丘,一位严格地遵从僧团戒律,另一位则放荡不守戒法。当那位良好的修行者指出后者的过失时,他不接受那些谏言。前者告诉他,待自恣日(pavāraṇā)[64]的来临。

所有比丘均有责任在安居结束日出席自恣的仪式。他们会相互邀请,指出彼此的过失或者僧团的安排。[218]这个仪式每年都在解夏节(缅历七月德丁卒,Thadingyut)的月圆日举行,也就是点灯日。那些被指出行为上过失的人,会感谢那些指出他们问题的人,并承诺会在未来更小心。这个自恣仪式,是为了保持佛陀教法的清净和无损。佛陀制定了这个仪式为必须要出席。

一个人应该感谢指出他问题和过失的人。因为这些谏言提供一个改错的机会。一名僧人犯戒(又名罪,āpatti)是远比一名在家人的犯戒更为严重。如果一名僧人在死前不知道他所曾有的罪,他便没有机会改过,因而会堕落地狱。如果他知道所犯的罪,并相应地作出改正,他的戒会变得清净,而如果在那清净的时刻实践法,他将取得高阶的智慧。如果他那时候死去,他也会投生到相对快乐的世界。佛陀说:「那些善意指出他人的过失的善人,会受到其他善人所爱敬[219];但他们则被邪恶的人所厌恶。」

那位放荡比丘对那位严守戒律的比丘的谏言不表认同,于是后者便告诉前者,将会把事情向长老比丘们报告。那位放荡比丘害怕被逐出僧团,因此他前往亲近长老比丘们(雪山和七岳夜叉的前生),供养他们僧衣及钵,以及礼敬他们,并为长老做一些服务并表现得谦卑。长老比丘问他有什么事,于是他说跟同寺的道友就其行为起了争执,并请他们在报告来到的时候,可以就裁决留有余地。长老比丘们说,他们不能够暗中处理任何报告的个案。然而,那位放荡比丘却继续要求。由于他们已经收了那位比丘的礼物和接受了他的服务,于是在处理他的案子时感到有所亏欠。他们于是答应说会在案子来的时候,把它压下去。这样子,当然就是贪污和徇私不公了。

当这位放荡比丘得到允许,于是回到寺里,并以傲慢对待他的同胞。那位具备信心的比丘产生了疑惑,并做了一些私下调查。他在想着这宗案子送去长老比丘们那边,为何会延迟处理。他接触长老比丘的弟子们,但是他们沉默无语。[220]

那位放荡比丘越来越肆无忌惮,他质问那位守戒比丘关于这个案子并无礼地挑衅他。他说:「这案子你输了,你不要再留在这寺里。去别的地方,不要再跟我同住。」那位守戒比丘于是询问长老比丘这件个案,并获得一个让人无法满意的回复。这些长老比丘本来是诚实的,然而由于他们收了那坏比丘的恩惠,于是偏离了诚信之道。

这位年轻的守戒比丘喊道:「因为迦叶佛入涅槃了,你们两名比丘,是长老并且博学,被人们视为是另一位佛陀。然而你们却允许自己就僧团戒律的案子,作下不适当的裁决。佛陀的教法已腐烂、被败坏了。」诚如所言,这样的腐败行为是让人痛心的。

这两位长老比丘,在听到那位年轻比丘的指摘后,顿感后悔,而这个良心上的刺,纵使经历多生,仍然不断持续着。虽然多年来服务僧团,教导了众多弟子佛法和戒律直至命终,他们始终不能够对自身的诚信去除疑惑[221]。所以后来,他们成为了欲界天的夜叉,居于喜马拉雅山,不然他们应当因为这些伟大的贡献,而投生到较高的天界。一位成为了雪山夜叉,另一位成为了七岳夜叉。他们都是相对高阶的夜叉,拥有指挥夜叉军的地位。在俱毗罗(Kuvera,即四大天王的多闻天王)统领之下,有二十八位这样的夜叉大将,包括他们两位[65]。虽然他们未必如其它天众般拥有美貌,在天界的夜叉,是远比普通夜叉优越的。

雪山夜叉及七岳夜叉忏悔了过去生的不善行,并对于被一位恶比丘收买的缺失感到羞耻。他们说自己为迦叶佛的教法所作的长期功德和奉献,本应把他们送到高级的天界,然而却很失望地看到某些曾受他们教导的在家弟子,竟然投生到较高级的世界,而他们却被迫取得较低的位置。他们于是彼此许下诺言,若有大消息(例如圣贤出世),便立刻通知对方[222]。为了遵守这个诺言,七岳夜叉立刻赶赴雪山夜叉之处,告知他佛陀乔达摩第一次说法的好消息。

他们已经活了很长的时间,并在多劫之后,终于等到佛陀乔达摩的出世。距今两千五百多年前,在五月的月圆日佛陀说了第一次的法——《转法轮经》。那是给五比丘的说法,数以千计的天众出席听经。正如我在讲此经的最初部分,七岳夜叉在法会中找不到他的朋友雪山,因此七岳急着告诉他这个大消息。

‘‘Te mayaṃ vicarissāma, gāmā gāmaṃ nagā nagaṃ;

Namassamānā sambuddhaṃ, dhammassa ca sudhammata’’nti.

Hemavatasuttaṃ navamaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ.

(雪山夜叉和七岳夜叉)『我们从村到村,

从山到山,尊崇世尊与正法。』

雪山夜叉经(完)[66]

雪山夜叉在听到佛陀说法之后,非常欢喜,从村至村、从山至山,在天界的国境宣告佛陀、正法和圣僧的出世。

《雪山夜叉经》经已讲完。愿所有听众(和读者)能够透过精勤跨越轮回的四大瀑流,并证得涅槃的解脱法乐。[223]

善哉!善哉!善哉!

  1. 方括弧[ ]上标为英译本原页码。
  2. 《小部尼柯耶.经集.蛇品第九经》(Hemavata Sutta, Uragavaggo, Suttanipātapāḷi, Khuddakanikāye)
  3. 英国培沙罗比丘(Bhikkhu Pesala)的修订本指,此书的英译者把「雪山夜叉与七岳夜叉」描述为「天神」(Deva),而巴利文本则说两人实为地居的守护神明(guardian spirits)──「夜叉」(Yakkhas)。汉译《杂阿含1329经》的翻译亦作「天神」,中译者按这应该是因为夜叉属于四天王之中北方毗沙门天所管辖,通属地居天神一类。不过,此处全书均会译作「夜叉」,以兹分别。
  4. 按培沙罗比丘的修订本加入「黎明」。
  5. 由于英译原文没有加入经文,今按文章段落补入巴利原文及中译经文。巴利原文取自CSCD版,中译经文取自苏锦坤《雪山夜叉经》──巴利经典与汉译经典的附件,刊于《正观杂志》第四十八期/二ΟΟ九年三月二十五日。
  6. 英译原文作「hermits in samatha and vipassanā」,意思是修习「奢摩他和毗婆舍那的隐士」。中译根据培沙罗比丘的修订本,将「毗婆舍那」的字眼删除,因为按传统说法,毗婆舍那是只有佛陀才通达的教法,而马哈希尊者在别的地方也曾经提及毗婆舍那的教法,唯有在佛法存在的时期才有,因此应是英译的错误。
  7. 补入经文。有的译本将「他是否能自在地思惟」译作「善于控制自己的思想」。按Concise P-E Dictionary,巴利语「vasīkata」的意思是受制(subjected)或受某人的力量所驾驭(brought under one’s power)。
  8. 补入经文。
  9. 此典故出自《中部尼柯耶‧八十二经‧护国经》
  10. 在这里对英译本的内容做一个补充。婆罗门玛甘迪(Magandhi)的女儿玛甘迪雅(Magandiya)据说是一位很美丽的女人,王亲贵族都想娶她为妻,但她的父母想把她嫁给佛陀,然而,在听过佛的开示后,她的父母立刻证得阿那含果,不久后更出家成为阿罗汉。不过,玛甘迪雅却因被拒婚而感到羞辱,后来常常与佛陀及其弟子为敌。
  11. 补入经文。
  12. 补入经文。
  13. 译者按《阿毗达摩概要精解》相关内容补充:1、自然离(sampattavirati)是由于省思自己的社会地位、年纪、教育程度等等,而在有机会造恶时不造恶。例如在考虑了被捉到时于自己的名誉有损而不偷盗。2、持戒离(samādānavirati)是由于持了戒而不造恶。例如持五戒:不杀生、不偷盗、不邪淫、不妄语、不饮酒或服用麻醉品。3、正断离(samucchedavirati)是与出世间道心相应的离,它完全根除了造恶的倾向。
  14. 原文指是Dhammādāsa Sutta──《法镜经》,然而经查,内容应该是来自《长部16经.大般涅槃经》的其中一段关于法镜教法的内容。
  15. 中译按:奢摩他禅定(samatha jhāna)及毗婆舍那禅定(vipassanā jhāna)亦可以译作「止禅的禅定」及「观禅的禅定」。禅定(jhāna)亦有译作「禅那」。
  16. 中译按:这一段落根据英国Bhikkhu Pesala所编辑版本翻译,较原英译文句更顺畅及精确。
  17. 补入经文。
  18. 补入经文。
  19. 巴利语sugata,梵语同。为佛号之一。音译作修伽陀、苏揭多、修伽多。又作善去、善解、善说无患、好说、好去。
  20. 补入经文。
  21. 补入经文。
  22. 译按:又称智眼。
  23. 译按:佛经常见的字句「远离尘垢,得法眼净」(virajaṃ vītamalaṃ dhammacakkhuṃ udapādi),便是指证得须陀洹果的意思。
  24. 译按:这是指一种没有不善心的多世形成的习惯。
  25. 补入巴利及汉译经文。
  26. 补入巴利及汉译经文。
  27. 这是三分法,另可加入「有漏」(bhāvāsava)成四种。
  28. 译按:典故出自《小部‧户外经》(Tirokuṭṭasutta)及其注释。
  29. 译按:可参考《相应部19相应‧勒叉那相应》诸经。
  30. 关于佛陀证得三明的具体过程,可以参考《中部36‧萨遮迦大经》。
  31. 补入《法句经‧心品第三‧偈颂35》经文。
  32. 译按:印度古代一日划分为「六时」:初日分、中日分、后日分;初夜分、中夜分、后夜分。每一时为现代的四个小时。
  33. 补入巴利及汉译经文。
  34. 补入巴利及汉译经文。
  35. 补入巴利及汉译经文。
  36. 补入巴利及汉译经文。
  37. 补入巴利及汉译经文。
  38. 补入巴利及汉译经文。
  39. 补入巴利及汉译经文。
  40. 读者在此,应留意「十二处」中的内六处与外六处,在对应「十八界」的六根与六尘是存在微细分别的。在《阿毗达摩概要精解》中提到:「十二处是另一个整体的分类法。这分类法从与识的所缘,分析一切各别法:首五处与五净色相同;第七至第十一处则与五根所缘相同。然而,属于第六项的意处的范围则比意门更为广泛;它相等于整个识蕴,即包括了所有的八十九种心。法处并不相等于法所缘;它只包括不属于其他十一处的各别法。如此,它不包括五根所缘、五净色、及相等于意处的诸心。它也不包括概念法,因为处所辨识的只是究竟法,即拥有自性而存在之法,并不包括由概念组成而存在之法。法处包括了五十二心所、十六微细色及涅槃。」同书另外指出:「把十二处的意处分成七个识界,即得十八界。」也即是说,眼识至意识(看见、听到、尝到等六种感官的认知)都包含在「意处」的定义当中,因此后文提到的看见、听到等认知,都是在指意处。
  41. 意思是「无益的苦行」。
  42. 补入巴利及汉译经文。
  43.  详细请参考《中部22经.蛇譬喻经》(Alagaddūpamasuttaṃ)
  44. 《杂阿含经》第304经:「何等为『六内入处』?谓眼入处、耳入处、鼻入处、舌入处、身入处、意入处。何等为『六外入处』?色入处、声入处、香入处、味入处、触入处、法入处。云何『六识身』?谓眼识身、耳识身、鼻识身、舌识身、身识身、意识身。云何『六触身』?谓眼触、耳触、鼻触、舌触、身触、意触。云何『六受身』?谓眼触生受、耳触生受、鼻触生受、舌触生受、身触生受、意触生受。云何『六爱身』?谓眼触生爱、耳触生爱、鼻触生爱、舌触生爱、身触生爱、意触生爱。
  45. 在此段文中,「造作」、「致力于某行为」等均译为同义词,英文是make efforts。
  46. 补入巴利及汉译经文。
  47. 补入巴利及汉译经文。
  48. 庄春江居士注:由「眼耳鼻舌身」等五根所引发的「五种欲」,南传作「五种欲」(pañca kāmaguṇā),菩提比丘长老英译为「五束感官快乐」(five cords of sensual pleasure)。按:「种类」(guṇa),另译为「功德」,但与「福德」(puñña,也译为「功德」)不同,巴利经典中只出现在「五种欲」中,这里应只是单纯的「种类」的意思。
  49. 补入巴利及汉译经文,庄春江居士译本。
  50. 补入巴利及汉译经文,庄春江居士译本。要和马哈希尊者的开示对照,需要文法和法义上更精准的译本,可以参看此网站上www.nanchuanfofa.com 此经译本的注释部分 。
  51. 庄春江居士补注:「见以见为量」,南传作「在所见中将只有所见这么多」(diṭṭhe diṭṭhamattaṃ bhavissati),菩提比丘长老英译为「在所见中将只有所见」(in the seen there will be merely the seen)。按:这句话一般简为「看只是看」,而「只有……这么多」(mattaṃ,另译为「量、小量的、程度的」),应该就是「见以见为量」中的「为量」,《显扬真义》说,在色处中以眼识而在所见中将只有所见这么多,因为眼识在色上只看见色这么多,没有常等自性(na niccādisabhāvaṃ),……又或,在所见中之看见(diṭṭhe diṭṭhaṃ);在色上色的识知(rūpe rūpavijānananti)名为眼识,……我的心将只有眼识这么多(cakkhuviññāṇamattameva me cittaṃ bhavissatīti),这是说,当色进入感官范围时(āpāthagatarūpe),眼识不被染、不愤怒、不变愚痴……。
  52. 补入巴利及汉译经文。
  53. 补入巴利及汉译经文。
  54. 轮回的大瀑流由四条瀑流(ogha)组成:一、欲瀑流(kāma-ogha);二、有瀑流(bhāva-ogha)、三、见瀑流(diṭṭhi-ogha)及四、无明瀑流(avijjā-ogha)。
  55. 补入巴利及汉译经文。此段经文参考了庄春江居士的译文作了修正。
  56.  劫(kappa):佛教意为非常长的时间单位。按《增支部》作四分:坏劫(saṃvaṭṭa-kappa)、坏住劫(saṃvaṭṭaṭṭhāyī-kappa)、成劫(vivaṭṭa-kappa)、成住劫(vivaṭṭaṭṭhāyī-kappa)。又有作六分:大劫(mahā-kappa)、阿僧祇劫(asaṅkhyeyya-kappa)、中劫(antara-kappa,中间劫)、寿劫(āyu-kappa)、减劫(hāyana-kappa)、增劫(vaddhana-kappa)。
  57. 见(diṭṭhi),在这里的意义可以为「信仰」(belief)或某种「主义」(-ism)的同义词,它可以是对某种观点或看法的执持;而邪见,则是泛指任何导致苦生的不正确看法。
  58. 按《上座部佛教百科》,三十一界为「三界众生的生存地有恶趣地、欲界善趣地、色界地、无色界地四种,其中细分有三十一界。」(一)恶趣地:1、地狱,2、畜生,3、饿鬼,4、阿修罗;(二)欲界善趣地:5、人,6、四大王天,7、帝释天,8、夜摩天,9、兜率天,10、化乐天,11、他化自在天;(三)色界地:12、梵众天,13、梵辅天,14、大梵天,15、少光天,16、无量光天,17、光音天,18、少净天,19、无量净天,20、遍净天,21、广果天,22、无想天,23、无烦天,24、无热天,25、善现天,26、善见天,27、色究竟天;(四)无色界地:28、空无边处,29、识无边处,30、无所有处,31、非想非非想处。
  59.  一法(eko dhammo)的补充资料:

    《长部34经.十增经》(DN.34/(11) Dasuttarasuttaṃ)学友们!有多所助益的一法,有应该被修习的一法,有应该被遍知的一法,有应该被舍断的一法,有退分的一法,有胜进分的一法,有难贯通的一法,有应该使之生出的一法,有应该被证知的一法,有应该被作证的一法。

    (一)哪个是多所助益的一法呢?在善法上不放逸,这是多所助益的一法。(Ka)

    (二)哪个是应该被修习的一法呢?喜悦俱行的身至念,这是应该被修习的一法。(Kha)

    (三)哪个是应该被遍知的一法呢?有烦恼的、会被执取的触,这是应该被遍知的一法。(Ga)

    (四)哪个是应该被舍断的一法呢?我是之慢,这是应该被舍断的一法。(Gha)

    (五)哪个是退分的一法呢?不如理作意,这是退分的一法。(Ṅa)

    (六)哪个是胜进分的一法呢?如理作意,这是胜进分的一法。(Ca)

    (七)哪个是难贯通的一法呢?直接的心定,这是难贯通的一法。(Cha)

    (八)哪个是应该使之生出的一法呢?不动智(不动摇的智),这是应该使之生出的一法。(Ja)

    (九)哪个是应该被证知的一法呢?一切众生皆因食而存续,这是应该被证知的一法。(Jha)

    (十)哪个是应该被作证的一法呢?不动心解脱,这是应该被作证的一法。(Ña)

    《增支部》的内容与上述内容类似。

  60.  补入原经文。
  61.  补入原经文。
  62. 原故事请参考《增支部6集55经.受那经》:https://agama.buddhason.org/AN/AN1186.htm
    行禅至流血的部分,《增支部》并没有记载,不过《巴利律藏.大品》及《摩诃僧祇律》(明杂跋渠法之九)则有明文记录,也是比丘能够穿简单没装饰的鞋(革履)的缘起。
  63. 补入原经文。
  64. 庄春江居士注:「月食受时(SA);自恣时到(GA);相请请时(MA);受岁之日(AA)」,南传作「在自恣日」(pavāraṇāya),菩提比丘长老英译为「在…自恣仪式」(on…of the pavāraṇā ceremony),或「邀请仪式」(the invitation ceremony, AN),并解说这是雨季安居结束的仪式,比丘邀请所有其他比丘告诫其犯戒行为。按:僧团规制,结夏安居的最后一天僧团集会,就所见、所听闻、所怀疑,「自在地」指出别人的过失,以互相砥砺改正,称为「自恣」,这一天也称为「自恣日」。
  65.  俱毗罗(Kuvera),又名毗沙门天(Vessavaṇa),是四大王天之一,在须弥山的北方统领夜叉众 。
  66.  补入原经文,全部经文完。

 

大念处经略讲

 

《大念处经》略讲

附《内观实修指导》

马哈希大师◎著

陈永威译

北京四念处编译小组◎编整

《大念处经》略讲

马哈希大师1951年讲于仰光

佛法之光编辑团1956缅英翻译(版本一)

尼泊尔梭班纳尊者2018缅英翻译(版本二)

陈永威2021年英中翻译

马哈希大师德相

中译者序

缘起

2020年1月28日下午,笔者因为恰巧在仰光各道场作供养和拜访,途中临时决定参访马哈希传承的巴利学者――达马聂久禅师(Thamanay Kyaw Sayadaw Dhammika),因为禅师知道笔者翻译大师的作品,于是赠予笔者他所审阅的新译马哈希大师《大念处经》略讲(2019年4月版),由尼泊尔的梭班纳尊者(Bhante U Sobhana)翻译(此后称「尼版」)。

因《大念处经》可以说是佛教禅修的宝典,所以笔者回澳后便打算着手翻译,有趣的是,在中心的书架找书籍时,看到原来此书在2015年8月由马哈希总部出版了另一个版本的英译(总部版),那是1956年在佛教杂志所连载。2021年3月,适逢在家中休假,可以专志整理编译积存已久的许多书籍,此书此前只翻了约八页,因内容短,约三星期便告搁笔完成,而且比另一本已完成初稿的《雪山夜叉经讲记》可以提早发布出版。

版本的取舍

因此书有两个英译版本,它们不仅仅在译文上风格不同,在某些段落甚至是「此有彼无」的;总部版笔者感觉是比较直译每句原话,内容上应该是最完整而贴近原本的缅文格式的,但某些内容并不流畅,甚至有辞不达义或误译的情况。尼泊尔尊者的版本,则更像是意译和略去冗文,并以论典对照的方式(nissaya)来引述经文内容,简洁直接,显然更准确地拿捏到巴利经疏的字义和文法结构,但有部分内容它却是缺失了的。两者均有略去部分缅文重复内容及巴利引述的情况。

因此,笔者在这译本里,采取的手法是以总部版为全文结构,再比对尼版,尽可能把两个版本都有的内容,全部译出,因此这译本是糅合了两者的合本。在某些地方,笔者有注明某个版本所有或无的内容。书中[]内的数字是总部版原书的页码,以供对照原书。

在全书适切之处,笔者亦引入内文中提及的巴利文经论原文,部分原文引述会比英译本更详尽,以供读者了解经文全部内容和出处。以及加入一些学者注释在注脚内。巴利原文和中译是采用庄春江居士的译本。所引述《大念处经》注释书的翻译,则是以斯里兰卡索玛长老(Soma Thera)的英译再做的中译,其他注释书的翻译则是参考网络资料后的中译。此外,笔者亦在每一讲中新增了一些标题,方便读者了解章节的重点,也更容易寻找或引述相关内容。

内容概述

读者从本书中,可以了解到,马哈希内观禅法本身,是一套严格按照巴利经论和注释实践的禅法,本书中马哈希大师从古代巴利疏钞,重点对《大念处经》的《四威仪章》及《正知章》作解说,明确地指出禅法以观察身体风大为主要目标的由来,以什么为禅修目标,如何从正念正知于身心,达至解脱的证得。

读者从此书中,应了解清楚念处的真正意思,以及念处的几个重要元素,尤其是正念(sati)、正知(sampajāna)的定义与实践。笔者想在这里简要地指出,马哈希禅法所实践的正念是带着一定程度的专注而修习的,正念在此是有将心置于对象前(注意)的意味,它是配合着正知--对身心活动的「了知」一起修习,透过反复观照(随观),正念正知得到逐渐发展,所知的内容会渐趋细致,自然而然成为「智」的结果,智的成熟则达至解脱的体证。这一切都可以从经文和注释中得到证明。

由于篇幅所限,大师只能够重点地解说,如果读者想进一步了解详尽的修法,则可以从马哈希大师的《内观实修指导》(Chapter 5, Manual of Insight)中得到实修的详细方法,中譯本為《跟马哈希大师学正念1——内观实修指导》(温宗堃、何孟玲编译)。

在这里感谢提供原文和译文版权的大德们,以及协助校正不同版本内容的各地同修,此简体版经北京四念处群的几位同修三次校对,再经笔者核实,前后约两年方告完成,在这里特别感谢他们的付出。愿参与者及读者能够于行住坐卧体悟无我的实相,解脱诸苦。

澳门佛教正勤禅修中心负责人

陈永威

2022年11月01日

写于澳门

英译本前言(一)

1951年4月17日的缅甸新年,当时的缅甸总理吴努(U Nu)透过缅甸广播机构致新年辞。在演辞中他强调了内观禅修的重要,并鼓励大众禅修一两个月以证取须陀洹道智(sotāpatti magga)。

因此,当时佛教摄益协会(Buddha Sāsana Nuggaha Organization)的秘书――杉天(U San Thein)先生,在1951年5月5日晚上(斋日)于缅甸广播机构发言,引述了总理吴努的话,并介绍了佛教摄益协会。他说明了马哈希大师在传弘及教导全国各地前来的禅修者内观禅法的努力。最后他总结说,从那天晚上起,大师将会分别在四个斋日分开四部分讲解禅修。

大师在当天(1951年5月5日)的晚上开始讲解《大念处经》(Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta),并分别于此后的三个斋日(5月13、20、28日)续讲。

大师的讲记,总理吴努的新年致辞及杉天先生的介绍辞,全部都编集起来并于1951年6月由佛教摄益协会发表第一版。此后第二及三版亦已分别发表。《佛法之光》期刊的编辑团,在1956年8月期刊的第三册第四期上,发表了大师讲记的英文翻译。此后佛教摄益协会近60年(至2015年前)都不曾出版此文本,而我们今天终于出版了。

我们很感谢《佛法之光》期刊提供他们所作的英文本,亦感谢文乃久博士(Dr. Win Naing Kyaw)把文本的存在告诉我们,并把原来的《佛法之光》期刊借给佛教摄益协会。

在这个版本,我们加入了马哈希大师的照片及略传(中译本没有)。因为我们希望尽快发表大师的讲记,所以并没有翻译总理吴努的新年贺词及杉天先生的介绍。我们希望可以在未来翻译这些演辞并附在后来的版本。

我们亦很感谢宗教事务部的佛法宣传及弘扬局(Department of Promotion and Propagation of the Sāsana of the Ministry of Religious Affairs)慈悲应允让佛教摄益协会以书本形式发表此讲记。

总结而言,我们祈愿禅修者能够依照《大念处经》讲记的说明,来修习内观禅法,证得究竟的寂静――涅盘。

佛教摄益协会主席

田素林 博士

于2015年8月

英译本前言(二)

 

尊敬的至上大智者马哈希大师(Māhāsī Sayādaw,Aggamahāpaṇḍita),出自对那些努力修习内观的行者的甚深悲悯,就《大念处经》作了一连四讲的说明。这四讲经由缅甸广播机构(Burma Broadcasting Service,B.B.S.)于1951年5月播送,并于同年由佛教摄益协会(Buddha Sāsanā Nuggaha Organization)出版。原本的讲座是以缅文作出。作为禅修者,我们对马哈希大师的深广悲悯十分感激。

我们也很感激达马聂久禅师(Tharmanaykyaw Sayādaw U Dhammikālaṅkārābhivaṃsa)及梭班纳尊者(Bhante U Sobhana)的慈悲和付出。梭班纳尊者将这些讲座从缅文本翻译成英文。他是一位尼泊尔的僧人,在缅甸居住了逾14年学习巴利文(Pāḷi)及上座部佛教。梭班纳尊者曾缅英翻译及编辑数本佛法书籍。达马聂久禅师是马哈希传承的禅修导师及巴利学者,无比慈悲地指导及仔细审阅了此英文译本。

编辑小组

写于2019年4月9日

第一讲――绪言及念处的介绍

(1951年5月5日讲于广播电台)

佛陀在《大念处经》的保证

这次将会讲解的教法是《大念处经》(Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta)。如果有人说,这是佛教里面最重要和圆满的经典(Sutta)是不为过的。原因是在《大念处经》中,毗婆舍那(内观)的操作及修习的方法被彻底和准确地说明了,这也称为「前分道」(pubbabhāga maggaṅga)。经中清楚显示殊胜智的生起方式,四圣谛的四个方面亦已清楚及彻底地展示,即「知苦」(pariññeyya)、「断集」(pahātabba)、「证灭」(sacchikātabba)、「修道」(bhāvetabba)。在经的结尾[1],有一段明确地确保人们可得证悟的鼓励说话:

“Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, sattavassāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya cha vassāni … pañca vassāni… (pe)… cattāri māsāni… tīṇi māsāni… dve māsāni… ekaṃ māsaṃ… aḍḍhamāsaṃ… tiṭṭhatu, bhikkhave, aḍḍhamāso. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya sattāhaṃ, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ diṭṭheva dhamme aññā; sati vā upādisese anāgāmitāti. [1]

比丘们!别说七年,比丘们!如果任何人在这四念住上这么修习六年……五年……(中略)……四个月……三个月……二个月……一个月……半个月……比丘们!别说半个月,比丘们!如果任何人在这四念住上这么修习七天,对他来说,二果其中之一果应该可以被预期:当生完全智,或当存在有余依时,为阿那含位。

任何中等聪睿的人修习四念处,即使是属于需要培训的人(neyya),他能够于六、七年内取得两个圣果之一:阿罗汉(Arahanta)或阿那含(Anāgāmi)。任何异常聪睿的人修习四念处,七日他便会取得这两个圣果之一。

从这个保证,很显然一个人可以在更短的期间内成为须陀洹(Sotāpanna)或斯陀含(Sakadāgāmi)。这带来了很大的鼓舞。在经文的绪言,佛陀就此经宣称了修习念处的利益,现在请大家谛听:[2]

 

Ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā sokaparidevānaṃ samatikkamāya dukkhadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya ñāyassa adhigamāya nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānāti.

当像这样说:『比丘们!为了众生的清净、为了愁与悲的超越、为了苦与忧的灭没、为了方法的获得、为了涅盘的作证,这是无岔路(唯一)之道,即:四念住。』

巴中对译:

bhikkhave = 比丘们、yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā = 这四念处、ayaṃ = 此念处之道的修习是、sattānaṃ visuddhiyā = 透过净化心理的染污,为了众生的清净、ekāyano maggo = 一道,唯一之道

在这里,「清净」(visuddhiyā)的意思是「超越烦恼(kilesa),成为阿罗汉」。这是唯一证取涅盘之道。四念处的修习,是带领人们成为圣者、证得阿罗汉果的唯一道路。那么,如果你们希望成为阿罗汉、脱离一切烦恼,你们应该修习四念处。在这里,有人可能说:「我只想成为一位须陀洹,让我可以逃离下一世投生恶道的危险。这可行吗?」

这不用担心,要成为一位阿罗汉(四果),你首先需要成为一位须陀洹(初果)、然后斯陀含(二果)以及阿那含(三果)。这只有在一个人圆满了禅修的学习才能够达成[3]。如果一个人想成为须陀洹,他可以透过完成必要的修习而获得。因此应当注意,一个人就算只想成为须陀洹的人,也需要修习四念处。

巴中对译:

ayaṃ = 此念处之道的修习是、sokaparidevānaṃ samatikkamāya = 为了愁与悲的超越、ekāyano maggo = 一道,唯一之道

在这个世界,人们因为遇到严峻的逆境,如失去父母、伴侣、儿女、生意失败等,那愁与悲是巨大的。根据此经文,所有类别的愁与悲,都可以透过四念处的修习而超越。因此,如果禅修者希望证取无愁与悲的境界,找到真正的快乐,便应当圆满地修习四念处。

巴中对译:

ayaṃ = 此念处之道的修习是、dukkha domanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya = (身体的)苦及(心理的)忧(苦)的熄灭、ekāyano maggo = 一道,唯一之道

身体的苦有很多类型,它们是难以忍受的。忧苦有很多类型,也是难以忍受的[4]。在这世间,此二种苦都是非常可怕的。这段落指出,透过四念处,可以彻底地超越这些苦。因此,如果一个人想要脱离各种苦,生活安乐,他便应该圆满修习四念处。

巴中对译:

ayaṃ = 此念处之道的修习是、ñāyassa adhigamāya = 为获得(八支)圣道、ekāyano maggo = 一道,唯一之道、nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya = 为了涅盘的作证、ekāyano maggo = 一道,唯一之道

道智、果智与涅盘是佛陀教法中,人们所向往的最高阶位。为了证得道智、果智与涅盘,只有修习四念处。这段落亦说明了,念处之道是唯一可以确定及无疑地趣向道智、果智与涅盘的道路。因此,如果一个人想在此生证得道智、果智与涅盘,他就只需要修习四念处,无岔之路。现在,我将就四念处的修习作解说及给予指导,以利益那些希望走上此道的人们。

念处的利益

在经文的结尾[5],佛陀宣说在修习四念处后可以获得七种利益:

  1. 众生的清净
  2. 愁的超越
  3. 悲的超越
  4. 苦的熄灭
  5. 忧的熄灭
  6. 达至正道
  7. 涅盘的证得

很明显这七种利益是每个众生最渴望及至为重要的。欲亲证圣道及果的人,应当修习四念处。有些人提出这些问题:「修四念处,可否让人腾空飞行?可以造作什么神变之事?」

提出这些问题的人没有清楚留意到佛陀所作的保证,佛陀在这保证中[6],不曾提及诸如「修四念处可让人腾空飞行或作神变之事。」有留意这保证的人,其实并不会提出这类无关的问题。不过,如果他们提出这些问题,任何业处禅师,都只会按佛陀在《大念处经》结尾所保证的内容,没有其他。[2]

正念的意义和对象

念处(satipaṭṭhāna)[3]的意义为何?

它指『持续的念现起』或『已建立的念』[4]

『念』(sati)的对象为何?

「于身体的活动生起时,应注意觉察(具念)于它们,无有间断;于感受生起时,应注意觉察它们,无有间断;于各种想法及乱想生起时,应注意觉察它们,无有间断;于任何现象(法)生起时,应注意觉察它们,无有间断。一个人应时刻努力,对这样的观察方式,变得熟练有技巧。」[5]

此处的意思是:一个人应当「循身观身」、「循受观受」等;即是,在身体和心理现象出现的一刻,反复观照、标记(内心默记)那现象,不让任何现象逃离其觉察[7]。佛陀宣称,这样的反复观照--「随观」,称为「身随观」(kāyānupassī)和「受随观」(vedanānupassī)。

譬如以「走」为例,从心理活动(想走的心念)所生的身体动作,会以「提、推、放」脚的行为来呈现。一名禅修者,应该从提腿到放腿的过程,细心观察当中的身体现象,如紧及移动、其依因果关系的生起、灭去,反复以身观察身,不遗漏任何过程,观察所有相关活动的细节。这样的观照应该在每一步中进行,没有任何一步应该被遗漏。

不要思考任何东西,如果有任何想法走进内心,便应当标记它。在伸展和弯曲手脚时,也如是,禅修者应当在这些动作发生的过程中,观照身体现象如紧及移动的出现乃至消失。对所有其他身体动作,也是如此。不要让任何身心现象在未被观照之下消失。禅修者应当以这样的方式观照[8],时常努力对所有行住坐卧(四威仪)的活动过程,以及附带生起的相关身心现象保持正念。

对任何「苦受」(dukkha vedanā),如拉紧、压迫感及痛楚,禅修者应该依循感受来观察感受,以感受为目标,观照标记「紧、紧」等。如果一个想法或观念在心中生起,便观照那想法或观念,标记「想、想」等。还有,如果在看到、听到时,悦意和不悦意生起,便应该一一观照其生起,标记「喜欢、喜欢」等,并以感受观照感受。

毗婆舍那刹那定

虽然文中指出,一位禅修者应当在所有身心现象生起时标记它们,对初学者而言,要全部觉察它们是困难的,他会发现自己对很多现象都无法标记。然而,凭借奋力、持续安住及热忱,如果他以此方式专心观照五、六日,他将会出乎意料地把心确立于「念定」(sati-samādhi)。在这个阶段后,禅修者将发现很少现象会逃出觉察及了解。在这么一个阶段[9],行者会发现,在每次觉察到任何对象时,心识就像全然贴着每一个被觉察的对象上(心与对象同步)。

这种「心一境性」,称为「毗婆舍那刹那定」(vipassanā khaṇika samādhi,又名内观定)。当这种定变得很稳固,禅修者将会清楚明白所有被觉察的对象。

这是怎样的方式?是如此的:当禅修者觉察到一个身体现象,他必然如实地知道它,而且明白那身体现象本身,并没有感知能力。当他觉察到感受,将明白那感受是悦意还是不悦意。当他觉察到心识,会明白心识有倾向所感知对象的功能。还有,他会明白这些被感知的对象、感知它们的心识在此起彼落。因此他将明白,所有这些都是无常、苦、只是「自性法」(sabhāva)[6],不会以这些对象为可意或憎恶。因此贪婪(abhijjhā)及忧恼(domanassa)没有机会生起,并保持平伏。

四种确立正念之处

如前所述,禅修者应当对身体现象生起时,对其特质作标记,以驱除爱憎等烦恼[10],并明白它们是无常、苦、无我--只有自性法(sabhāva)的真相。这是「身随观念处」(kāyānupassanā satipaṭṭhāna)--反复地观察身体现象来观察身。

再者,禅修者应当在受、心和法(各类现象)生起时,反复观照受、心及法,并明白它们是无常、苦、无我(只有自性法)的真相。这分别是「受随观念处」(vedanānupassanā satipaṭṭhāna)、「心随观念处」(cittānupassanā satipaṭṭhāna)及「法随观念处」(dhammānupassanā satipaṭṭhāna )。

因此,修习这四种念处的禅修者可以获得道果(的证悟),透过反复专注观察所有身心现象的生起,将能够得见涅槃。这一点佛陀简述如下[7]

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ, vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ, citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ, dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ.

比丘们!这里,比丘住于在身上随观身,热心、正知、有念,能调伏对于世间的贪婪、忧。

住于在受上随观受,热心、正知、有念,能调伏对于世间的贪婪、忧。[11]

住于在心上随观心,热心、正知、有念,能调伏对于世间的贪婪、忧。

住于在法上随观法,热心、正知、有念,能调伏对于世间的贪婪、忧。

这篇巴利文的简短意思是:一个人应该观照任何生起的身体现象;应该时常精勤地这样做,持续及如实地明了它们。当一个人这样知道,每一刻的烦恼将会被平伏。观照及明了每一个身体现象,不让烦恼生起,就是「身随观念处」,也就是于身随观身。

同样地,禅修者需要在受、心和法生起时,反复观照受、心及法,并如实地明了它们。禅修者必须要持续提起正念,明了这些现象的究竟性质。以这样的方式明了时,不让烦恼生起。[8]如此,便是「受随观念处」「心随观念处」「法随观念处」。

时间差不多到了,在此我想强调一样非常重要的事情。这部经是佛陀以保证证悟的方式来宣说的。这是「现世作证之法」(sandiṭṭhika-dhamma),即可以被每个人当下被实践、看见和证明的。它并不只是反复读诵或听闻便可获得的。如果一个人实际地练习,他将能够在此时此地亲身证见。不要仅以经论知识去评估那实际的一面。如果他希望测试其真实性,那么可以从一位业处禅师获得念处的方法指导,精勤地自己修习。他将会发现不同阶级的智慧与定力[12],如早前所说明[13]。时间已到,念处的第一讲在这里结束。

希望大家能够继续收听第二讲。

沙度、沙度、沙度

Sādhu ! Sādhu ! Sādhu!

第一讲完

第二讲――四威仪章

(1951年5月13日讲于广播电台)

在第一部分,我已说明了本经的概要介绍部分,在这一讲里面,我将讲述本经典章节,然而,由于此经有二十一章,此处我只能够讲述《四威仪章》(iriyāpathapabba)的内容。

首先,我想大家记着,《大念处经》并没有不重要的部分,没有「密意」或「隐喻」,我也想大家明白此经直接以简洁的方式,把所有念处的修法说明,它们都是导向证取圣道、果和涅盘。因此我希望大家对这一讲,能够带著决意和专注来聆听(或阅读)。同时,记着现在你有了机缘了解念处禅法,它能导向涅盘的证得,而且是大觉的佛陀所亲口宣说。

能够达至证得涅盘,毗婆舍那(内观)的修习是最为重要的。只有当一个人精确地明了毗婆舍那的修习,他才能够证得涅盘。不然[14],他将错失证取圣道、果和涅槃的机会。

障碍圣道的两个重要因素

在这里,我想指出有两样事情,能够障碍一个人证取圣道、果和涅盘,那是:

(一)恶友(pāpamittatā )

(二)作衰败行(kiriya parihāni,应作而不作)

巴利语pāpamittatā,意指「与恶人在一起」或「受邪师的操控」。举例说,阿阇世王(Ajātasattu)不能解脱的原因,错失证涅盘的机会应归咎于恶友,因为他听了提婆达多(Devadatta)的话。另外应该谨记,如果接受任何人的煽动,造作障碍人证得出世间道、果和涅盘的行为,或受人操控反对修习导向解脱的毗婆舍那禅法,那么他必将失去证得道、果和涅盘的机会。

巴利语kiriya parihāni,意指对「教导」「听闻」「修习」的忽视。其中,第一项是导师的责任[15],正如有云:「他教导佛法,此教法导向苦的熄灭」,其余第二、第三项是一位禅修者的责任。该导师应当全面及完整地解说修习毗婆舍那的方法;不然他便失职,让禅修的弟子不能证得解脱。而作为弟子,也有责任谨慎地记住其导师所给的指导,并按之修习。如果他不聆听那些指导,不尽自己的责任,不按导师所教修习法,他将无法证得道果与涅盘。

错失证悟的在家人贝色

正如同一位名叫贝色的人,没有谛听佛陀所说的重要教法,并且在经还没有讲完之前便离开,因此错失证得解脱的机会。如果他聆听到最后,他会证得初果的。

Atha kho bhagavā acirapakkante pesse

hatthārohaputte bhikkhū āmantesi–

“paṇḍito, bhikkhave, pesso hatthārohaputto;

mahāpañño, bhikkhave, pesso hatthārohaputto.

Sace, bhikkhave, pesso hatthārohaputto

muhuttaṃ nisīdeyya yāvassāhaṃ ime

cattāro puggale vitthārena vibhajissāmi,

mahatā atthena saṃyutto abhavissa.

MN.51 Kandarakasuttaṃ, Majjhimanikāye

「那时,世尊在骑象者之子贝色离开不久,

召唤比丘们:「比丘们!骑象者之子贝色是贤智者;

比丘们!骑象者之子贝色是大慧者,比丘们!

如果骑象者之子贝色再稍坐片刻,直到我详细解说这四种人,

他会有与大利益相应的。」[9]

《中部51经.耿达勒葛经》

《中部》的经文说:「因为贝色回家去,没有听完全经,他错失了成为初果的机缘。」

今时今日,也有很多人因为下述的理由,错失证得道智的机缘:

(一)因为没有听闻经法,那些导向道果的方法;[16]

(二)虽然听过经法,但没有实践修习它;

(三)没有以热忱与全心投入修习毗婆舍那禅法到最后。

大家应当记着,现在我在阐述《大念处经》是为了履行作为导师的责任,而大家的责任,就是谨慎地聆听,然后致力地以热忱实践修毗婆舍那禅法。[10]

四种行为举止的了知

大家现在将会听到大觉佛陀所宣说的《四威仪章》。请专心倾听(或阅读)。

bhikkhu gacchanto vā ‘gacchāmī’ti pajānāti,

ṭhito vā ‘ṭhitomhī’ti pajānāti,

nisinno vā ‘nisinnomhī’ti pajānāti,

sayāno vā ‘sayānomhī’ti pajānāti,

yathā yathā vā panassa kāyo paṇihito hoti,

tathā tathā naṃ pajānāti.

比丘当行走时,他了知:『我行走。』

或者,当站立时,他了知:『我站立。』

或者,当坐着时,他了知:『我坐着。』

或者,当躺着时,他了知:『我躺着。』

或者,他如身体的动向而了知。

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,

bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,

ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati.

‘Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati,

na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evampi kho, bhikkhave,

bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

DN.22 Kāyānupassanā iriyāpathapabbaṃ,

Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ

像这样,或住于在自己的身上随观身,

或住于在外部的身上随观身,

或住于在自己的与外部的身上随观身,

或住于在身上随观集法,

或住于在身上随观消散法,

或住于在身上随观集法与消散法,

或只为了智与持念的程度而『有身体』的念被现起,

并且住于无依止,他在世间中不执取任何事物。

比丘们!比丘这样住于在身上随观身。

《大念处经.四威仪章》[11]

上述所说的念处禅法[17],并不是任何禅修导师所自创的新业处禅法,它是佛陀在二千五百年前亲述的古老禅法。

在行走时,觉察和了解「在行走」的现象,不是很容易么?还有,在站着时觉察站着、坐时觉察坐着、卧着时觉察卧着,不也很容易么?

为了概述前面这几句,经文「他如身体的动向而了知。」(yathā yathā vā panassa kāyo paṇihito hoti, tathā tathā naṃ pajānāti.)表示一位禅修者应该标记觉察所有行住等等的行为,不论大小、观察它们的生因与缘。在此,如果身体的动向是「腹部的起伏活动」,觉察这些活动,以及如实明了它们就属于这一类。

当一位禅修者拥有一个平静的心,并没有被其他的禅修对象所占据,他应该对腹部的起伏作标记,觉察那身体的动向,如实了解。这样不是很容易修习吗?对一位有意修习毗婆舍那禅法的人,按照刚才所说的方法修习不是很容易吗?[18]是的,这很容易。因为佛陀说,这方法是最简易的。

佛陀说此法门,是以一种简易的方式,让无论成人、小童、男人、女人、有受教育的人、没受教育的人都可以修习。我们发现在佛陀的时代,只有七岁的童男童女都可以成为须陀洹乃至阿罗汉。还有,舍卫城的人口有七分之五都是圣者的原因,也是由于那修习方法的简易。如果这些方法需要很长时间研究才能够修习,这些人的成就便不可能发生。

如果一个人需要在拥有很好的论典知识,譬如心识、心所、心路过程、色聚法以及缘法,之后才禅修;那么实际上在那个时代,没有人会修毗婆舍那禅法的,因为当时的人大部分都是没有受经论教育的。一个愚笨的人,譬如小周利槃特(Cūḷapanthaka)在他修行之初遇到很大的困难(无法背下偈颂)。基于这些理由,很清楚可见,佛陀所宣说的禅修方法(业处),都是如同念处禅法般简单。[19]

在这里,当我说它简单,是指容易学会。然而修习佛法达到证得定、慧是不容易的。这看来是一桩难事,它只能够透过正精进、持续修习、热忱与投入才能够达成。时常懒散、心意羸弱,是不会有任何好成果的。

了知不是一般的知道

回到实际修法的题目上,在那一句「当行走时,他了知:『我行走。』」那些没有实修,不明了佛陀的话的人,可能会提出质疑。注释书的作者觉音尊者,在研究过后也给了他对这些质疑的说明。一个无知的人,可能会对人说:「有关『行走』这事,就是连狗也知道,当它们走动时,它们在走。如果禅修者是这样子去知道,两者的『了知』(pajanati)[12]是否类似?」提这问题的人的知识很狭隘。

Gacchanto va gacchamiti pajanati = Tattha

kāmaṃ soṇasiṅgālādayopi gacchantā

‘‘gacchāmā’’ti jānanti, na panetaṃ

evarūpaṃ jānanaṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ.

Evarūpañhi jānanaṃ sattūpaladdhiṃ na pajahati,

attasaññaṃ na ugghāṭeti, kammaṭṭhānaṃ

vā satipaṭṭhānabhāvanā vā na hoti.

~Iriyāpathapabbavaṇṇanā,

Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttavaṇṇanā

在行走时了知:「我在走。」

有关此「走」,即便犬与豺狼等,也知道它们于走时在走,

但此四威仪所教导,并非类似的了知。

因为那类「了知」属于动物,并不去除众生见,

不去除我见,不会成为禅修业处或念处之培养。

《大念处经疏钞.四威仪章》[13]

注释者觉音尊者是这样在疏钞中回应:是的没错,人与狗都知道在行走时自己在走。但人的了知,与动物本能的感知并不太一样。两者是相当不同。哪里不同?答案是:狗和普通人都认为身心现象及作用为常(nicca)、乐(sukha)、我(attā)。[20]

虽然他们可能会说知道自己在走,但是他们并非在每次行走或动的时候了知到其移动,不是每一样都详尽地了知。他们只是非常表面地知道,而且大部分注意力转向其他对象。就算他们放一些注意力因而「知道」,他们不知道那全身的移动,只是一连串色法的移动,以及从「想走」的心念产生(心生色法)。这个人想着:「那想走的心念是我」(心是我)、「在走的也是我的行走」(身是我)。他被「我」的概念所影响。这类人完全对现象的生起和灭去无知。

他们认为「我」(灵魂)是恒常和不变的,一生也是如此。因此,这类「了知」,不但没有打破我见,反而增强它。这类「了知」,没有伴随任何的随观,不会成为禅修的业处也不能培养四念处的修习。佛陀并没有教导这类「了知」。

Imassa pana bhikkhuno jānanaṃ

sattūpaladdhiṃ pajahati, attasaññaṃ ugghāṭeti,

kammaṭṭhānañceva satipaṭṭhānabhāvanā ca hoti.

这位比丘(禅修者)的了知去除了众生的见、

击退了我想,此为业处及念处修习之培养

Idañhi “ko gacchati, kassa gamanaṃ,

kiṃ kāraṇā gacchatī”ti evaṃ

sampajānanaṃ sandhāya vuttaṃ.

然而「谁走?是谁的走?何由是此走?」

此等语为禅修者对走的正知(智)。

Tattha ko gacchatīti na koci satto vā puggalo

vā gacchati. Kassa gamananti na kassaci sattassa

vā puggalassa vā gamanaṃ. Kiṃ kāraṇā gacchatīti cittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphārena gacchati.

关于「谁走」,没有众生或人等走。

「是谁的走」,不是任何众生或人的走。

「何由是此走」,依于心作之震动(风界)的遍布而为走。

Tasmā esa evaṃ pajānāti “gacchāmī”ti cittaṃ uppajjati,
taṃ vāyaṃ janeti, vāyo viññattiṃ janeti,
cittakiriyavāyodhātuvipphārena sakalakāyassa purato
abhinīhāro gamananti vuccati.

禅修者如是了知:「想行走」的心生起,
此心产生震动(风界的移动)的过程;
震动的过程导致表色(展现为行走等的身体移动)。
因心作之震动过程散布于整个身体而移动,如此被称为行走。

《大念处经疏钞.四威仪章》[14]

佛陀所教的「了知」,是那种对行走及移动特质(风大)的了知。一位禅修者这样地练习,明白到:「如果『我想走』的念头生起,这个念头会制造一连串移动的心生色法[21],并产生身表色。」

「谁行走?是谁的行走?」这里可以提两个问题。对这两个问题的回答是:谁行走?(ko gacchati)没有众生、人或任何东西。是谁的行走?(kassa gamanaṃ)不是任何众生或人的行走。因此,禅修者很清晰地明了,只有以下的两样事情:

(一)心生起「我想走」的心念(gacchāmīti cittaṃ)

(二)心生的风大过程所产生的身表色(kāyaviññatti)

基于因果关系而产生的某种纯粹移动,被称为行走。除了上述这两种现象,没有所谓「我走」或「他走」。

「依什么是这个行走?」(kiṃ kāraṇā gacchati)。依心生的色法,那身体的移动而称为行走。因此禅修者了知:如果生起一个「我想走」的念头,那心念产生一连串心生的色法--风大;那风大导致身表色产生--与念头同步发生的实际的变动。这结果,整个身体的移动,称为「行走」。[22]

如前面所说明,对上面三个问题--谁走?是谁的走?依什么是这个走?答案是彻底的了知--正知(sampajañña),也被称为「正知智」(sampajañña-ñāṇa)。这些是注释者的话语。这种全面的知,是对应「了知」(pajānāti,知道各方面)这个词汇的。

重述注释者的话语,一位禅修者这样明了:

Esa = 一位在标记及觉察行走时「行走」的禅修者;

Pajānāti = 清晰地知道;Gacchāmiti cittaṃ =

想要行走的心;Uppajjati = 生起;Tam = 此心;

Vāyaṃ janeti = 风界产生(坚挺及移动发生);Vāyo =

风界的活动;viññattiṃ janeti = 导致表色;

Cittakiriyavāyodhātu vipphārena =

因心而导致的移动的推动力而遍及;

sakalakāyassa = 全身的或所有称为「身」的色法;

purato abhinīhāro = 逐渐移动至所欲的方向;

gamananti vuccati = 称为「行走」。

「因为心生的风界,于是身表色产生。」在这里,「坚挺」--支持或以力量保持的意思,是风大支持的特相,而「导致移动」是风大的作用。因此注释者让我们明了,透过心生的风大,整个身体的移动,是称为「行走」。这些都是对「了知」--pajānāti 这个词汇的阐述。

一位禅修者必须明白那心念「我想走」的生起,然后他也必须明白所产生的风大过程;并最后明白那风大所导致的身表。[23]他也应该明白整个身体的向前移动,而这个移动被俗语称为「我行走」或「他行走」。

不迷妄正知

事实上并没有行走者,只有行走在发生。一位禅修者必须如此了知,而此了知称为「不迷妄正知」(asammoha-sampajañña),这本身就是禅修的业处。还有,在观察禅修业处而生起这种「正知」(清晰地了知),这便变成是「念处禅修」(satipaṭṭhāna-bhāvanā)。因此,佛陀宣说:「一位禅修者行走时了知在行走。」

如果我们阅读巴利经文连同相关的注释,很明显地那经文是就「行境正知」(gocara-sampajañña)而说,直接指示禅修的方法。注释者解说指当一位禅修者以此方式修习,证得相当程度的定与慧,他的「了知」将变成「不迷妄正知」(又称「无痴正知」)。

注释者的这些话语支持了经文所说,而我们也依靠注释者的话,给予弟子们指导经文所述的念处禅法。很多人已尝试过这个方法[24],而我们数以千计的弟子均证得了此「不迷妄正知」。这些人包括熟悉佛教经论的比丘及在家居士,也有不熟经论的人。

纵然如此,可能你还是会怀疑觉得:「这样简单观察『行走』,就能够证得这样的正知?」如果你是这样想,便如同一位生来便瞎的人,不相信其他人们可以看到事物一样,因为他自己不能够看到事物。还有,你有机会获得「难得之事」(dullabha),有幸得到人身。人身是需要善业才能获得的,但是却可能无所事事地错过此生。因此应该爱护自己,志求解脱,按照念处禅法来修习毗婆舍那禅。如果你按着我所给予的指导修习四至六日,我是可以保证你证取这样的正知。

正如前面所说明,在「行走」的情况,一位禅修者了知心生色法的移动过程,站、坐、卧也如是[25]。清晰地知道这四类姿势的身心活动,它们每一刻的生起和消失,这类「随观」称为「随观集法」(samudaya-dhammānupassī)[15]和「随观灭法」(vaya-dhammānupassī),[16]因为一位禅修者安住于身随观集起的现象,或安住于身随观集起和灭去的现象。「不迷妄正知」是这类随观的结果。

如果一位禅修者持续以此方式反复观察(随观),包含此随观的智慧将会逐步提升直至他证得圣道、果及涅盘。因此佛陀在经的绪言说:

ñāyassa adhigamāya nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya

「为了智慧(圣道或八正道)的获得,涅盘的取证」[26]

好的,时间已到。我想在这里结束《大念处经》第二部分的讲记。

希望大家能够继续收听下周的第三讲。

沙度、沙度、沙度

Sādhu! Sādhu !Sādhu!

第二讲完

第三讲――正知章

(1951年5月20日讲于广播电台)

对任何动作必须正知

今日所讲的经典,继续是《大念处经》,上一讲是第二部分,今日为第三部分。这次将会讲述《正知章》(sampajānapabbaṃ)。

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu abhikkante

paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti, ālokite vilokite

sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī

hoti, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti,

asite pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti,

uccārapassāvakamme sampajānakārī hoti,

gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite

tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī hoti.

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā …pe… evampi kho,

bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

~Kāyānupassanā sampajānapabbaṃ, Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ

再者,比丘们!比丘在前进、后退时是正知于行为者[17]

在前视、后视时是正知于行为者;

在[肢体]屈伸时是正知于行为者;

在[穿]衣、持钵与大衣时是正知于行为者;

在饮、食、嚼、尝时是正知于行为者;

在大小便动作时是正知于行为者;

在行、住、坐、卧、清醒、语、默时是正知于行为者。

像这样,或住于在自己的身上随观身,

……(中略)比丘们!比丘这样住于在身上随观身。

--《大念处经.身随观正知章》 [18]

经文说:「在前进、后退时是正知于行为者」(abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti)因此,向前走及向后退时,禅修者必须了知他向前或向后行走。他不应该在没有清晰正知之下行走。因此,禅修者应该对站(住)、坐、向后及向前等修习正知。还有,他必须要在身体向左右走动时,同样地修习了知及标记。

这里,有的人可能会说:「『身体向这边、那边走动』这句子并非佛陀教法所述之语(āhaccabhāsita desanā)。」不要自己产生这样的怀疑(vicikicchā):「对这些佛陀没有提及的动作的正知,是否符合于修习安住于身随观身?」佛陀教法所述的话语--「最胜教说」(sāmukkaṃsika desanā),只是概要地说明修法的基本原则,正如文中所见。这并不是全面的说明。如果是这样,那经典分量将会很巨大[27]。

最需要注意的一点,无论是身体向前、向后、向左或右,这各类摆动的本身都是身体现象(色法)。这些身体现象,可以被错误地看待为常、乐、我。因此所有能够被错误地执取的身心现象,都应该被视为内观禅修的对象,以达至破除这些错见的目的。这是毗婆舍那禅法的既定程序。基于此,要明确地铭记于心,所有能够被错误地视为常、乐、我的身心现象,均适合作为禅修对象,正如经中所概述。

四种正知

经文提到:「正知于行为者」(或译「以智行动者」),有四种智可以称为「正知」(sampajañña,或作sampajāna):

一、目的正知(sātthaka-sampajañña)

二、适当正知(sappāya-sampajañña)

三、行境正知(gocara-sampajañña)

四、不迷妄正知(asammoha-sampajañña)

在这四种正知里面,「目的正知」是在考虑过什么是有意义及没有意义后,知道何为有意义的目的,这可以透过提一个念头[28]:「这样做对任何人有没有用处?」因此,思惟有没有意义为「目的正知」。

「适当正知」是对适当性的理解,虽然已经考虑到有没有意义,但到底什么是适合及不适合自己,对个人的状况与个性等是否适合也需要考虑。如果不适合就不应该做。这样的反思适当性就是「适当正知」。

「目的正知」和「适当正知」在世间、出世间的事务上都有用,如果一个人拥有这两类正知,他便能够在此世间获得成就与利益,同时间,这些都可以成为毗婆舍那禅修的基础。这两种正知,可以辅助止、观的培育,它们也被称为「遍持慧」(pārihārikapaññā),但这并未成为「修习慧」(bhāvanāpaññā)。

「行境正知」(gocarasampajañña)意指禅修的业处,随观的行境。这是说,禅修者对其被安排修习的禅修对象,能够一心系念于它。在毗婆舍那禅修的范围[29],是指对身口意活动持续作清晰了知,也就是身、受、心、法这四类活动的观察。这种「行境正知」是毗婆舍那禅修的工作范围。它非常重要。只有当一个人获得了「行境正知」,他也将会获得「不迷妄正知」。因此在《大念处经》里面,它备受重视。

注释书列举的四类行境正知

在注释书里面,列举了四类人来说明行境正知的关系:

Idhekacco bhikkhu harati na paccāharati,

ekacco na harati paccāharati, ekacco neva

harati na paccāharati, ekacco harati

ca paccāharati ca.

~Catusampajaññapabbavaṇṇanā,

Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttavaṇṇanā

「一类比丘(将禅修目标)带去(托钵),(事后)没有带回;

另一类没有带去,但带回;

另一类没有带去,也没有带回;

另一类带去,带回。」

《大念处经疏钞.正知章》 [19]

一、一些比丘在前往托钵时,心系禅修的目标(业处)而去(harati),在托钵后回程时,没有带着目标而回(na paccāharati),对它失念。这是在显示,就算在远行及需要做某些事而可能忘失正念时,一个修行人对禅修有多尊重。作为禅修者,在所居住的寺内他也应当任何时候(即便作务)持续禅修。

二、另一类比丘,他在前往托钵时不系心禅修目标,但在回程时才系心目标。

很多这类比丘,在进食后努力修习毗婆舍那,都达致了圣道及果。昔日,光是斯里兰卡本岛,在任何村落中,没有一处不是坐禅(解脱)之处,比丘们在坐禅后[30],吃过米饭后,就地便证取圣果。因此,应当相信,人们透过努力修习毗婆舍那禅法,就可以证得解脱,即使在饮食之间。

三、第三类比丘,是在前往及回程中,均不系心禅修目标。

这样的人被称为「放弃(禅修)职责的人」(nikkhittadhura-puggala)[20],亦被称为「住放逸者」(pamādavihārī)。这是说他抛弃了正精进的枷锁或责任,任何时候不修正念,因而是一名不负责任的人。他于现生已放弃一切证取解脱的希望,并抛弃了各类毗婆舍那的修习。这样的人是不会留意到有所谓业处(禅修的目标)。然而,还有比这类人更糟糕的,那就是反对他人修习毗婆舍那的人,认为没有人能够在现世中证得解脱。

一个人需要认真深入考虑这桩事[31]。正如一个病者要用药,如果他取得的是良药,会治好他的病;有成熟波罗密的人可以按佛陀所教修习,只要正法尚存,就能证得圣道和果。这一点不应当被忽略。没有经论说一名禅修者不能在现生中证得解脱。

另一方面,注释书说只要按佛陀的教导修习毗婆舍那禅法,一个人能够成为具足「三明」(tevijjā)的阿罗汉:

‧宿命明(pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇaṃ)--忆起过去多生;

‧天眼明(Dibbacakkhuñāṇaṃ)--观察众生的生死趣向;

‧漏尽明(āsavakhayañāṇaṃ)--明了苦因及其灭去之道。

律藏的注释也指出,这样修习,一个人最低可以获得阿那含果。

正行而住则圣者住世

来自《长部.大般涅盘经》的佛语可说是最值得我们依靠:

Ime ca, subhadda, bhikkhū sammā

vihareyyuṃ, asuñño loko arahantehi assāti.

~ DN.16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ

而,须跋陀!如果这些比丘正住,

则世间是不会缺少阿罗汉的

~《长部16经.大般涅盘经》[32]

这句经文的用意是:「如果有修毗婆舍那的禅修者及圣者正住于世,这个世界就不会没有阿罗汉」。在此文中,明白「正住」(sammāvihareyyuṃ)的正确解说,对我们而言是高度重要。

如果圣者及禅修者都独处闲静,修习毗婆舍那,没有弘扬佛法,那么佛陀教法可以持久吗?不能。只有导师们给弟子众教授佛法,鼓励他们修行,那么佛法才会持久。因此,「正住」(或译「正行而住」)应该以此方式理解。按注释书,「正住」的意思是「教导人们他所明了的佛法及其修习方法,并鼓励他们证得他所证得的法。」基于此,一个明白佛法的人,可以向一、二、三乃至十人以上宣扬佛法,让佛法代代相承。我想再进一步解说注释者的话:

Sammā vihareyyunti ettha sotāpanno

attano adhigataṭṭhānaṃ aññassa

kathetvā taṃ sotāpannaṃ karonto

sammā viharati nāma. Esa nayo

sakadāgāmiādīsu.

「正行而住:预流者向他人说明自己证得的方法后,

令他人证得预流,此即名为『正行而住』。

一来者等也是如此。[33]

Sotāpattimaggaṭṭho aññampi sotāpattimaggaṭṭhaṃ

karonto sammā viharati nāma. Esa nayo sesamaggaṭṭhesu.

住预流道者向他人说明并令住预流道,

此名为『正行而住』,住余道者也是如此。

Sotāpattimaggatthāya āraddhavipassako

attano paguṇaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ

kathetvā aññampi sotāpattimaggatthāya

āraddhavipassakaṃ karonto

sammā viharati nāma.

Esa nayo sesamaggatthāya āraddhavipassakesu.

Idaṃ sandhāyāha – ‘‘sammā vihareyyu’’nti.

~Subhaddaparibbājakavatthuvaṇṇanā, Mahāparinibbānasuttavaṇṇanā

为(达至)预流道而勤修毗婆舍那者,

向他人说明自己熟习的业处后,

令他人为预流道勤修毗婆舍那,

此亦名为『正行而住』。

为余道而勤修毗婆舍那者也是如此。

以此而说:『正行而住。』

《大般涅盘经疏钞.游行者须跋陀事章》[21]

这些是注释者(觉音尊者)所作的说明。按他所说,只要这世间可以出现任何看清实相的人,佛法会因此而长久兴盛。这句「正住」表示「教导毗婆舍那禅以传扬佛陀教法」[34],而这亦包括教理传授(pariyatti)的方面。现在,我们不是看到经论的教授与学习吗?这不就正符合「正住」这句话吗?因为教理的存在,无疑地这个世界不会缺乏圣者和阿罗汉,这是按照经文「此世间阿罗汉会是不空的」(asuñño loko arahantehi assāti)而言。

如果大家考虑到经文所确保的利益,你将会明白到:「当一个禅修者遵循佛陀教导的方法修习毗婆舍那禅法,就算他不能在现生证得解脱,他也会确立了戒、定、慧,并增强了其波罗密。」因此作为佛教徒,不应阻碍他人按佛陀的言教实践毗婆舍那禅法。

人们应当注意,如果妨碍他人修习毗婆舍那,这将会造作了一个障碍自身证得圣道果报的行为(magga-antarāya,道障),而他们也将对佛陀教法造成破坏。[35]

最佳的一类比丘

四、第四类也是最后一类比丘,他在前往托钵时会心系禅修目标,并且在回寺时也系念于它。也即是说,无论日夜,任何清醒时刻他都不离开禅修目标,这是四类中最佳的一类。

Idaṃ pana haraṇapaccāharaṇasaṅkhātaṃ

gatapaccāgatikavattaṃ pūrento yadi

upanissayasampanno hoti.

Paṭhamavaye eva arahattaṃ pāpuṇāti.

圆满遵守来去之义务的行者,

被称为「带去带回者」,

若具备证悟的潜质,

能于年轻时期(生命的第一阶段)得阿罗汉位。

No ce paṭhamavaye pāpuṇāti, atha majjhimavaye.

No ce majjhimavaye pāpuṇāti, atha pacchimavaye.

No ce pacchimavaye pāpuṇāti, atha maraṇasamaye.

No ce maraṇasamaye pāpuṇāti, atha devaputto hutvā.

No ce devaputto hutvā pāpuṇāti, anuppanne

buddhe nibbatto paccekabodhiṃ sacchikaroti.

若于年轻时未证,则于中年。

中年未证,则于临终时。

临终时未证,则生为天子。

未生为天子,则于无佛世出生为人,证得独觉菩提。

No ce paccekabodhiṃ sacchikaroti, atha

buddhānaṃ sammukhībhāve khippābhiñño vā

hoti seyyathāpi thero bāhiyo dārucīriyo……

~Catusampajaññapabbavaṇṇanā,

Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttavaṇṇanā

若未证得独觉菩提,则于睹见佛陀之时瞬间顿悟,

犹如婆醯长老……(略)

《大念处经疏钞.正知章》[22]

注释者说,这类人能够于现生证得阿罗汉果,如果于年轻时没有证到,他会在死亡的时候证得,不然,就会投生作天人并证果,再不就会在遇到佛陀的时候证得,而且他会获得瞬速的证悟与神通(khippābhiñña)。因此,欲修行的禅修者,绝不应该放弃,还有很多其他利益是可以预期的。我们也按着上述的第四类「行境正知」,来教导弟子众,时刻不可忘失正念。

第四种「正知」--Asammohasampajañña的意思是「不迷妄正知」,这是没有呆滞或愚昧的彻底理解(正知)。这是说禅修者随观身心现象的生起和灭去,并持续地了知和理解无常[36]、苦、无我。再者,于向前等不迷妄,是「不迷妄正知」。当「行境正知」圆满地确立后,「不迷妄正知」的智慧就会自然呈现。禅修者并不需要分开地修习它。

它的生起是如此的,禅修者持续地标记移动等行为,定与慧变得成熟,他于是明白:「当『我在摆动』的念头生起,仅以此心念,导致心生风界的产生,并引致身表的出现。这个摆动的活动并不是『真我』(灵魂)所产生、也不是我的。仅仅依靠着心生风界,这个称为『身』的躯体摆动。」这样的理解,便是「不迷妄正知」。

禅修者的责任是需要努力修习「行境正知」--小心地持续观察所有身体活动,而「不迷妄正知」--看清及了解身心现象的集起与消逝为无常、苦、无我,则是定慧的责任。因此,行者的责任、法的责任应当被区分开。请记着,禅修者应尽力圆满「行境正知」的责任,了知及标记各目标。当禅修者的责任以这种方式圆满,定慧就会圆满自己的责任,然后「不迷妄正知(智)」便会出现。

余下的时间不多,我将简短概说经文的内容。经文:「ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti」,意思是「在前视、后视(左右顾视)时是正知于行为者。」。[37] 不论你在看什么,持续标记「看、看」。

 

经文:「samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī」,意思是「在(肢体)屈伸时是正知于行为者。」这表示在关节、不论手脚的弯曲、伸展出现时,应观照它们,标记:「想弯、弯」、「想伸、伸」,动作停止的时候亦应观照它们已停止。

经文:「saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī」,意思是「在(穿)衣、持钵与大衣[23]时是正知于行为者。」在任何时候拿着东西,持续标记:「想拿、拿」。

经文:「asite pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī」,意思是「在饮、食、嚼、尝时是正知于行为者。」在任何时候吃、喝东西,都应持续标记,这里有很多现象可以标记。

经文:「uccārapassāvakamme sampajānakārī」,意思是「在大小便动作时是正知于行为者。」在进行大小便的身体动作时,也应该清晰地持续标记。

经文:「gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī」,意思是:「在行、住、坐、卧、清醒、语、默时是正知于行为者。」一个人应该在行走、站立、坐著、起床、谈话、保持静默的时候作标记观照。

简单而言,这些经文表示对各类大大小小的身体动作修习念处[38],譬如嘴唇的移动、舌头的移动、眼皮的移动、眼睛的张闭、眨眼;总之就是所有身体的移动,因此随观身体现象的集起与散灭。

当持续地这样修习,定力变好,禅修者会清楚知道那想要动或转换(姿势)的心,智慧会自然清净。禅修者明白:「并没有事情的造作者。只有一连串的心念、心生的移动、移动所产生的身表(躯体的摆动),在依次地此起彼落,没有『我』在做。」因此对向前及向后等活动没有迷妄,这被称为「不迷妄正知」。

透过行境正知及不迷妄正知的修习,禅修者会逐步证得各阶段的观智,并最终证得涅盘,熄灭贪嗔痴,一切緣生法止息。到现在,我已给大家修习念处禅法的一些简短指导,以鼓励禅修者修习并趋向涅槃。[39]

到此,今日的佛法开示已完毕。希望大家能够聆听下一节有关观智的开示,也是《大念处经》的最后一讲。

沙度、沙度、沙度

Sādhu ! Sādhu ! Sādhu!

第三讲完

第四讲――证得观智至解脱

(1951年5月28日讲于广播电台)

止与观

今天的开示,将总结《大念处经》的内容。前三讲,主要是「身随观」(kāyānupassanā )的说明,我已经讲了相当的长度,现在应该解说一下「受随念」(vedanānupassanā)、「心随念」(cittānupassanā )及「法随念」(dhammānupassanā ),以及各级的观智(vipassanā-ñāṇa)。那些不曾听闻过这些词汇,或没有实际修习观禅的人,可能觉得要明白它们会有困难。

有两种修习毗婆舍那(内观)的根本方法,一种是「止乘行者」(samatha-yānika),另一种是「观乘行者」(vipassanā-yānika)。在「止乘行者」的修法,禅修者先证「近行定」(upacāra-samādhi)或「安止定」(appanā-samādhi),然后再修毗婆舍那禅,观察那禅定的现象。

在「观乘行者」,禅修者并非必须确立深定,而只需要修观,不涉及这两种定。这也被称为「纯观乘者」(suddha-vipassanā-yānika)的修法,意思是只修观,没有其他。[40]《中部》的注释书《破斥犹豫》(Papañcasūdani)说:

Idha panekacco vuttapakāraṃ

samathaṃ anuppādetvāva pañcupādānakkhandhe

aniccādīhi vipassati. Ayaṃ vipassanā.

Dhammadāyādasuttavaṇṇanā,

Papañcasūdaniyā majjhimanikāyaṭṭhakathāya

在此教法中,有的人未先令奢摩他定生起,

便观照五取蕴的无常(苦、无我)等。

这是(纯粹的)毗婆舍那。

《中部.法嗣经注释》[24]

「vuttapakāraṃ samathaṃ anuppādetvā」(没有先让奢摩他的生起);当一位禅修者彻底专注于身心现象的生灭,他在那禅修期间所暂时获得的定,是与「近行定」等量看齐,并能够驱除盖障。因此大部分注释者把此种内观刹那定(khaṇikasamādhi),置于「近行定」之位。我之所以说明这一点,是希望证明虽然禅修者没有分开地确立(修止的)禅定,他仍能够获取「心清净」(citta-visuddhi)。

这句巴利文:「pañcupādānakkhandhe aniccādīhi vipassati」(观照『五取蕴』的无常等),说明毗婆舍那的意思,是「观照身心的现象,以去除被常、乐、我见所迷惑。」谈到五取蕴,很明显的,这些身心现象于每个众生(身心)相续(santāna)的六根门生起。依何形式(缘)生起?

以眼、色、光、作意为缘,眼识生起。

以耳、声、空、作意为缘,耳识生起。[41]

以鼻、香、风、作意为缘,鼻识生起。

以舌、味、水、作意为缘,舌识生起。

以身、触、地、作意为缘,身识生起。

以意、法、作意为缘,意识生起。

眼、色等属于「色蕴」(rūpakkhandha),它们不断在生起与维持;眼识(看)等属于「名蕴」(nāmakkhandha),它们也是不断在生起与维持。同样地,在听、嗅、尝、触、弯曲、伸展、移动、想的一刻,各类蕴生起及维持。

缅甸有一句谚语:「没有正念,那人连山洞也看不见。有正念,则看得清一粒沙。」[25]一名愚迷的凡夫,不知道怎样修习念处禅法的,永远不能觉察到这些身心现象的生灭。因此,他会把这些生灭的现象,看成是连续的单一个体,并执取它为「我」或「众生」,那个「我」在经验「乐」的事物。

如果禅修者在看、听等发生时,观察及标记它们为「看、看」,「听、听」等,禅修者将明了身心现象的短暂生起与熄灭,并如实地理解它们为无常、苦、无我。因此禅修者需要在六根门的身心现象生起时,观照它们为「看、听、触、知」等,观照和标记应当紧贴现象生起的那一刻。然而,一个人只有当心稳固地确立于禅定,以及慧力强壮时,才能够全面地标记「看、听、触、知」时所生起的许多现象。[42]

从四大下手练习观照

一名初学者将不能够对所有这些现象作标记。如果他尝试这样广泛观察每样现象,他也不能获得定力与慧力。因此,注释者说:

Yathāpākaṭaṃ vipassanā bhiniveso

~visuddhimagga mahāṭikā

随着明显的(名色法),执持毗婆舍那
~《清淨道論大钞》

在二十八种色法里面,四大种(mahābhūta)应当被首先观照,因为它们性质粗显易知。其中,地大(pathavī)、火大(tejo)、风大(vāyo)都是可感触到的对象。因此,如果你以可感触到的对象为目标,并于身随观身,标记「触、触」,你必然可以体悟三种元素的其一。地大的特相是硬或软;火大的特相是热或冷;风大的特相是支持或移动。

至于水大(apo),则不是透过身门的接触来感知。但是,当你对那些可感触对象的生灭进行观照标记,你也能够留意到水大的特相(lakkhaṇa)、作用(rasa)和现起(paccupaṭṭhāna),诸如流动、凝结等。因此你必须要观察标记任何时候生起的身体活动,于身随观身,你将清晰地留意到四大的特相[43]、作用和现起。

就这四大中,我现在应当解说风大的特质。「支撑」是风大的特相(vitthambhana-lakkhaṇā),「导致动摇」为其作用(samudīraṇa-rasā),「带动」是其现起(abhinīhāra-paccupaṭṭhānā)。在标记行走或站等的时候,了知在支撑及紧绷等,就是了知风大的特相。知道渐次的移动,那是了知风大的作用。知道拉扯、推及传送,这是了知风大的现起。其他三大地、水、火也有各自的特相、作用和现起。

简言之,无论是什么现象,都应在其生起及维持时,紧贴地观照、标记它们。如果禅修者对四大的其中之一修习念处,他将很快能够了悟其特相、作用和现起。这是符合《清净道论》(visuddhimagga)所说:「lakkhaṇa-rasādivasena pariggāhetabbā」(应以特相、作用等方式观察),这部论也是基于佛陀的教导来撰写。

受、心、法念处的修习

受念处

因此,谨记《大念处经》提供了各种方法,圆满地修习毗婆舍那。一个人应当在身心现象生起的时候修习念处,并于身随观身,如《四威仪章》,《正知章》所说。当这样观照时,如果一个人经历到不可意的感受,例如「紧绷」「压迫」或「痛」,一个人应当留意那感受生起的地方。如果中性的感受(upekkhā vedanā)或舒服的感受(sukha vedanā)生起,禅修者都应该这样观察,于受随观受[44]。这称为「受随观」。

就这一点,注释书用了小童、普通人及一名禅修者来分别说明不同层次的智慧。由于时间所限,我只能作非常短的简介。如果一个人希望知道一位禅修者的智慧有什么不同,那么他应该修习四至六日,他便能够获得此生中不曾经验过的清澈体悟。

心念处

这里还有一点需要注意,当一位禅修者于身随观身,他将会发现心识从一个目标走到另一个目标、或者知道在打妄想。当这些乱想生起,禅修者亦应当标记它:「游走」「想」「知道」等,并观照其生灭。这称为「心随观」。佛陀在《大念处经》中说:

sarāgaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘sarāgaṃ cittan’ti pajānāti

了知『有贪的心』为有贪的心

注释者进一步说,应该在每一个心识生起的时候观照它。[45]

法念处

另外,当「盖障」(nīvaraṇa)如贪欲(kāmacchanda) 、恶意(byāpāda)、昏沉(thina-middha)、掉悔(uddhacca-kukkucca)、疑(vicikiccha)生起,禅修者应当对这些盖障修习正念,并观照它们的生灭,直到它们彻底消失。一位初学者会发现标记它们会有些困难,标记它们需要很长一段时间,但随著定慧力逐渐确立,他将可以跨越这些盖障,届时只需标记一下便去除它。正如同小童被其父母喝一声便静下来一样。这种随观,称为「法随念」(Dhammānupassanā)。

我没有足够时间可以把(法念处章余下的)蕴(khandha)、处(āyatana)、界(dhātu)、觉支(bojjhaṅga)及圣谛(sacca)讲解。即便各阶的观智,我也只能够简短说明。

正如早前所述,当禅修者在身心现象生起的时候修习念处,其内观禅修所获得的剎那定,将会变得茁壮[46],他将会对其取为目标的对象达至「心一境性」,因为已经没有散乱或游走,心变得纯净。这被称为「心清净」(citta-visuddhi)。

观智进程

第一阶观智--名色分别智

tadārammaṇā arūpadhammā sayameva pākaṭā honti

~ Ch.18 Diṭṭhivisuddhiniddeso, Visuddhimagga

对于以彼(色)为缘的非色法(心)亦自得明了

《清净道论.第十八说见清净品》[26]

在心清净的阶段,禅修者如论典所说「于彼观察(色法)的心自动地变得明晰」,那观察的心非常清楚明白。因此,当他任何时候保持正念,他观察到色法,以及那标记色法的心;明白只有身心现象成双地生起灭去,没有其他。他清楚明白,除了「名法」(nāma)及「色法」(rūpa),即身心现象之外,没有「我」或「众生」。这称为「见清净」(diṭṭhi-visuddhi),以及「名色分别智」(nāmarūpa-pariccheda-ñāṇa)。

第二阶观智--缘摄受智

在屈伸身体等,禅修者明了到当心想屈伸,屈伸的身体动作就产生。他清楚理解:「身体的移动,依心生色法、身表而产生」。还有当这样时,禅修者明白到:「依眼根、色尘、光、作意,眼识生起。」因此他明白到只有因、缘,然后果报生起,没有看者、造作者等。这称为「缘摄受智」(paccayapariggaha-ñāṇa)[47],也被称为「度疑清净」(kaṅkhāvitaraṇa visuddhi)。如果禅修者认真努力地修习毗婆舍那两三日,他将会能够获得这种清净。

第三阶观智-- 思惟智

再者,当禅修者继续以这方式观照,他会发现身心现象在生起后快速地消失,有时候他也会经验到很多不舒服的感受。他于是思惟到:「因为现象生起后瞬间便消逝,它们是『无常的』。」由于禅修者的心流持续地被这些生灭现象所压迫,他体会到「苦」。然后,这些现象来来去去,没有任何人能够阻止它们如此地发生,也没有人能够主宰它们,它们按照因果规律自己运作着。这是「思惟智」(sammasana-ñāṇa)--观察、审视、确定所有现象为无常、苦、无我。

第四阶观智-- 生灭随观智

此后,禅修者会发现,那被观照标记的现象,生起后即灭。它们没有从一处去另一处。它们在此处彼地立刻生灭。这称为「生灭随观智」(udayabbaya-ñāṇa)[48]。要达到这一阶段,禅修者应当努力修习四到六天。

然而在这个观智开展之初,称为「观染」(vipassanūpakkilesa)的现象可能会出现,诸如灿烂的光芒、狂喜、平静、乐受等。当一名禅修者经验这些奇特的现象,他会很雀跃并执取它们。但他不应如此,而是标记它们,并随观它们为无常、苦、无我。如果我要圆满解说这些观染,我将需要花很长时间讲述。大家可以在我所写的《内观禅修枢要》(Manual of Insight,又名《内观禅修手册》)第二章看到详细的说明。

第五阶观智-- 坏灭随观智

再来,当禅修者如此地观照,他将会留意到观照的心与所观照的现象不断崩灭,没有掺杂任何概念,感知不到任何形状及形象,只看到迅速的散灭。此观智被称为「坏灭随观智」(bhaṅga-ñāṇa)。

然而有的人误以为,在坏灭智的时候,他们会观察到禅修对象的心理影像,然后在观照后看到其坏灭,观见形状及形象的崩坏。大家应当注意,这并非坏灭智。因为这一观智,不会存有任何概念或观念。只有在思惟智,你才会发现这种情形。[49]

应正确地注意,只有了知到观照的心及被观照的对象,彼此双双消逝,远离任何形状及形象(没有概念),这才是坏灭智。因此,禅修者必须努力修习毗婆舍那,并证取如坏灭智等观智。

第六至十一阶观智-- 怖畏现起智至行舍智

当禅修者抵达坏灭智,便逐渐能够取得更高的观智如「怖畏现起智」(bhaya-ñāṇa)、「过患随观智」(ādīnava-ñāṇa)、「厌离随观智」(nibbidā-ñāṇa)、「欲解脱智」(muñcitukamyatā-ñāṇa)、「审查随观智」(paṭisaṅkhā-ñāṇa)及「行舍智」(saṅkhārupekkhā-ñāṇa)。它们会一个一个地生起。

这里只能够点睛地说明,因没有足够时间。事实上,禅修者还需要跨越某些障碍和干扰来证得圣道智的,因此「业处阿闍黎」(kammaṭṭhānācariya,即禅师)的正确指导与鼓励是不可或缺的。

涅盘的证得

然而,如果禅修者在身心现象生起时,持续以正念观察其生起与灭去[50],热忱及全心投入观照它们为无常、苦、无我,他将证得上述的观智,以及连同「至出起观智」(vuṭṭhānagāmini-vipassanā-ñāṇa)[27]及「随顺智」(anuloma-ñāṇa)的生起。这些殊胜智会发展趋向「圣道智」(magga-ñāṇa)--证悟的智慧。

「随顺智」结束后,就会接续生起「种姓智」(gotrabhū-ñāṇa),然后「圣道智」及「果智」(phala-ñāṇa)生起;道智以「无为」「止息」「不生」「寂灭」--涅盘为目标。行者于此证得涅盘,彻底地解除依因缘法所生之苦(saṇkhāra dukkha)。因为此寂静境界的证得,所以被称为「涅盘的证得」或「见法涅盘」。这符合经文所说:

dhammacakkhuṃ udapādi – “yaṃ kiñci

samudayadhammaṃ, sabbaṃ taṃ nirodhadhamman”ti.

~ Dhammacakkappavattanasuttaṃ

法眼生起:「凡任何集法都是灭法。」

~《相应部.法轮转起经》

《弥兰陀王问经》亦说:

tassa taṃ cittaṃ aparāparaṃ manasikaroto

pavattaṃ samatikkamitvā appavattaṃ okkamati, appavattamanuppatto, mahārāja, sammāpaṭipanno

‘nibbānaṃ sacchikarotī’ti vuccatī’’ti.

彼心再三作意,遂超越于(诸行)转起而入于不转起。

大王,若在正行道之际,

彼得(诸行之)不转起即名为证涅盘。[28]

当存在的现象「不转起」,这便称为「面对面睹见涅盘」。为了让人修习毗婆舍那,及于此时此地证得涅盘,佛陀宣说了《大念处经》,指示出那道路。

我在这数讲中,已展示了前分道,对于想证得涅盘的人们,如果想了解更多详细内容,则可以阅读《内观禅修枢要》。我将于此处结束讲记。

「愿所有众生都能够信受奉行《大念处经》的教导。」[51]

「愿所有众生都能够修习四念处。」

「愿所有众生都能够依法圆满学处,

迅速证得道、果与涅盘。」[52]

沙度、沙度、沙度

Sādhu ! Sādhu ! Sādhu!

第四讲完

(全书结束)

延伸阅读

1. 《中部.念处经--四念处禅修方法之研究》 何孟玲,华梵硕士论文。2001年,新北市。

2. 《念住--通往证悟的直接之道》无著比丘(香光书乡编译组),香光书乡出版社。2017年,嘉义市

  1. 补入原经文。中文取自庄春江居士的《大念处经》中译及巴利文版本,但略去了原文年、月上的反复式内容(http://agama.buddhason.org/DN/DN22.htm)。
  2. 这章节的七利益内容及后面对神通的一大段评论,在尼泊尔尊者的英译本并没有记载。
  3. 庄春江居士注:「四念处(SA/MA/DA);四意止(AA)」,南传作「四念住」(cattāro satipaṭṭhānā),菩提比丘长老英译为「四个深切注意的建立」(four establishments of mindfulness),并解说「satipaṭṭhāna」一词,论师们有两种解读法,若解读为「念+现起」(sati+upaṭṭhāna),则为「念住;深切注意的建立」,若解读为「念+出发点」(sati+paṭṭhāna),则为「念处;深切注意的基础」,前者强调「建立念的行为」,后者强调「应用念的所缘」,虽然论师多倾向后者,但前者确定是更原始的(即属于更早期的诠释)。按:四念处被称为「自处父母境界」(SA.617)、「放牧处」(SA.1249)、「自洲自依」(SA.638)。
  4. 补入相符的巴利名词。
  5. 「正念」(sati)这个词汇,在无着比丘所作的《念住》一书,定义为mindfulness,中译多作「注意」、「觉知」;本书则多以「觉察」「观照」来表示,而不使用「觉知」;以防混淆另一个词汇pajānāti:「了知」,后者是「正知」的内容。
  6. 《巴汉词典》明法尊者增订:Sabhāva,【阳】自性,情況,性情,真实。sabhāvadhamma,【阳】自然的原则。sabhāvarūpa,有自性色–具有各自的特性,例如地界的硬等。
  7. 这一小段内容为总部版所无。
  8. 尼本在这些描述受心法的段落,重复叙述了类似身随观的內容,总部本概略处理,此处则在描述身随观后,整合受心法為一段,略去冗长部分。
  9.  此处补入额外的巴利经文。全部内容及故事,请参考《中部51经.耿达勒葛经》(MN.51 Kandarakasuttaṃ):http://agama.buddhason.org/MN/MN051.htm
  10. 此章节的内容尼本所无。
  11. 补入全章经文,庄春江居士中译本。
  12. 读者应注意,这里的「了知」(pajānanaṃ或pajahati等),是通用于想、识及智的了知,而禅修的了知是与智相应的了知,如《清净道论》云:「以了知之义为慧。这了知是什么?是和想知及识知的行相有别的各种知。」(Kenaṭṭhena paññāti pajānanaṭṭhena paññā. Kimidaṃ pajānanaṃ nāma? Sañjānanavijānanākāravisiṭṭhaṃ nānappakārato jānanaṃ. )
  13. 补入巴利注释原文,中译依索玛尊者(Soma Thera)的英译本所作。
  14.  补入巴利注释原文及中译。
  15. 庄春江居士的注释:(1)「集(SA/DA);习(SA/MA);习/习起(AA)」,南传作「集;集起」(samudayaṃ,动词samudayati),菩提比丘长老英译为「起源,起来;出现」(origin, origination/动词originate, arising)。 (2)「集法(SA);习法/有习之法(AA)」,南传作「集法」(samudayadhammo),菩提比丘长老英译为「属于有起源者」(subject to origination),或「起源性质」(the nature of origination, SN.47.40)。这里的「法」不是指「正法」。
  16. 「观察生灭/谛观法生灭(SA);作生灭相(GA);观兴衰法(MA);观法生灭(DA)」,南传作(i)「随观生灭」(udayabbayānupassī),菩提比丘长老英译为「凝视起落」(contemplating rise and fall, SN),或「凝视出现与消失」(contemplating arising and vanishing, AN)。按:这里的「灭;衰灭」原文为 vaya=baya 而非 nirodha。(ii)「随观这消散的」(vayañcassānupassati),菩提比丘长老英译为「观察其消散」(he observes its vanishing, AN)。按:《满足希求》说,他看见他这个心的生起与消散(tassa cesa cittassa uppādampi vayampi passati, AN.6.55)。(iii)「导向生起与灭没[之慧]」(udayatthagāminiyā [paññāya]),菩提比丘长老英译为「识别出现与消失之智慧」(the wisdom that discerns arising and passing away, AN)。
  17. 庄春江居士注:「正知于行为者」(sampajānakārī,逐字译为「正知+作者」),菩提比丘长老英译为「以清楚的理解而行动者」(who acts with clear comprehension)。
  18. 补入巴利经文和中译。
  19. 补入注释书原文及中译。
  20. Nikkhitta,(Nikkhipati的【过分】放下,搁置,放弃。nikkhittadhura﹐【中】放下职责。paviveke nikkhittadhurā﹐闲居而无所事事。
  21. 从班迪达大师《解脱道上》(温宗堃中译)的辅注补入巴利对照译文,并加以润饰。
  22. 补入注释书原文及中译。
  23.  庄春江注:「僧伽梨」,南传作「大衣」(saṅghāṭi,音译为「僧伽梨;僧迦梨;僧迦利」,另译为「重衣」),菩提比丘长老英译为「外衣」(outer robe)。
  24. 补入注释书内容。
  25.  原文本只引述了前半句,这里补上整个谚语。
  26. 整段引文明确说明,先以反复观察色法、掌握、心得清净后,继而把握名法。(Sace panassa tena tena mukhena rūpaṃ pariggahetvā arūpaṃ pariggaṇhato sukhumattā arūpaṃ na upaṭṭhāti, tena dhuranikkhepaṃ akatvā rūpameva punappunaṃ sammasitabbaṃ manasikātabbaṃ pariggahetabbaṃ vavatthapetabbaṃ. Yathā yathā hissa rūpaṃ suvikkhālitaṃ hoti nijjaṭaṃ suparisuddhaṃ, tathā tathā tadārammaṇā arūpadhammā sayameva pākaṭā honti.)「如果那瑜伽者以诸门(观察法)把握了色,而后去把握非色,然因微细、非色不能现起,但他不可放弃重任(修行),必须把色数数思惟、作意、把握、确定。当他对于色次第澄清、去结、而极清净之时,则以彼(色)为所缘的非色法亦自明了。 」 (叶均居士中译)
  27. 「至出起观智」( vuṭṭhānagāmini-vipassanā-ñāṇa),又称「达顶点观」,是第十一至十三观智(行舍智、随順智、种姓智)的统称。
  28. 补入原经更详细的经文以辅助说明。引述的为巴宙居士的中译。

阿毗达摩讲座 戒喜禅师讲

阿毗达摩讲座 中英对照

戒喜禅师讲

英译中:Bodhi Fansubs 菩提字幕屋

 

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I’m very glad to be here, be with you

我很高兴能在这里与大家一起

and to share my knowledge of abhidhamma with you

分享关于阿毗达摩的知识

I’m grateful to, I don’t remember, the sponsors so who made it possible this class

感谢促成这次课程的人

In Therava tradition,

根据上座部传统

whenever, an author writes a book,

一个人写一本书之前

he first pays homage to the triple gem,

首先要向三宝致敬

and also to his teachers.

同时也要向他的老师致敬

and today I’m very glad that all of you paid homage to the triple gem

今天你们向三宝致敬,我很高兴

the aim of paying homage to the triple gem as the beginning of a class,

在上课前,向三宝致敬的目的

or as the beginning of writing a book,

或者在写书之前,向三宝致敬的目的

is for the task to have a success end without hindrance

是为了让一切圆满,没有障碍

so we hope to finish this class without any hindrance.

我们希望这个课程圆满结束,没有障碍

years ago, I was reading a book,

若干年前,我读了一本书

a small paperback, and the name of the book was See Without Glasses.

一本小小的平装书,书名是:《摘掉眼镜也能看》

this book contains some exercises for the eye muscles.

这本书教导眼部肌肉锻炼的方法

so as to correct the vision

用来矫正视力

so that you can read without glasses.

这样就能摘掉眼镜去看书

the excises as given in that book was so invovled,

书中教导的方法很复杂

that I gave up

所以我放弃了

that is why I am still wearing glasses today.

以致现在我还戴着眼镜

But what struck me, the book struck me was some statements in that book,

但是书中有些论点还是让我吃惊

in one place, that book says, seeing is 90% mental

其中一处,它说:观看90%是心理性的作用

and only 10% physical

只有10%是生理性的作用

that book was written by MD, MD means medical doctor.

这本书是个医学博士写的

so when he wrote this, I was very surprised,

他这样说,我很吃惊

because it came very close to what was taught in abhidhamma

因为,这和阿毗达摩里的教导很类似

according to abhidhamma,

根据阿毗达摩

seeing is more mental than physical,

看,较之于生理活动,更多地是心理活动

now it is true that the eyes, and the object to be seen, play some part in the seeing

当然,眼球、所看到的物体对于“看”也起到一些作用

but seeing consists of a great amount of mental activities,

但是“看”包含了大量的心理活动

and these mental activities are explained in detail in abhidhamma

这些心理活动在阿毗达摩里得到了详细的介绍

in another place, the book says,

在另外一个地方,书里写道

in order for you to see the letter A

为了看到字母A your eyes shift four times,

你的眼睛转动四次

so only after shifting four times, do you see the letter A

你的眼睛转动四次,你看到字母A that also comes very close to what was taught in abhidhamma

这也与阿毗达摩里的讲法很类似

according to abhidhamma, in order to, say, I see a man, or I see a woman,

根据阿毗达摩,例如要想看一个男人、女人

you mind has to go through five types of thought processes

你的一个心需要经过五种心路过程

and each thought process repeat in thousands of times

每一个心路过程要重复成千上万次

so only after going through these five, classes of five types of thought processes

只有经过这五种心路过程

do you see a man or a woman

你才看到一个人

so it comes very close to what’s taught in abhidhamma

所以这本书和阿毗达摩很相似

so, quite often, we find some parallels in science, or in science and the abhidhamma.

所以,我们经常在科学里看到与阿毗达摩类似的讲法

and also, in the Reader’s Digest magazine

同样,在《读者文摘》杂志里

I read a sentence, it was actually the end of article theory

我读到一句关于粒子理论的句子

and that sentence says,

这句话是这样说的

if we take off all space, from the earth, from the globe

如果去掉地球里面的所有空隙

the earth would be no bigger than a golf ball.

整个地球就只有高尔夫球这么大

unbelievable, it is what it is said in the book

不可思议,这本书就是这样写的

and it also came very close to what was taught in abhidhamma

这也和阿毗达摩的说法很类似

so according to abhidhamma, the material properties, arise and exist in groups

根据阿毗达摩,不同种类的色法生起

and between these groups, there is always space

在各种色法之间,有很多空隙

and there are many small particles of material properties existing close to each other

许多色法颗粒紧密相邻

but there is always space between these groups of material properties.

但是在各种色法之间,总有空隙

so although we think that,

所以,即便我们认为

for example, this thing is solid

例如,这东西是致密的

actually it is like a seat

例如像一把椅子

there is much space in this stand

椅子腿之内有很多空隙

so again, it comes very close to what was taught in abhidhamma

这同样跟阿毗达摩的讲法很像

and lately

最近

I saw in an advertisement, one statement,

我在一个广告里看到一句话

now in abhidhamma, it’s taught that

根据阿毗达摩的讲法

mind or consciousness can arise and disappear

心的生灭

billions of times in a second,

一秒钟可以进行成几十亿次

what they said in the books is

我在这本书里看到的是

in the time when you snap your fingers,

弹指之间

billions of thought movements arise and disappear

有几十亿个思维过程生灭

although we have been teaching this for many years,

虽然我们长久以来受到这样的教导

we have no way of proving it,

我们没有办法证实它

until as nuclear science came into being

直到原子科学的诞生

now they have now produced watches,

他们据此生产钟表

they said, themselves

根据他们的说法

taken the time signals broadcast by one station

接受从基站里广播的时间信号

that station is located in the state of Colorado in USA

这个基站位于美国的科罗拉多

so that state is called National Institute of Standard and Technology

那个地方叫国家标准技术研究所

and it is said in this advertisement that

在他们的宣传里说

to an ordinary person, in a second, means just a tick tock of a clock,

对于普通人来说,一秒钟就是时钟滴答一次

what it is a second for us, just a tick tock of a clock 1秒钟对于我们而言,就是时钟滴答一次

but to the nuclear scientists at this center

但是对于那个中心的原子核科学家

it is, a second is nine plus billion vibrations of a cesium-133 atom 1秒就是铯133原子震荡90多亿次

I don’t know about the atoms,

我对原子一无所知

but what struck me was more than nine billion vibrations in a second.

但让我吃惊的是,1秒钟90多亿次

if they can calculate nine billion vibrations in a second

如果他们能计算1秒钟震动90亿次

that means mind and consciousness can arise and disappear billions of times in a second.

表明心可以在1秒内生灭几十亿次

so that also comes very close to what is taught in abhidhamma

这与阿毗达摩的讲法也很类似

so there are many things in abhidhamma that are very interesting

阿毗达摩里有很多有意思的东西

and that that has parallels in modern science

在现代科学里也有类似的说法

now I’m a buddhist monk,

我是个佛教僧人

I do not use modern science as a touchstone

我并不是用现代科学作为试金石

to test buddhism on it

用它来检验佛教

my attitude is the other way around,

我的态度恰恰相反

I will take the teachings of the Buddha as the touchstone,

我要将佛教作为试金石

and test science on it.

用佛教来检验科学

and if science does not agree with what the Buddha taught,

如果科学和佛教有不吻合的地方

I will wait for a time when it agrees with what the Buddha taught,

我就会等等看,等科学将来发展到与佛教一致

so in abhidhamma there are many things that are interesting

在阿毗达摩里,很多东西很有趣

it is like a storehouse,

阿毗达摩就像一个仓库

this storehouse of precious stones waiting to be explored

这个宝库里的矿石,将要被开采

waiting to be understood by people like you,

等着像你们这样的人来理解

so I’m very glad that today there are

所以我很开心,今天

I’m told that there are about 200 participants at this class

我听说有大概200人来听课

this is the biggest class I have ever taught

这是我教过的人数最多的课程

Now it is, there are two divisions of Buddhism

现在谈谈佛教的两个派别

two major divisions of buddhism, mahayana buddhism and theravada buddhism

佛教的两个主要派别:大乘佛教和上座部佛教

now we have parted from each other, but we still are brothers,

虽然已经分成了两个派别,但我们还是兄弟

but we have different

但是我们也有不同

teaching that common to both these branches, and also we have some different teachings, different suttas.

我们有相同的教法,但是也有不同的教法和经典

there is abhidhamma in mahayana, and there is abhidhamma in theravada

大乘和上座部都有阿毗达摩

they are not exactly the same.

它们不尽相同

since I’m a therava monk, I’m familiar with theravada abhidhamma

因为我是上座部的僧人,所以我熟悉上座部的阿毗达摩

and so the abhidhamma I’m going to teach you in this class is theravada abhidhamma

所以我在本次课程中讲授的是上座部的阿毗达摩

and we need to know how the buddha’s teachings recorded

我们要了解佛陀的教导是怎么记录

and handed down until the present time

并且传承到今天的

it’s a little bit of the history

所以要谈一点历史

how these teachings are handed down

这些教法怎么流传下来

now we now have theravada of three pitakas, or baskets

我们上座部有三藏

and abhidhamma is the third of these baskets

阿毗达摩是三藏之三

we need to know how these teachings are handed down from generation to generation

我们需要知道这些教法是如何代代传承的

now buddha did not write anything down,

佛陀没有写下任何东西

there were no books

当时也没有书

or books were very difficult to get in those days,

或者说当时很难获得书写材料

and also maybe people at that time

或者可能当时的人

thought that buddha’s teachings are so sacred,

认为佛陀的教法太神圣了

they should not be put on books or writing mateirals or whatever

觉得不应该被记录下来,等等

so buddha’s teachings were remembered by his immediate disciples,

所以佛陀的教导被亲传弟子所记诵

or memorized, his teachings were memorized by his immediate disciples.

他的教导被亲传弟子所背诵

and after the death of the buddha,

佛陀去世后

only three months after his death,

佛陀去世后三个月

the surviving disciples

他的亲传弟子

headed by the venerable Mahā Kassapa

以大迦叶尊者为首

decided to hold a council, a buddhist council,

决定结集

so at this buddhist council all the teachings of the buddha were collected,

在这次结集中,所有佛陀的教导都被收集

and two venerable monks

有两位尊者

presented the teachings of the buddha to the council

将佛陀的教法呈给结集的僧众

and each unit of teaching, or each saying

每一句教法

was closely scrutinized

都被严格地审查

and when the participants of the council there were

参加这次结集的人

500 arahants at the council

有500名阿罗汉

so when, all the immediate diciples of buddha,

他们都是佛陀的亲传弟子

so when the participants were satisfied that the piece of teaching was

与会大众都很满意,所有的教法

authentic teachings of the buddha

都是真真实实的佛陀教法

they accepted that teaching by reciting together

他们认可并一起诵读这些教法

so reciting together is a kind of seal of authenticity

一起诵读就表明对真实性的认可

for that particular teaching

对这些教法认可

so in this way, every piece of teaching was closely scrutinized

所有教法都经过了这样严格的审查

and then they were satisfied

大家都满意

they accepted that teaching by reciting together.

通过一起诵读来认可它

the pali word for that kind of ceremony is called Saṅgāyana or Saṅgīti

这种结集巴利语称之为

Saṅgāyana或Saṅgīti meaning reciting together.

意思是合诵或会诵。

so at the first buddhist council

在第一次结集的时候

all the teachings of the buddha were collected and invited into three pitakas or baskets

所有的教法就被归为三藏

later and also into five Nikāyas or collections,

也可以分为五部尼柯耶

and we will come to them later

稍后我们再谈这些分类

three months after the death of the buddha,

佛陀去世后三个月

the first council was held, and at that council all the teachings of buddha were collected and accepted

举行第一次结集,在这次结集中佛陀的所有教法都被收集被认可

then one hundred years after the death of the buddha,

佛陀去世100年后

there was another council,

举行了第二次结集

at that council also, those were accepted at the first buddhist council were reaffirmed, reaccepted

在这次结集时,第一次结集的经文得到再确认,再认可

and then his teachings were handed down from generation to generation by word of mouth.

佛陀的教法就这样代代通过口头相传

234 years after the death of the buddha, during the time of king Asoka

佛陀去世234年之后的阿育王时期

at Pātaliputra in India, the third buddhist council was held

在当时的华氏城,举行了第三次结集

at that council also the teachings that were accepted at the first and second councils were reafirmed,

在那次结集,前两次的经文得到了进一步确认

and accepted

并且得到认可

until that time buddha’s teachings were handed down from generation to generation by word of mouth

直到那时,佛陀的教法都是通过口头代代相传

after the third buddhist council,

到第三次结集之后

the venerable Moggaliputta Tissa, who was the president of that council

目犍连子帝须尊者主持了这次结集

with the help of king of Asoka, sent missionaries to different countries.

在阿育王的帮助下,派人去不同的国家传教

and one group of missionaries was sent to Sri Lanka

其中一个传教团被派往斯里兰卡

and that missionary was very successful and the whole of the island became buddhist.

到斯里兰卡的传教活动很成功整个岛屿的人都信了佛

and tipitaka was brought to Sri Lanka and then

三藏经典也被带到了斯里兰卡

the monks in Sri Lanka wrote commentaries also.

斯里兰卡的僧人也写了注释

but about 450 years after the death of the buddha,

大约佛去世450年后

there was a great rebellion in Sri Lanka

斯里兰卡大乱

people had to flee their places,

人们四处逃窜

and monks also could not stay at their places and so they had to go here and there,

僧人也不能安住,只能东躲西藏

some went into the forests and so on,

有些人跑进了森林

so the country was all in disorder

整个国家一片混乱

so when that happened, one group of monks,

这时候,有一群僧人

decided to go to south india, to escape the rebellion

打算逃到南印度避难

but there were other monks who chose to remain in Sri Lanka

有些僧人则选择留在斯里兰卡

although they had very different times and different conditions

虽然他们的境遇各有不同

they tried to keep the tipitaka intact in their memory.

但是他们都尽力保持完整记诵三藏

they may not have enough to eat but recited that tipitaka, so that they do not forget.

他们可能没有足够的食物但是他们对三藏一直记诵不忘

and that rebellion lasted for 12 years

这场动乱持续了12年之久

after 12 years when the rebellion was over, 12年之后,动乱结束

the monks who went over to south india came back to Sri lanka

逃到南印度的僧人回到了斯里兰卡

so when they came back

当他们回来的时候

those who were left behind Sri Lanka

留在斯里兰卡的僧人

said, brothers, you went over to south india, you did not suffer like we did

对他们说:师兄们,你们去南印度不像我们受尽磨难

but we suffered a lot during the rebellion and so

我们在这场动乱中受尽磨难

our memory might have impaired, might have been impaired

我们的记忆恐怕也受到损伤

we may have made some mistakes in our memory

我们的记忆可能出现差错

so let us check the tipitaka you have

让我们一起来核对核对三藏

memorized with our tipitaka which we have memorized

核对我们所记诵的三藏

so they checked, when the two parties checked

所以双方进行了核对

the tipitaka, they had memorized

对双方记诵的三藏进行核对

It was said there was no difference

据说没有任何不同

so they decided in the future

他们觉得在将来

people might not be able to memorize all these and put them together.

人们可能不能记诵这些经典

and so they decided to write down the tipitaka on palm leaves.

他们决定将三藏记录在贝叶上

so that took place about 450 years after the death of the buddha

这件事发生在佛陀去世450年后

done in Sri lanka in place called Aḷuvihāra, near the city of Kandy

这一次结集发生在斯里兰卡康提城附近的阿卢迦寺

then in 1871, 1871年

another buddhist council took place in Myanmar

在缅甸进行了再一次的结集

in the city of Mandalay

地点是曼德勒市

during the time of king Mindon

明东王执政时

so king Mindon was a very devout king,

明东王是非常虔诚的国王

he wanted to do what other kings had not done.

他想完成其他国王未完成的事业

he knew that tipitaka was written down on palm leaves

因为当时三藏是写在贝叶上

now he wanted the tipitaka to last forever.

所以他想永远地保存三藏

so he decided to have tipitaka inscribed on marble slabs

所以他决定将三藏刻在大理石板上

it was lucky there was a hill near Mandalay where these marble slabs can be obtained

很幸运,在曼德勒附近有一座山,可以获取大理石

who you have seen many marble buddha statues, you know how good they are.

你们如果见过大理石佛像,就知道那非常壮观

so the tipitaka was inscribed on those marble slabs

三藏都被刻在这些大理石板上

and they were all together 729 marble slabs

一共是729块大理石板

and they are still intact, they are still to be seen in Mandalay

至今保存完好,依然可以看到它们在曼德勒

even though there was fighting during the WWII around that place.

虽然在二战中那里经历了战火

none of these slabs were hit by any bomb shell or whatever

没有任何炮弹击中这些石板

so until today, they stand intact in the compound of the pagoda near Mandalay Hill.

直到如今,它们依然完好无损地保存在曼德勒山附近的佛塔里

that was in 1871

这次结集发生在1871年

then in 1954 after the independence,

然后是缅甸独立之后的1954年,

another council was held, it was called the sixth buddhist council.

举行了第六次结集

to that council, all the representatives of the theravada countries were invited,

这次结集邀请了所有上座部国家的代表

and also prominent leaders from the mahayana countries were also invited.

同时也邀请了大乘佛教国家的著名领袖

and 2500 monks participated in that council

参加结集的一共有2500名僧人

in a man-made cave near Rangoon

地点是在仰光的人造石窟里

so then it was held in 1954 and it went on for six or seven years

时间是在1954年,持续了六七年

so the tipitaka was handed down from generation to generation

三藏就这样代代流传

through the councils

经过一次次的结集

until the fifth council, there were no printed books in Burma or in Myanmar,

在第五次结集之前,在缅甸还没有印刷的书籍

later under the british rule, the books, the tipitaka books were printed

后来在英国治下,有佛经的印刷

and so at the sixth buddhist council,

在第六次结集时

all these tipitaka book along with the commentaries,

所有三藏以及注释书

and sub-commentaries were edited and published

加上疏钞都被编辑出版

so now the myanmar peole have the whole set of tipitaka

所以缅甸人拥有完整的三藏

complete with commentaries and sub-commentaries.

包括注释书和疏钞

now buddha’s teachings are divided into nikayas, and also into pitakas

佛陀的教法可以分成尼柯耶和藏

I want you to be familiar with these two divisions.

我希望你们熟悉这两种分类

So at the first buddhist council,

在第一次结集时

the elders divided the buddha’s teachings into five collections or nikayas

长老们将佛陀的教导分为五部(尼柯耶)

there are collection of long discourses,

它们是:长部

collection of middle length discourses,

中部

collection of kindred discourses or associated discourses

相应部

collection of gradual discourses and collection of minor discourses.

增支部和小部

they are respectively called in Pali:

巴利语分别为:

Dīgha Nikāya, Majjhima Nikāya, Saṃyutta Nikāya, Aṅguttara Nikāya, Khuddaka Nikāya so buddha’s teachings are divided into five collections

佛陀的教法分为此五部

that is one division.

这是一种分类方法

another division is into three pitakas or baskets

另外一种分类就是分为三藏

the word pitaka in pali means basket, or things to be learnt

藏在巴利语意思是篮子,或者说要学习的东西

and these three pitakas are:

三藏是:

Vinaya Piṭaka, Sutta or Suttanta Piṭaka, and Abhidhamma Piṭaka.

律藏、经藏、论藏

so, all teachings of the buddha are divided into five nikayas,

所以佛陀的所有教法可以分为五尼柯耶

and also they are divided into three pitakas

也可以分为三藏

now, the division into nikayas,

五尼柯耶的分类

is not the sub-division of pitaka division.

并非三藏分类的子类

it is a separate division

它是独立的分类

I tell you this because there is so much misunderstanding of our nikayas and pitakas.

我指出这点,因为对于尼柯耶、藏的概念有很多误解

many people think that digha nikaya and so on are a subdivision of sutta pitaka

许多人认为长部等等是经藏的子类

but that is not true.

并不是这样的

the nikaya division is one division,

尼柯耶是一种分类方法

and pitaka division is another independent division

三藏是另外一种分类方法

among the five collections or five nikayas

在五部尼柯耶的分类中

abhidhamma is included in the minor discourses

阿毗达摩属于小部

but in the three pitakas, abhidhamma pitaka is one separate pitaka.

但是在三藏的分类中,阿毗达摩属于独立的一藏

now we come to the word abhidhamma

现在我们谈谈阿毗达摩这个词

the word abhidhamma composed of abhi and dhamma

阿毗达摩这个词包括“阿毗”和“达摩”

abhi is a prefix

阿毗是个前缀

here it means excelling or distinguished

这里的意思是:优胜的,杰出的

and dhamma means teaching

达摩指教法

so abhidhamma means the teaching excelling or distinguished from the teachings in sutta pitaka

所以,阿毗达摩指较之于经藏,是一种优胜的,杰出的教法

and that means they are, they excel or they are distinguished from all the teachings in sutta pitaka

就是较之于经藏的教法它们是优胜、杰出的

with regard to method of treatment

这是就处理方式而言

when we say abhidhamma is excelling teaching

当我们说阿毗达摩是优胜的教法

or distinguished teaching

或者说杰出的教法

from the teachings of sutta pitaka

相对于经藏而言

we do not mean that that taught in abhidhamma pitaka

我们不是说在阿毗达摩里的教法

are better than or higher than those taught in sutta pitaka

比在经藏里的教法更好,更高级

they are called excellent or distinguished because of the method of treatment.

之所以说它是优胜、杰出的是说就它的处理方法而言

many topics were taught both in sutta pitaka and abhidhamma pitaka

经藏和阿毗达摩里有许多相同的主题

but what makes abhidhamma pitaka different from sutta pitaka is

阿毗达摩和经藏的不同之处在于

is method of treatment.

处理问题的方法

now you’re all familiar with five aggregates

你们都很熟悉五蕴

these five aggregates

这五蕴

are treated in brief in the sutta pitaka

在经藏里讨论的很简要

in the pitaka called samyutta nikaya

在相应部里面

the five aggregates are taught in brief

对五蕴的教法很简要

and it occupies only one page

只占了一页纸

but these same five aggregates are treated in abhidhamma

但是同样的五蕴在阿毗达摩里面

following the method of, suttanta method, abhidhamma method and method of questions and answers

通过经藏的方法,阿毗达摩的方法还有问答的方法,进行了介绍

and it occupies 68 pages in the second book of abhidhamma

在阿毗达摩第二卷,它占了68页

so the treatment, the method of treatment is very diferent

所以,处理问题的方法很不同

in sutta pitaka the treatment is very brief,

在经藏里,处理的很简要

in abhidhamma pitaka these five aggregates are treated in full

在阿毗达摩里,这五蕴就介绍的很详尽

according to the suttantta method, according to abhidhamma method, according to

根据经的方式、论的方式

according to the method of questions and answers,

根据问答的方式

so it takes 68 pages

它占了68页

to explain the five aggregates in abhidhamma

在阿毗达摩里解释了五蕴

Now what are taught in abhidhamma?

阿毗达摩里教授了什么?

It is ultimate teaching in contrast to conventional teaching in Sutta Piṭaka.

相对于传统的经藏教法,它是究竟的教法

In Sutta Piṭaka the Buddha used conventional terms

在经藏里,佛陀使用平常的字眼

the buddha used a person, man, woman, I, you, and so on.

佛陀使用一个人、男人、女人、我你,等等

but in abhidhamma pitaka

但是在阿毗达摩里

buddha mostly used the terms of reality

佛陀大多使用的是究竟法的字眼

not conventional terms

不用平常的习惯语言

but the terms of reality, like conciousness, mental factors, material properties and so on.

究竟法的用词,诸如:意识、心所、色法等等

and the realities are expounded in many different ways

用各种方式进行讲解实相

so mind is minutely analyzed

所以心得到了详细的分析

and also matter analyzed in very detail

色法也得到了详尽的分析

mind is divided into Citta or consciousness, and Cetasikas or mental factors.

心被分成心、心所

and matter is also treated in full, given, these sort of matters, that are their causes, and how they are grouped

色法也解释的很详细,起因、分类

and how they arise and disappear in one life and so on.

以及在一个周期里面的生灭

so in abhidhamma, what are called realities are expounded in many different ways.

在阿毗达摩里,用不同的方法解释实相

they are divided, they are analyzed into minute details.

被条分缕析

so mind is divided into first citta and cetasikas

心理活动首先被分成心、心所

and then citta is divided into 89 or 121 types and cetasika into 52 and so on.

心又被分成89或121种,心所分为52种等等

so it is very analytical and it goes into great details and

所以分析的很详尽

mostly the conventional terms are avoided in the abhidhamma pitaka

大多数情况下,阿毗达摩不使用日常用语

in abhidhamma pitaka you find the terms like consciousness

在阿毗达摩里,你会看到:心

mental factors and so on

心所等等

rather than man, woman, individual, I, you and so on.

你看不到男人、女人、个体、我你等等字眼

now people asked: whether abhidhamma is philosophy or what?

有人问:阿毗达摩是哲学还是什么?

abhidhamma is said to be philosophy

阿毗达摩被认为是哲学

because it deals with the most general causes and principles that govern all things.

因为它处理适用于万事万物的一般性因果原则

it can be called philosophy because it deals with reality, it’s about all real entities.

它可以被称之为哲学,是因为它处理究竟法,关于所有实相的

It is also called an ethical system because it enables one to realize the ultimate goal, Nibbāna.

它也被称为伦理体系,因为它让人觉悟到最终的目标,涅槃

actually there is not much of ethics in abhidhamma.

实际上,阿毗达摩中没有多少伦理的东西

when we say we can find some ethics in abhidhamma

当我们说可以在阿毗达摩中找到伦理时

we must understand ethics in a broader sense

我们要从更广义的角度来理解伦理

not in its narrow sense of, the set of moral rules or moral precepts

不是狭义上的道德戒条

we say that is sometime there is ethics in abhidhamma because

我们有时说阿毗达摩也有伦理内容

when consciousness is explained

因为在解释心的时候

consciousness is divided into wholesome consciousness, unwholesome consciousness, and neither wholesome nor unwholesome consciousness.

心被分为善心、不善心、无因心

wholesome consciousness we call good consciousness, and unwholesome consciousness bad consciousness.

善心就是好的心,不善心就是坏的心

so, since consciousnesses are divided into wholesome and unwholesome and neutral

因为心被分善心、不善心、无因心

we can say that there is a little of ethics in abhidhamma

我们可以说,阿毗达摩里也有一些伦理内容

and because it deals with the working of mind with thought processes and mental factors it is also called a system of psychology.

因为它也处理心的作用、思维过程、心理因素,所以,也被称为心理学

It is, I think it is more psychology than ethics or philosophy.

我认为,相较于伦理和哲学它更多地是关于心理学

because it deals with working with the whole mind works

因为它处理的是整个心的运作

and thought process and mental factors

思维过程和心理因素

arising together with the different types of consciousnesses

随着不同种类的心生起

and how they are related

它们之间的相互关系

how they are related

它们之间的相互关系:

consciousness to consciousness, consciousness to mental factors, consciousness to material properties and so on.

心与心、心与心所,心与色法等等

So Sayādaw U Thittila, the well known myanmar sayadaw,

所以缅甸著名吴帝提拉长老

wrote in a book called the Path of the Buddha

在他的书《佛陀之道》里写道“It is a philosophy in as much as it deals with the most general causes and principles that govern all things.”说它是哲学,因为它处理适用于万事万物的一般性因果原则。“It is an ethical system because it enables one to realize the ultimate goal, Nibbāna.”说它是伦理学,因为它让人觉悟到极终的目标,涅槃。

“Because it deals with the working of mind, with thought processes and mental factors

因为它处理心的运作,心路过程和心理因素

it is also a system of psychology.”它也是心理学“Therefore Abhidhamma is generally translated as psycho-ethical philosophy of Buddhism.”所以,阿毗达摩一般可以翻译成佛教心理伦理哲学

so all these three terms put together.

把这三个词汇结合在一起。

now comes to the importance of abhidhamma

现在谈谈阿毗达摩的重要性

many people asked: is abhidhamma necessary?

许多人问:阿毗达摩是必要的吗?

or is abhidhamma essential?

阿毗达摩是关键的吗?

now, abhidhamma is essential for a correct and thorough understanding of Buddha’s teachings.

对于准确彻底理解佛陀的教法阿毗达摩是很关键的

without knowledge of abhidhamma

如果没有阿毗达摩的知识

we do not understand the teachings even in the sutta pitaka

我们甚至不能理解经藏里面的教法

our understanding maybe erroneous or

我们的理解可能是错误的

our understanding may not be complete

我们的理解也可能是不全面的

so it is important for the correct and thorough understanding of buddha’s teachings even in the sutta

所以对于正确彻底理解佛经里的教导它是很重要的

there are people who think abhidhamma is not necessary

有人觉得阿毗达摩不是必要的

we can live without abhidhamma

没有阿毗达摩,我们照样生活

even we do not study abhidhamma,

即便不学习阿毗达摩

our understanding of the buddha’s teaching will not be incomplete or something like that.

我们对于佛教教法的理解也不会不全面,诸如此类

but actually without the knowledge of abhidhamma, it is very difficult to correctly understand the teachings in sutta pitaka

实际上,没有阿毗达摩的知识想正确理解经藏里的教法,很困难

now let us take the example of the first verse in the book called dhammapada

我们就以法句经第一句为例

I hope you all have read the book dhammapada

我希望你们都读过法句经

now the very first verse,

现在看第一句

first line of very first foot of that verse

第一句偈颂

runs in pali as:

巴利语是这样的:

manopubbaṅgamā dhammā

how do you remember they translate it?

你们记得他们是怎么翻译的么

there are many english translations of dhammapada

法句经的英译本有很多

and they are not the same, each one differs from the other one.

他们各不相同

they are the words: manopubbaṅgamā dhammā再读一遍巴利语

if you do not understand abhidhamma,

如果你不理解阿毗达摩

it is difficult to understand what dhamma there.

要了解这里的“达摩”就困难

what does dhamma stand for in that verse?

这句话里的“达摩”是表示什么

and what is mano there?

这里的“mano”是什么?

pubbaṅgamā means forerunner pubbaṅgamā意思是首领

so, now we translate using pali words

我们现在用巴利语来翻译一下

dhammas are those that have mano as their forerunner

达摩要以末那为首领

that is the literal translation of that verse

这是这句话的字面意思

that means dhammas have mano as their forerunner.

意思是达摩需要用末那作为它们的首领

here dhamma does not mean everything in the world

这里的达摩不是指世间的万物

here dhamma means just the mental aggregate

这里的达摩指涉及到心理的蕴

and mano is another mental aggregate or consciousness

末那指识蕴

so this means consciousness is the forerunner of the other mental states

这句意思是心是心所的首领

we are not to understand that: mind is the forerunner of everything in the world

不要将它理解成:心是世间万物的首领

mind is the forerunner of mental states.

心是心所的首领

that means consciousness is the chief of four mental states.

意思是心是心所的首领

if consciousness does not arise, the other mental states cannot arise.

如果心不生起,其他心所不会生起

that is why it is called the forerunner

这就是它被称为首领的原因

here forerunner does not mean that consciousness arises first

这里首领不是说心首先生起

and then mental states arise later and follow it

然后心所跟着生起来

because they arise at the same time,

因为心和心所是同时生起的

the consciousness and mental factors arises at the same time.

心和心所同时生起

but consciousness is called the forerunner of these mental states

但是心被称为心所的首领

simply because without consciousness, other mental states cannot arise

因为没有心,心所就不能生起

so we must understand that

我们必须明白这个

and then you can understand only you know abhidhamma.

只有理解阿毗达摩,才能明白

some translations are quite far from the original pali

有些英译就偏离巴利原文太远了

so they are not translations at all, they’re interpretations.

这样就不是翻译,就是一种诠释了

in this book, some translations are given

这本书里列出了一些英译

things are forerun by mind

心是万物的先导

that is one translation

这是其中一个译文

not so bad

还可以

but the next one: the mental natures are the result of what we have thought

下一个:心理的属性是我们思维的结果

this quite quite different from what the original pali means

这就与巴利语原文很不同了

and then the next one: all that we are is the result of what we have thought

再下一个:我们怎样想,就成为怎么样

althought it is not alien to buddhism

这个译法像是佛教的说法

it is not the meaning conveyed by the verse: manopubbaṅgamā dhammā但是不是巴利语原文的意思

so some translators were

有些翻译者

aware of the commentary explanation,

意识到注释书里的解释

but they just ignored it, they translated as they liked

但是他们对此熟视无睹,随心所欲地翻译

so without the knowledge of abhidhamma,

所以,没有阿毗达摩的知识

even that one sentence, we cannot understand properly

即便是那样一句话,我们也不能正确地理解

again in the dhammapada

再来一句法句经

there is a verse which says

这句是这样的:

“All fear the rod.

所有人都害怕棍棒

All fear death.”

所有人都害怕死亡

that also if we do not understand abhidhamma, we will misunderstand that

同样,如果你不懂阿毗达摩,你也会误解这句。

all tremble at the rod. It means all tremble at the stick.

一切众生在棍棒面前颤抖,就是害怕棍棒

all fear death.

一切众生害怕死亡

now according to abhidhamma arahants and buddhas

根据阿毗达摩,阿罗汉和佛陀

are those who have eradicated all mental defilements

他们已经灭尽了心里的诸漏

since they have no more mental defilements in their mind

他们已经没有心里的染污

there is no attachment in their mind, there is no fear in their mind

心中无执,也没有恐惧

no anger in their mind

心中也没有嗔

so although the verse is: all fear death

即使这句说:一切都害怕死亡

we must understand all does not mean all.

我们必须明白,这里的一切并不是一切

all except buddhas and arahants

一切,但不包括佛陀和阿罗汉

and the next verse also

同样下一句

life is dear to all, that means

一切众生都珍爱生命,意思是

everybody is attached to his life,

所有人都执着于生命

that all also is not all

这里的一切也不是一切

because arahants and buddhas are not attached to their lives

因为阿罗汉和佛陀不执着于生命

because they have eradicated mental defilement all together

因为他们断尽了一切心的染污

no attachment, no anger and so son

无执,无嗔等等

so although the words used are all

所以即使这里用的词是:一切

we must understand that all means all except arahants and buddhas.

我们必须明白,“一切”要排除阿罗汉和佛陀

these are small things but you know if you do not understand abhidhamma, you may misunderstand it

这些是小事情,所以,如果你不懂阿毗达摩就会产生误解

and you may say, now here it’s said that everybody is afraid of death, the buddha must be also afraid of death.

你可能会说,这句经文说:一切人都害怕死亡,所以佛陀也害怕死亡

and the other verse is

还有一句

that verse you already know

这句你们都知道

not to do any evil, to cultivate good, to purify your mind, this is the teaching of buddhas.

诸恶莫作,众善奉行自净其意,是诸佛教

but in order not to do evil, we must understand what evil is

但是要想诸恶莫作,我们得明白什么是恶

if we do not understand what evil is, how can we avoid doing evil?

如果我们不明白什么是恶,那怎么避免作恶呢

the english word evil here i think is too strong.

这里的英语单词“恶”,我觉得程度太重了。

because even when you are eating

因为即便你在吃

when you are eating your meal

即便你在吃饭的时候

there is evil, there is unwholesome

也存在恶,也存在不善

unwholesome mental states

不善的心所

if you eat with attachment

如果你带着执着来吃

then there is unwholesome mental state

就有不善的心所

that is also called evil, in pali it’s called pāpa

这就称之为“恶”巴利语是papa it may not be too bad, but still it is evil

虽然没那么坏,但也是恶

so if we follow the advice of buddha

所以如果我们遵从佛陀的教导

we must eat so that we are not attached to food

我们吃的时候,不要执于食物

and that we do bite applying mindfulness to the activities involved in the act of eating.

在吃的时候,应用正念

or to reflect on food as

或者省思食物

I eat food just to be able to practice the dhamma,

我们吃东西仅仅是为了修习佛法

and not to take pride in myself and so on

不要骄慢等等

so, in order to avoid evil, first we must understand what evil is

所以,要避免作恶,就要先知道恶是什么

and this you can understand only through abhidhamma

只有通过阿毗达摩才能了解这些

ok, another one

好,下一个

you all are familiar with the six attributes of the dhamma

你们都熟悉法的六个性质

svakkhato bhagavata dhammo and so on

法乃世尊所善说等等

so there is one word: akaliko

这里有一个词:akaliko akaliko is translated as not delayed akaliko被翻译成没有延迟的

or giving immediate results

或者说给予立即的结果

kala here means time, time means, time to give results kala在这指时间,产生结果的时间

so akaliko means there is no time for giving results akaliko就是说,产生结果不需要时间

that means it does not delay in giving results, it gives immediate results.

意思是,产生结果不会延迟,立刻就会产生结果

in order to undertand it, you need to understand abhidhamma

要了解这点,你需要了解阿毗达摩

in abhidhamma it is taught that at the moment of enlightenment

根据阿毗达摩的说法,在觉悟的那一刻

a type of consciousness arises,

生起一种心

that consciousness is called magga, path consciousness

这种心叫做道心

and that path consciousness is immediately followed by fruition consciousness

果心会跟随道心立即产生

two or three moments of fruition consciousness

两个或者三个果心

so magga is the cause, fruition is the effect

道心是因,果心是果

so here the magga gives its fruit immediately.

这里,道心立刻产生结果

without any intervention or time

没有任何时间间隔

so that is called akaliko, no time

所以就称之为akaliko,不需要时间

sometimes akaliko is translated as timeless

有时候,akaliko被翻译成永恒的

if we translate it as timeless,

如果这样翻译

we will mean something eternal

意思就是永恒的

it turns out something like that.

就会产生这样的效果

but the word akaliko here means it has no time in giving result.

但是akaliko这里指不需要时间,立即有结果

and you can understand the immediate result only when you know abhidhamma

只有理解了阿毗达摩,你才理解“立即的结果”这个说法

so there are many places in the sutta pitaka

所以,在经藏里很多地方

where you may not understand or you may understand wrongly if you do not know abhidhamma

如果不懂阿毗达摩,你可能就理解不了,或产生误解

another one

下一个

you are all familiar with the four noble truths

你们都熟悉四圣谛

the first noble truth is the noble truth of suffering

第一个就是苦圣谛

so explaining the noble truth of suffering, the buddha said

当解释苦圣谛的时候,佛陀说:

birth is suffering, old age is suffering, disease is suffering death is suffering, and so on

生是苦、老是苦、病是苦、死是苦,等等

and at the end what did the buddha say?

最后,佛陀怎么讲?

in brief, the five aggregates of clinging are suffering.

要而言之,五取蕴是苦

now, how do you understand aggregates

你们怎么理解“蕴”?

how do you understand clinging

你们怎么理解“取”?

and how do you understand aggregates of clinging?

你们怎么理解“取蕴”?

without the knowledge of abhidhamma, you don’t understand that

没有阿毗达摩的知识,你就理解不了这些

here, aggregates of clinging means aggregates that are the object of clinging

这里,“取蕴”指“蕴”是“取”的对象

that is what it means

就是这个意思

aggregates that are the object of clinging

“蕴”是“取”的对象

then what is clinging?

那么什么是“取”?

in abhidhamma it is taught that there are four kinds of clinging

根据阿毗达摩,有四种“取”

in reality, there are two: the attachment of craving and wrong view

在现实中,有两种:执贪、邪见

so those that can be the object of craving and wrong view are called aggregates of clinging

所以,贪和邪见的对象称之为“取蕴”

and there are five of them

有五种

so the buddha said, the five aggregates of clinging are suffering

所以,佛陀说五取蕴是苦

since it is called five aggregates of clinging

因为有五取蕴

there must be five aggregates of not clinging also.

也就有五种“不取蕴”

so five aggregates and five aggregates of clinging

所以,五蕴、五取蕴

these you understand only with reference to abhidhamma

只有参照阿毗达摩,你才理解

so when you understand abhidhamma, you know what these five aggregates of clinging are

当你理解阿毗达摩,就知道五取蕴是什么

it is important to understand the five aggregates of clinging

理解五取蕴很重要

because when you practice Vipassana Meditation

因为,当你进行内观禅修时

you take any of the five aggregates of clinging as the object

你将五取蕴作为所缘

and you do not take aggregates that are not the object of clinging as object

如果不是五取蕴的对象,就不将其作为所缘

so with reference to akalika

参照akalika we talk about magga or path consciousness

我们谈到道心

now path consciousness and each results fruition consciousness

通过道心,产生了果心

are not the object of clinging, they are outside the range of clinging

道心不是执取的对象

so when you practice vipassana you can not take path consciousness as the object.

所以,你进行内观的时候道心不能作为所缘

because if you practice vipassana you take the aggregates of clinging as the object

因为,你内观的时候,只将取蕴作为所缘

so it is important that you understand abhidhamma to you understand this

所以,理解阿毗达摩才知道这些这很重要

so there are many places in sutta pitaka

所以,在经藏里很多地方

where you need the knowledge of abhidhamma

你都需要阿毗达摩的知识

but still there are some people who said we don’t need abhidhamma

但是依旧有人说我们不需要阿毗达摩

now Sayādaw U Thittila again said in the same book

所以在同一本书里乌帝提拉尊者说“Abhidhamma is highly prized by the profound students of Buddhist philosophy,

阿毗达摩被资深佛教学者极度推崇

but to the average student it seems dull and meaningless.”但是对于资质一般的学人,它就显得暗淡,没有意义。

This is because “it is so extremely subtle in its analysis,

这是因为:“它在分析方面,特别深奥,

and so technical in its treatment that it is very difficult to understand without the guidance of an able teacher.”在处理问题上,特别需要技巧,如果没有具格的老师指导,理解起来十分困难。

that is probably why the abhidhamma piṭaka is not as popular as the other two piṭakas among Western Buddhists

所以这大概就是阿毗达摩在西方佛教徒那里没有经律二藏那么受到欢迎的原因。

now abhidhamma pitaka can not be read without the basic knowledge

没有基础知识,就读不懂阿毗达摩

I can not pick up a book on higher mathematics, and read it and understand it because I don’t have basic knowledge of mathematics.

我不能拿起一本高等数学就理解因为我没有基本的数学知识。

so first I must understand the basics of mathematics

我必须先了解基本的数学知识

to be able to read a book on higher mathematics.

才能够去读高等数学

in the same way, you cannot pick up a book on abhidhamma and read it and understand it, that’s impossible

同样,你拿起一本阿毗达摩书,就想弄懂,这也不太可能。

so in order to understand the book of abhidhamma

所以,要想理解阿毗达摩的著述

first you need to know the basic of fundamentals basic knowledge or the knowledge of fundamentals of abhidhamma

首先,你需要了解基本的阿毗达摩知识

so that is why abhidhamma is not so popular

这就是阿毗达摩不太流行的原因

because people may pick up an abhidhamma book and read it and then

因为人们可能拿起阿毗达摩的著述想去读读,

after two pages, they will put it down.

翻了两页,然后就放下了。

so you need the basic knowledge of abhidhamma

所以,你需要有基本的阿毗达摩知识

and what you will be studying at this class is not abhidhamma

所以你在这次课程里并不是学阿毗达摩

but the fundamentals of abhidhamma, the basics of abhidhamma

只是学学阿毗达摩的基础知识

so that after understanding the basics you can go into the real treasure house of abhidhamma with ease.

所以,了解基础之后,你就容易登堂入室

now the other question

另外一个问题

is abhidhamma necessary and essential to gain enlightenment

对于觉悟而言,阿毗达摩必要吗?

or to be successful in practice of meditation?

或者说对于禅修的成功,重要吗?

now the knowledge of abhidhamma is not absolutely essential

阿毗达摩的知识对于

for the realization of truth, for attaining enlightenment

觉悟真理并不绝对关键。

but it is extremely helpful to who practice meditation.

但是对于禅修而言,是特别有帮助的。

if you understand abhidhamma and practice mediation it is like

如果你理解阿毗达摩,禅修就像

reading a guide book before you visit a place

旅行时拿着一本地图

you may visit a place without reading a guide book

你可以不看地图去旅行

but if you have read a book, a guide book on the place you are going to visit

但是如果你提前阅读了地图

and then you visit it later, you know many things about that place

当你访问那个地方的时候,你已经知道了不少知识

you don’t have to be told this is this or this is this

不需要别人告诉你这是什么,那是什么

so when you have knowledge of abhidhamma, you practice meditation

所以当你具有阿毗达摩的知识你禅修的时候

what you experience you can identify

你就可以认识你体验到的东西

you don’t have to ask another person about what the experience is

你不需要去问其他人这些体验是什么

so the knowledge of abhidhamma is like knowledge of a place before you visit that place

所以阿毗达摩的知识就是在旅行前对那个地方的了解

so that is why the knowledge of abhidhamma is helpful for those who practice meditation

所以说,阿毗达摩的知识对于禅修是有帮助的。

but we do not see that it is absolutely esssential

但是,我们不是说它是绝对关键

or you must know abhidhamma before you can practice meditation.

也不是说,你在禅修前必须了解阿毗达摩

because there are many stories during the time of the buddha, that shows that

因为在佛陀时代,有很多故事表明

without the knowledge of abhidhamma you can practice meditation and attain enlightenment.

没有阿毗达摩知识,也可以禅修并且可以获得觉悟。

so two questions: is abhidhamma necessary or essential for the understanding the teachings of the buddha?

两个问题:阿毗达摩对于理解佛陀教法必要吗?

the answer is yes, it is essential for correct understanding of the teachings of the buddha

回答是肯定的。对于正确理解佛陀教法有必要。

is it essential for the realization of the truth, no

对于觉悟真理是必要的吗?并不必要。

but if you have knowledge of abhidhamma, it will help you a great deal

但是如果你有阿毗达摩的知识,就会对你有很大的助益。

so anyway knowledge of abhidhamma is beneficial to those who know it, who posses it

对于掌握阿毗达摩的人而言,它是有益处的

we take a short break.

我们休息一会儿

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whether abhidhamma should be studied or not

到底要不要学阿毗达摩

I would like you to give its advice

我希望你们自己做决定

not go by what other people say about abhidhamma

不要人云亦云

if you ask me

如果你问我

i would say, abhidhamma is very good, and so you should study it

我会说,阿毗达摩很好,你应该学学

but if you ask some other person who does not like abhidhamma

但是你如果问不喜欢它的人

he would say, no, abhidhamma is uninteresting or dull

他会说,阿毗达摩无趣沉闷

you can get no benefit from the study

学它得不到什么利益

so do not go by what other people say

所以不要人云亦云

we all are disciples of the buddha

我们都是佛陀的弟子

the buddha always advice us to find out things for ourselves

佛陀总是让我们自己找答案

when we find out for ourselves that

当我们自己发觉

it is beneficial to us, then we should follow it.

阿毗达摩是有益的,我们就要去照着做

so here also

同样

try to find out for yourselves whether it is beneficial

自己去找答案,它是否有利益

and practice, i mean to study abhidhamma or not

去修习,决定要不要学阿毗达摩

and if you find it’s beneficial for you

如果你觉得它对你有利益

if you find it’s worthwhile to study, then do it by all means

如果你觉得值得去学,就好好学

if you think that it is not valuable after

如果你觉得它没价值

finding out for yourself after studying it, you may leave it alone

你得出这个结论,那么你就别学

so abhidhamma is something that is,

所以,阿毗达摩

like i said, that is essential for the correct understanding of the teachings of the buddha

我讲过,它对正确理解佛教很重要

now we go to the abhidhamma books

现在我们谈谈阿毗达摩诸论书

abhidhamma is the one of the three baskets of buddha’s teachings

阿毗达摩是佛教的三藏之一

the first one is vinaya pittaka, the second is the sutta or suttanta pitaka, the third one is abhidhamma pitaka.

三藏是:律、经、论

and abhidhamma pitaka consists of seven books

论书包括七部

[inaudible] seven books

七部论书

the first book is called Dhammasaṅgaṇī

第一部是《法聚论》

Dhammasaṅgaṇī means the classification of the dhammas

《法聚论》意思就是诸法之分类

classification of consciousness and then the mental factors arising together with different types of consciousness,

对如下诸法分类:心,与诸心一起生起的心所

and also the material properties.

还有色法

and the second book is called Vibhaṅga

第二部是《分别论》

it is the analysis of the dhammas

就是对诸法的分析

so in this book, the terms are defined with many single names and also

这部论将各种名词进行定义

the five aggregates and so on are analyzed in great detail

例如详细分析五蕴等等

and the third one is called Dhātukathā

第三部是《界论》

discussions of dhammas taught in Dhammasaṅgaṇī

讨论《法聚论》中的诸法

now here dhatu does not mean just element

这里的“界”不仅指元素

but dhatu here means all the subjects taught in the first book, that is dhammasangani

“界“指第一部论书《法聚论》里教导的所有主题。

then number four is called Puggalapaññatti

第四部是《人施设论》

designation of types of beings

施设不同种类的众生

now this is one book that is not really abhidhamma

这部论不是真正的阿毗达摩

although it is included in the abhidhamma pitaka,

虽然它被包括在论藏里 because in this book individuals are described

因为这部论书讨论了个体

or in other words, the conventional terms are used in this book

换言之,这部论用了世俗的名相

so it is not actually the abhidhamma proper

所以它不是真正意义上的阿毗达摩

and number five is Kathāvatthu

第五部是《论事》

points of controversy

各种具有争议的论点

actually this book is edited at the third buddhist council

实际上此论是第三次结集时编入的

the commentary said that

注释书说

when the buddha taught abhidhamma to the gods in Tāvatimsa Heaven

当佛陀在忉利天向天人讲授阿毗达摩的时候

and when he came to this book

当他讲到这部论时

he just mentioned like a table of contents

他只是提到目录

and taking those table of contents as the basis for this book

将这些目录作为此论的基础

venerable moggaliputta tissa at the third buddhist council preached this book

目犍连子帝须尊者在第三次结集时宣讲了此部论

now this book is actually the book of debate

这部论实际上只是辩论之书

book of debate between theravada and other opinions

上座部和其他观点的辩论

so this is also not abhidhamma proper actually

所以这部论实际上也不是真正意义的阿毗达摩

it is not easy to understand because it is in the form of debate

它不易理解,因为是辩论的形式

and sometimes if you should do not read from the beginning

有时候,你如果不是从头开始看

sometimes you may not know whether a statement is by the opponent or the defendant.

有时候你就不知道那个论点到底是正方还是反方

and sixth book is called Yamaka

第六部是《双论》

yamaks means pairs, the book of pairs.

“双”表示成对的,

means book of pairs of questions, pairs of answers and so on.

问题是成对的,回答也是成对的,等等

and the seventh is called Paṭṭhāna

第七部是《发趣论》

the book of causal relations

讨论诸缘关系的

now the seventh book is the most comprehensive

这第七部论是最全面的

and also considered to be the most profound of the seven books of abhidhamma

也被认为是七部之中最深奥的

in this book, the 24 types of causal relations are mentioned.

这部论提到二十四缘

and then the relationship between mind and mind, mind and matter, matter and mind, and so on, are described.

谈到心心、心色、色心等等的关系

we take this book to be the most profound of the seven books of abhidhamma

我们认为这部论是阿毗达摩七论中最为深奥的

I hope you all know, the buddha spent seven weeks after his enlightenment under the bodhi tree and near the bodhi tree.

我希望你们知道,佛陀觉悟后在菩提树附近呆了七周

after his enlightenment, the buddha did not preach yet

佛陀觉悟之后,并没有立刻转法轮

but he stayed under the bodhi tree for seven days and then

他在菩提树下呆了七天

went to a place and stood there and looked at the place where he sat for seven days and so on

然后他站起来看了看他坐了七天的地方

and during the fourth week,

在第四个星期里

they said that the buddha contemplated on the abhidhamma

据说佛陀审思了阿毗达摩

so when he contemplated on the abhidhamma,

当他审思阿毗达摩的时候

nothing happened when he contemplated on the first six books

审思前六部论的时候,没什么特别的

when he contemplated on the seventh book, Paṭṭhāna

当审思第七部《发趣论》的时候

six colored rays came out of his body

他的身上发出了六色光

now you all are familiar with the buddhist flag

你们都很熟悉佛教的教旗

how many colors are there in buddhist flag?

佛教旗帜上有几种颜色

actually six colors

实际上是六种

blue, red, yellow,

蓝色、红色、黄色

white and pink and then

白色,粉红,还有

the mixture of these five.

这五种颜色的混合

so altogether, there are six kinds of rays

所以一起就是六种光线

so these six kinds of rays came of the buddha

这六种光从佛陀身上发出

when he contemplated on the seventh book of abhidhamma

当他审思阿毗达摩第七部的时候

that was because the first six books

因为前六部书

although there are very difficult for us, very profound

虽然对我们而言,很难,很深奥

but for the buddha, for the buddha’s super wisdom, there are not deep enough.

但是,对于佛陀而言对于佛智而言,并不够深

so when he was contemplating on the first six books

所以,当他审思前六部论时

his super wisdom was like a big whale put in a small tank

甚深佛智就像一头巨鲸,放在一个小水箱里

that the whale could not move upon as it likes

这头鲸不能自在移动

in the same way, his super wisdom could not get enough space to move about.

同样,佛智在前六论上没有足够的空间活动

but when buddha contemplated on the seventh book

当佛陀审思第七部论时

his wisdom was like the whale put back to the ocean

他的智慧如同鲸鱼重回大海

so when the whale was put back into the ocean, he will be very glad, he will move about freely

当鲸鱼重回大海,他就非常开心因为能自由自在活动

so in the same way, when the buddha reached the seventh book,

同样,当佛陀审思第七论的时候

his super wisdom can go deep into vipassana, and vipassana was deep enough for his super wisdom to go about,

他的审思佛智可以进入内观,他的智慧可以在内观中深入

so when buddha was contemplating on the seventh book, he became very glad.

所以,当佛陀审思第七部论的时候他很欢喜

when his mind was glad, his heart became clear

他的心欢喜,所以他的心变得清澈

and when his heart became clear, the other material properties also became clear

当他的心清澈,其他色法也变得清澈

and that’s why the rays of the six color came out of the body of the buddha

所以六色光就从佛身发出

so the seventh book is said to be the most profound and also the most comprehensive

所以说,第七部论最深奥,最全面

now during the time of the buddha

在佛陀时代

it may be enough for the disciples to understand the seven books without other help.

他的弟子可以不借助帮助理解这七部论书

but as time went on

但是随着时间的推移

when the disciples began removed the buddha by time

佛子们离佛日远

they began to need some books for explanation to the seven books of abhidhamma

所以就需要对七部论书进行解释

so the commentaries were written on these seven books on abhidhamma

所以就有关于这七部论的注释

and these commentaries were later complied into one commentary by the venerable buddhaghosa

这些论书最后被觉音尊者所归总

so the venerable buddhaghosa in the fifth century AD wrote commentaries to abhidhamma pitaka

五世纪的觉音尊者为论藏写了注释

he wrote means, actually he edited and translated the existing commentaries written in sinhalese language

实际上他是编辑和翻译了已有的僧伽罗语注释书

so even though venerable buddhaghosa lived in the fifth century

虽然觉音尊者生活在五世纪

what he wrote in the commentaries go back to the time of the buddha himself.

但是注释书里的内容可以追溯到佛陀时代

what is why we have so much respect for the commentaries.

所以我们对注释书抱有极大的尊重

we do not believe that venerable buddhaghosa wrote these commentaries all by himself.

我们不相信觉音尊者自己写了这些注释

actually he was just a compiler and the translator of the existing commentaries

实际上他只是对已存的注释书进行编译

and that go back to the time of buddha himself

而这些注释书可以追溯到佛陀时代

that’s why we have so much respect for the commentaries.

所以我们对于注释书极为尊重

and also without the help of commentaries,

并且,如果没有注释书的帮助

in many places we cannot understand the teachings of the buddha.

佛陀的很多教法我们就无法理解

there appear the commentary on the abhidhamma pitaka written by venerable buddhaghosa

觉音尊者给阿毗达摩写了注释书

but as time went on again

但是随着时间的推移

even the commentaries are not easy to understand

即便是注释书,也不容易理解了

so we need another type of explanation called subcommentaries.

所以我们需要另外的解释它被称为复注

so in the seven, about seventh century AD

所以大概在公元七世纪

the venerable ananda,

阿难尊者

not the buddha’s personal attendant ananda

这个不是佛陀的侍者阿难

another ananda wrote the subcommentaries

这个是写了复注的阿难

again those subcommentaries were explained by venerable Dhammapāla after the seventh century.

七世纪后,这些复注又被法护尊者进行了解释

so there are three levels of commentaries for the abhidhamma pitaka

所以,对于阿毗达摩有三个层次的注释

the first is commentaries, the second is subcommentaries, the third is sub-subcommentaries.

注释书、复注、复复注

and then later the authors wrote treatises on abhidhamma

后来,又有人写了关于阿毗达摩的著述

both in pali language and in other languages as well.

用巴利语写,或者用其他语言写

so there are now many books on abhidhamma, books in pali and other languages

所以,现在有很多关于阿毗达摩的各种语言的书籍

now as i told you before,

我之前告诉过你们

it is almost impossible to go into abhidhamma pitaka without the basic knowledge

没有基础知识,研究阿毗达摩几乎不可能

and the basic knowledge of abhidhamma we find it difficult to get

并且关于阿毗达摩的基础知识,我们也觉得很难获得

because you have to go through all seven books

因为,你们要研究所有七部论书

in order to know which is essential which is not

才能了解哪些是关键内容,哪些不是

and so to our joy,

让我们感到欣慰的是

there appeared in the eleventh century,

在11世纪的时候,出现了

a book called Abhidhammatthasaṅgaha

一本叫《摄阿毗达摩义论》的书

this book, the original of this book is the abhidhammatthasaṅgaha

这本书《摄阿毗达摩义论》

this book is the translation of explanation of that book

是我手上的这本就是它的译本

so that abhidhammatthasaṅgaha was written by a native of south india, his name was Anuruddha

《摄阿毗达摩义论》这本书是南印度人写的,名字叫阿耨楼陀

all the fundamental teachings of abhidhamma are treated in this small book

阿毗达摩的要义都 浓缩在这本书里

and this small book is the most popular handbook for the study of abhidhamma

这本小书是学习阿毗达摩最流行的手册

it is indispensable guide to abhidhamma

是关于阿毗达摩不可或缺的指导

and it is there a textbook for abhidhamma especially in Myanmar

是缅甸关于阿毗达摩的教科书

in myanmar,

在缅甸

where abhidhamma is the compulsory subject

阿毗达摩是必修课

for all monks nuns and novices

所以出家二众都要学

the abhidhammatthasangaha is learnt by all monks, nuns and novices

他们都要学《摄阿毗达摩义论》

now if you become a novice,

出家之后

and if you decide to be a novice or monk for life some period of time

不管你是长期还是短期出家

then immediately after your ordination, you will be given this book,

剃度之后,就立刻给你这本书

I mean the original of this book and you have to memorize it

就是这本书的巴利原本,你就要背诵下来

even though you do not know the meaning of the…you have to memorize it first

即便你不知道它的意思但是你要先背诵下来

because we had the saying, we put the book in our stomach

因为我们有一句话说:要把这本书放在肚子里

so once it’s in our stomach, we can digest it any time we like

当你把它放到肚子里后,就可以随时进行消化

and so first we take the book by heart and then try to understand the meaning of it

所以,我们首先背下这本书然后尽量去理解意思

so the abhidhammatthasangaha came to be very popular in Myanmar

所以说《摄阿毗达摩义论》在缅甸很流行

theravada buddhism was introduced to upper burma

上座部佛教进入上缅甸的时间

in the 11th century AD

是公元11世纪

ever since that time, abhidhamma has been a very popular subject with myanmar monks

从那时开始,阿毗达摩就是缅甸僧人最流行的科目

many treatises were written in myanmar

在缅甸,有许多关于它的论著

or in pali and in burmese

缅文的和巴利语的都有

so and in a book published in 1968, in the introduction of that book

在1968年出版的一本书的序言里

all the treatises of the abhidhamma available or listed there

列出了能收集到的关于阿毗达摩的所有论著

and there were 333 treatises at that time

那时候一共有333本

by now it might have been more than that

现在肯定超过这个数字了

and then there are what are called night lessons in myanmar

在缅甸有所谓“夜课”的说法

night lessons means we study abhidhamma during the day

夜课的意思是,我们白天学习阿毗达摩

and then at night we go to the teacher

晚上我们就去老师那里

no lights, or very faint light

没有灯,或者光线很暗

we recall to the teacher without books

我们复述给老师听,不看书

and then we recite what we have learnt during the day

然后我们背诵我们白天学到的内容

and the teacher would give explanations to what we have learnt

老师也会对我们学习的内容进行讲解

and so we learn in that way

我们就是这样学习的

and that is very good method of making yourself familiar with

这是种很好的方法,让你熟悉

the intricacies of abhidhamma

阿毗达摩的复杂内容

i think because of these night lessons

我觉得,正因为这种夜课

burmese monks are more familiar with abhidhamma than the monks from other countries.

缅甸僧人比其他国家的僧人更熟悉阿毗达摩的内容

we have to thank our ancient teachers for creating this kind of study

我们要感谢我们古代的老师创立这种学习的方法

so it is a compulsory subject for every monk, novice or nun

这对于出家二众,是必修课

also many laypeople study abhidhamma,

很多在家人也学阿毗达摩

and they even wrote books on abhidhamma,

他们甚至对于阿毗达摩也有著述

there were teachers on abhidhamma among laypeople.

在家人中也有讲授阿毗达摩的老师

now

现在

we take to abhidhammatthasangaha

我们继续讲《摄阿毗达摩义论》

there are english translations of that book

这本书有几种英译本

and the first one is called Compendium of Philosophy

第一本名字是《哲学纲要》

by U Shwe Zan Aung.

作者是吴雪赞昂

he was a burmese gentleman

是一位缅甸在家男众

so he translated the abhidhammasantthasangaha with a long introduction

在这个译本前,他写了一个长长的前言

so his introduction is very good,

这个前言写的很好

and maybe even better than the translation of the book itself.

或许比这本书的译文更好

so there are 76 pages of the introduction of that book

这个译本的前言有76页

on different topics of abhidhamma

对阿毗达摩的不同主题进行了介绍

the second book

第二个英译本

is called Abhidhamma Philosophy, Volume 1 by Bhikkhu J. Kashyap.

名字是《阿毗达摩哲学》卷二,作者是迦夏帕比丘

it first appeared in 1942 1942年初次印刷

he wrote two books, two volumes on abhidhamma

他写了两卷关于阿毗达摩的书

and the first volume is the translation of the abhidhammatthasangaha

卷一翻译了《摄阿毗达摩义论》

and the second volume is brief description of the second book of abhidhamma

卷二就简要地介绍了《分别论》

and the third translation is called A Manual of Abhidhamma by venerable Nārada Thera.

第三个译本是那拉达长老的《阿毗达摩手册》

he is a very well known teacher from Sri Lanka.

他是非常著名的斯里兰卡法师

and his manual first appeared in 1956.

这本手册1956年出版

and it has come through various editions

后来再版了很多次

and the last one

最后一个译本

is the Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma, that is now in your hands

就是你们手头上的《阿毗达摩综合手册》

it is a totally revised edition of number three, that is the manual of abhidhamma

它完全是第三个译本《阿毗达摩手册》的修订版

now

现在

general editor bhikkhu bodhi first tried to edit just a little bit the manual of abhidhamma

这个译本的总编辑菩提比丘开始只是想对《阿毗达摩手册》稍作修订

but as he went along

但是当他开始修订后

he found that he must do anew

他发现他必须重新翻译

so actually although this book is said to be

实际上,虽然我说这本书

a late edition of the manual of abhidhamma by narada thera

是那拉达长老《阿毗达摩手册》的最新版本

it is actually a new translation.

实际上它是一个新的译本

and this book, when he wrote this book, he was aided by one burmese monk

当他翻译这本书的时候有一个缅甸僧人协助他

who is now in england, U Revata Dhamma

这个僧人是现居英国的乌•雷瓦德•达摩尊者

and the charts in this book, the charts that i used at my classes.

这本书的图表,我曾经用于教学

one of my students sent these charts to him

我的一个学生,把这个图表寄给乌•雷瓦德•达摩尊者

and he found that helpful and asked permission to include the charts in this book.

他觉得很有用,就让我准许他使用在这本书里

so we will use this book at this class

我们在课堂上就用这本书

and as much as you can, I would like you to read

如果你们有精力,我希望你们读读

if you can please read some pages before you come to the class

有精力的话,就在课前预习几页

now about abhidhamma

现在谈谈阿毗达摩的来源

the traditional belief about abhidhamma

关于阿毗达摩,传统的信仰

the commentaries explained that buddha taught abhidhamma to gods not to human beings

注释书里,佛陀对天人宣讲阿毗达摩,并非对人讲

now in the seventh year after his enlightenment,

佛陀觉悟之后第七年

the buddha showed what is called twin miracle

他示现了“双神变”,同时变出水和火

at the city of Savatthi.

事情发生在舍卫城

then after the twin miracle he went up to tavatimsa heaven

示现双神变后,他升到忉利天宫

and there he preached abhidhamma for three months nonstop.

他不停息地宣讲了三个月的阿毗达摩

his mother who died seven days after giving birth to him

佛陀的母亲在生下他七天后就去世了

was reborn as a deity in tusita heaven

因此投生到了兜率天成为天人

and he or she

是男仙人,还是女的?

we believe that buddha’s mother was reborn as a male deity

我们相信佛陀的母亲是投生为男仙人

so he came down to tavatimsa heaven

这个仙人来到忉利天

and buddha taught to him and other deities the abhidhamma

佛陀向他和其他天人宣讲阿毗达摩

so it was in the seventh year after his enlightenment

此事发生在佛陀觉悟之后第七年

it is said that buddha taught abhidhamma to the celestial beings and his mother in gratitude of his mother

据说佛陀为了报母恩,向天人和他母亲宣讲了阿毗达摩

now when he taught abhidhamma, when he preached abhidhamma

当他宣讲阿毗达摩的时候

buddha taught nonstop for three months

连续不间断宣讲了三个月

now there comes the question

问题来了

how can buddha who was a human being

佛陀也是人

could sit for three months

怎么可以持续坐三个月

and taught without taking food,

不吃东西,一直讲法?

without attending to his personal bodily needs

人有三急,佛陀没有么?

but the commentaries explained that

但是注释书对此也作了解释

when he was preaching

佛陀讲法的时候

to the gods in the tavatimsa heaven

在忉利天宫对天人讲法时

and it is time for him to go for alms round

托钵乞食的时候到了

and he created an image of himself

他就创造了自己的一个分身

and made a resolution that

决意

the created image preach to the gods abhidhamma during his absence

在自己乞食的时候,让这个分身对天人说法,

so after creating the image of himself

创造了这个分身之后

he went down to the human world

他就下落到人间

and it is said that not all the deities had knew that buddha had left

据说并不是所有天人都知道佛陀离开了

only those who had power, great power knew that

只有具有极大神通的天人知道

so he went down to human world

佛陀下到人间

he decided he went to the northern continent

他来到北印度

and colleceted food there

在那里乞食

and then buddha went to the himalayas and he took his meal there

在喜马拉雅山脚下吃了饭

so to that place, the venerable sariputta

在那个地方,舍利弗尊者

went and attended on the buddha

去侍奉了佛陀

so when buddha met sariputta in that way, buddha said

当时佛陀对舍利弗尊者说

sariputta, i have taught abhihamma this much

舍利弗,我已经讲了一些阿毗达摩

in the interval from yesterday to today

在昨天和今天的一段时间内

i have taught these topics

我讲了这些主题

what sariputta heard from the buddha just

舍利弗从佛陀那里听到的

maybe just a table of contents

大概只是一个目录

he was able to understand exactly what the buddha taught

他能彻底了解佛陀教授的内容

because he was, as you may know, the best or the foremost

因为你们知道,舍利弗在诸弟子中

among the disciples who possessed wisdom

以智慧第一著称

actually he was second to the buddha in wisdom

实际上他的智慧仅次于佛陀

so when the buddha said I have taught abhidhamma from

所以当佛陀告诉他,我宣讲了阿毗达摩

such a place to such a place

从某某处讲到某某处

he understood what the buddha taught

他明白佛陀讲的是什么

and then about evening, buddha went back to tavatimsa heaven,

大概到了晚上,佛陀回到了忉利天宫

and took his place and continued his teaching of abhidhamma

继续坐下,宣讲阿毗达摩

now the venerable sariputta

现在谈谈舍利弗

everyday, went back to, where he was living

他回到他常住之地

and he taught abhidhamma to his 500 disciples

他向他的五百弟子宣讲阿毗达摩

so that was done everyday for three months

每天宣讲,持续了三个月

but when he taught to his pupils

当他向他的弟子们讲法时

he made it understandable for his disciples

他宣讲的方式就是让他的弟子们都能听懂

that means he did not teach everything he knew about abhidhamma

就是说,他并没有将他所有的阿毗达摩知识讲给弟子们听

he taught the abhiddhamma just enough for them to digest.

他只是讲一些刚好能让弟子们吸收的内容

so this went on everyday

这样每天讲法

and it is said his teaching to his disciples,

据说他对他的弟子们讲法

buddha’s teaching to the gods,

佛陀对天人讲法

at the same time

这两者是同时发生的

now, these 500 pupils of sariputta had a past

现在,舍利弗的五百弟子的过去世

in one past life, it is said, that they were born as bats

在过去某世,这五百弟子都是蝙蝠

so as bats, they were living in a cave

这些蝙蝠都住在洞里

and in that cave there were two monks

在洞里,有两个僧人

who were studying abhidhamma

他们在里面学习阿毗达摩

so they recited abhidhamma everyday in that cave

他们每天都在洞里背诵阿毗达摩

and those bats listened to the chanting of abhidhamma by those monks.

这些蝙蝠天天听这两个僧人背诵阿毗达摩

they may not know it was abhidhamma, but

它们可能不知道阿毗达摩

since the chanting was good, they paid attention to it

但是因为僧人诵经很好听,这些蝙蝠也就喜欢听

and so when they died

这些蝙蝠后来死了

it was said that they were reborn as devas or celestial beings

据说它们都投生为天人

and from that existence, devas reborn as human beings

后来从天人又投生为人类

so they were reborn human beings, these 500 got together

当他们投生为人时,这五百个人凑到一起

and entered the order with venerable sariputta as their teacher.

出了家,成为舍利弗尊者的弟子

so venerable sariputta taught them abhidhamma everyday and

所以舍利弗尊者每天给他们宣讲阿毗达摩

they were the first human beings who ever studied abhidhamma

他们是最早学习阿毗达摩的人

so we see that we have three versions of abhidhamma

所以阿毗达摩有三个版本

the longest version that buddha taught to the celestial beings

佛陀对天人宣讲的是最长的版本

and the shortest version that buddha taught to venerable sariputta

佛陀对舍利弗尊者宣讲的是最短的版本

and the, neither too short nor too long version

不长也不短的那个版本

that venerable sariputta taught to his pupils

就是舍利弗尊者给他的弟子宣讲的

and fortunately, that version that middle length version

很幸运,刚刚适中的那个版本

was recorded at the first buddhist council

在第一次结集的时候,被记录下来

if the first version, the longest version was to be recorded

如果第一个超长版被记录下来

there will be too voluminous books

那可真是卷帙浩繁

because it is said buddha taught very fast

因为据说佛陀说话很快

buddha can say 128 words when an ordinary person says one word.

普通人说出1个字,佛陀就能讲128个

so he could speak 128 times faster than ordinary man

所以佛陀讲话的速度是普通人的128倍

and so we can imagine how voluminous abhidhamma would be if we had to recall that all he taught to the celestial beings

所以我们可以想想,如果记下佛陀对天人宣讲的阿毗达摩,那该是多么地卷帙浩繁

because he taught there day and night without stop.

因为佛陀当时日夜不停地宣讲

so the abhidhamma pitaka we now have

所以我们现在所拥有的阿毗达摩

that is the one that is neither too long nor too short

不长也不短

and even that version occupies, how many pages?

即便是这样的版本,多少页?

4981 printed pages of the sixth buddhist council edition.

根据第六次结集的版本,4981页

and those pages do not show the ellipses in full

这些还不包括省略掉的部分

there are many places we are

有许多地方

what is to be repeated is not repeated

因为重复,所以就省略了

if we fill in all the ellipses in the books

如果把书中省略的地方补全

it will come to ten thousand pages or more

可能就要超过一万页

so abhidhamma pitaka is one of the pitakas that is

所以阿毗达摩

big in volume and it is profound

内容多,并且深奥

that profound abhidhamma was made accessible to us by the teachers of ancient times

这么深奥的教法,得益于以前的老师我们今日才得以遇到

one of those teachers was venerable Anuruddha

其中一个就是阿耨楼陀尊者

who wrote the abhidhammatthasangaha

他写了《摄阿毗达摩义论》

that abhidhammatthasangaha, actually there were other treatises also

实际上还有别人写的论著

but abhidhammatthasangaha was the best of them

但《摄阿毗达摩义论》是最好的

so it became very popular with the students of abhidhamma

所以在学习阿毗达摩的人中非常流行

we will study this abhidhammatthasangaha at this class

我们也会学习这本《摄阿毗达摩义论》

when you study abhidhamma, i would like to ask you to be patient.

当你们学习阿毗达摩的时候,希望你们能有耐心

you may have many questions

你们可能有许多问题

but i always say, abhidhamma is like a jigsaw puzzle

我常常说,阿毗达摩就像拼图游戏

Until you put in the last piece,

在你拼好最后一块前

the picture is always incomplete.

图像就不会完整

so until you go to the, you reach the end of the book

所以,在你学完这本书之前

your understanding of abhidhamma will always be incomplete

你对阿毗达摩的理解就不会完整

so please be patient with it,

所以请多一些耐心

and also you will be learning pali words

你同时也要学习巴利词汇

please do not be afraid of pali

不要害怕巴利语

because sometimes the english translations are not accurate

因为,有时候英译不准确

although we may use these words as the translation of pali words

虽然我们用这些词翻译巴利语

they are not accurate

但是并不准确

so we may use the english words, but first we must understand what that word means

所以我们可以使用英语词汇,但首先要明白这个词的意思

for example the word consciousness

例如,心这个词

now we translate what in pali citta or viññāṇa as consciousness

巴利语的citta和vinnana,我们都翻译成心

because we can not find any better words,

因为我们找不到更好的词

we use this word consciousness for the word citta or viññāṇa in pali

我们就用“心”这个词翻译巴利语的citta和vinnana but the word consciousness for citta or viññāṇa is not accurate

但是“心”这个词翻译

citta或vinnana,并不准确

as you will learn later

你以后会学到

we are never without consciousness

我们时刻离不开“心”

even we are deep in sleep there is consciousness according to abhidhamma

即便我们进入深度睡眠根据阿毗达摩,“心”也存在

sometimes we may have fainted and say we are unconscious

有时,我们晕过去,或者说无意识

even at that time there is consciousness according to abhidhamma

根据阿毗达摩,即便是这时候,“心”也存在

so to call citta consciousness

所以将citta翻译成心

if we understand the word consciousness in usual sense

如果我们理解的“心”是通常意义的心

that we may misunderstand

我们就可能产生误解

so

所以

it is good always to learn the pali words

经常学习巴利词汇很好

so that we understand properly what the word means

这样我们就能正确理解词的意义

so please do not be afraid of the pali words

所以,不要害怕巴利词汇

you may be learning many things

你可能要学很多东西

whenever you study in your subject

当你学习新的科目

you have to memorize some words

你必须背诵一些词汇

and that is inevitable

这是不可避免的

if you study zen, you will learn japanese words also

如果你学禅,你也要学习日语词

if you learn yoga, you will learn sanskrit words and so on

如果你学瑜伽,就要学梵语词等等

so here also you will learn pali words,

所以在这,你就要学巴利词汇

so please do not be afraid of pali words

所以,不要害怕巴利词汇

because pali is a language that we believed was used by buddha himself.

因为,我们认为佛陀也讲巴利语

and to say something in pali, makes us very very happy

所以讲讲巴利语,能让我们很开心

that is why when at the services we still use pali

所以在佛事中,我们还是用巴利语

when we chant we chant in pali and so on

我们唱诵的时候,也用巴利语,等等

so please do not be afraid of pali words

所以,不要害怕巴利语

after some time, or after you get acquainted with some pali words

当你熟悉一些巴利语之后

i can say you will prefer to use pali words then

可以说,你就更喜欢巴利语

you will not want to use the english translations

你就不想用英译本了

so please be patient with abhidhamma

所以,请对阿毗达摩有耐心

and do not be afraid of pali words

也不要害怕巴利语

i thought i could cover the second topic also

我原本也想讲讲第二个主题

now it’s 9:15

但是已经九点一刻了

so today will stop here.

今天我们到此结束

disk01track03

yesterday, we looked at abhidhamma from a little distance

昨天我们远瞰了阿毗达摩

so today we will go closer to abhidhamma

今天我们走近一点看看

before we get into the abhidhamma proper

在进入真正的阿毗达摩之前

we need to understand

我们需要了解

the two kinds of truths

二谛(两种真理)

two kinds of truths taught in buddhism

佛教的二谛

it is strange that in buddhism

奇怪的是在佛教里

that it is not one truth

不只是一个真理(谛)

there are four truths taught in buddhism

佛教里教导了四圣谛

and truth is a relative term

“谛”是个相对的词语

and so it may mean different things to different people

对于不同人,可能意味着不同的内涵

so if you ask a christian,

如果你问一个基督徒

what truth is

真理是什么

then he would give one answer

他会给你一个答案

if you ask a buddhist

如果你问一个佛教徒

he would give another different answer

他会给出不同的回答

although people say that there is only one truth

虽然人们说真理只有一个

and teachers express it in different ways

但是人们用不同的方式表达这个真理

even that one truth is difficult to define

即便是一个真理,也很难定义

so for buddhists the truth is one thing

对于佛教徒,真理是这样

and for other, people of other religion

对于其他宗教徒

truth may mean differently

真理可能有不同的内涵

so we must understand

所以我们要明白

what truth means in buddhism

佛教的真理是什么

and in buddhism truth is just explained as something that is not untrue

佛教里的真理,是不虚妄的

that means that is not otherwise than it’s stated

意思就是如其所是的陈述

and something that is true

如果某件事是真实的

that is true to what has been described of, it is called truth

就像已经形容的那样,这就是真理

that truth is true either in conventional sense or ultimate sense

真理可以是世俗的意义上的,也可以是究竟意义上的

and in buddhism, truths need not be good

在佛教里,真理不需要是善的

or lofty necessarily,

也不必定是高尚的

good or lofty

善或者高尚

it may be anything that is true

任何事物都可能是真实的

so that is why craving which is unwholesome mental state

所以贪是一个不善的心所

its the second noble truth

也是第二圣谛

the noble truth of the origin of the suffering

苦集圣谛

so in the teachings of the buddha

所以在佛教里

even craving which is unwholesome mental state

即便贪是个不善的心所

it’s a truth.

也是真理

just as craving is truth, so is mindfulness

如贪一样,正念也是真理

wisdom, faith

智、信

loving-kindness, so they are also truth.

慈,这些也都是真理

so there are two kinds of truths, the conventional truth and ultimate truth.

所以真理有两种:世俗谛、究竟谛

and conventional truth means something that conforms to the people and the usage of the people

世俗谛意思就是和世人的习惯用法一致

that is true by convention

就是约定性的真实

suppose i ask you how you came to the class

如果我问你们如何来听课

i think you will answer: i came in the car

我想你们会说:我坐车来的

when you say i came in the car

当你说:我是坐车来的

you’re expressing a kind of truth

你的表述就是某种真理

because when you say you came in the car you’re not lying to me

因为当你说你坐车来,你没有对我撒谎

you’re saying what is truth you’re coming in the car

你讲的是真实的:你坐车来

but if we analyze the car

但是如果我们分析汽车

if we take the parts of the car one by one

如果我们把汽车拆分掉

and put in different places

分开放置它的零部件

then we lose the car there is no car

我们就会失去汽车,就没有汽车

the wheels are not car, the body is not car, the engine is not car

车轮子不是车,车身也不是车发动机也不是车

the seats are not car

座位也不是车

but when they’re put together in a sudden way

但是当我们突然将这些放一起

we call it a car

我们将之称之为汽车

so

所以

if the ultimate analysis there is no car

从究竟的分析而言,没有汽车

just the parts

只是零部件

but

但是

when these parts are put together in a sudden way

当这些零部件突然被放在一起

we call it a car

我们称之为汽车

we call it means all of us agree

我们这样称谓它,意思是大家约定

to call it a car

称谓它“汽车”

so by convention it is true that we came here in a car

所以从世俗谛而言,我们坐车来,这是真实的

but in the ultimate analysis

但是究竟去分析

we don’t came here in a car

我们没有坐车来

we use the vehicle that is four wheels, body, the seats and so on

我们使用一个交通工具:四个轮子有身子,有座位,等等

so everything in the world that we experienced

所以我们体验到的,这个世界的所有事物

is true only to convention

只是从世俗意义上讲是真实的

we can take many examples of this

我们可以举很多这样的例子

now a house, we live in a house

房子,我们住在房子里

so when we say we live in a house

当我们说:我们住在房子里

the way again, stating the truth, we’re not lying

这也是一种真理,我们没有撒谎

but if we take the different parts of the house apart

但是如果我们拆分掉这所房子

then we lose the designation house, there is no house, just the parts

我们就失去这所房子的施设,就没有了房子,只是些构件

so

所以

conventionally,

从世俗意义上

a house is a truth

“房子”是一种真实的表达

conventionally, a car is a truth

从世俗意义上,“汽车”也是真实的表达

the same with a human being

同样,“人”也是

then we call a person man

当我们称一个人为“男人”

so when we say he is a man

当我们说:他是一个男人

we are stating a truth

我们在陈述一个事实

he is a human, male human being

他是人,是男人

and so, it is a truth

诸如此类,这是真实的

but in ultimate analysis

但是从究竟上分析

again, we don’t have a man

同样,“人”不存在

a man is nothing but a combination of mind and matter

人什么也不是,不过是名色的结合

what is true in a human being and a man

所以人的真实情况是

is mind and matter, and not the man

名色的结合,并不是人

the same with a woman

女人也是同样的

so

所以

there are always these two kinds of truths

所以,这两种真理

in everything in the world

适用于这个世界的万物

and this conventional truth

世俗谛

it’s called in pali Sammuti-sacca

巴利语是:sammutisacca i want you to be familiar with the pali words also

我希望你们熟悉巴利名相

the sammuti means convention sammuti意思是世俗的

agreement of the people

世人的约定

so the truth by agreement, truth by convention

所以是约定的真理,世俗真理

and this sammuti sacca is also called Paññatti or concept

世俗谛,同样被称为“概念”

and there are two kinds of paññatti

有两种概念

the first one is as we see on the screen, Nāma-paññatti

第一种,屏幕上有:名字概念

name concept

名字概念

name concept means

名字概念意思是

names given to different objects

赋予不同对象的名称

it is called name concept or in pali Nāma-paññatti

被称为名字概念

because it makes things noun

因为它让事物有名称

the name makes things noun, that means

名字让事物有名称,意思是

the names denote things

名字指代事物

and the other paññatti is Attha-paññatti or thing concept

另外一个概念就是:意义概念

thing concept means the object or beings denoted by the name concepts

意义概念指名字指称的对象或存在

or we always have these two kinds of concepts: name concept and thing concept

所以我们有这两种概念:名字概念和意义概念

with regard to things we experience or we come into contact with

这是对于我们体验或接触的事物而言

now for example

现在举例

again, let us take the car

再用汽车进行说明

now the name car or the word car is a name concept

汽车这个词是名字概念

because the word car denote the thing which we call a car

因为汽车这个词指称我们称之为“汽车”的东西

and the thing which is a car is the thing concept

汽车这个东西,就是意义概念

so there are two concepts regarding the car

所以对于汽车而言,有两种概念

one is name concept and the other is thing concept

名字概念和意义概念

so the word car is name concept, and the car itself is a thing concept

所以“车”这个词是名字概念,车本身是意义概念

when we say a man

当我们说:一个男人

now the word man is a name concept

“男人”这个词是名字概念

and the person who we call man

我们称之为男人的人

a human being,

人类

a male human being

男性

is thing concept

这就是意义概念

so all names or nouns are name concept

所以所有名字、名词都是名字概念

and the things or meaning denoted by or represented by these names are called thing concept.

由这些名字指称或者代表的事物或者意义,是意义概念

so everywhere we get these two

我们随时可以有这两者

and out of these concepts

从这两个概念中

we take, or we extract the ultimate reality

我们萃取“究竟法”

now when we say a man,

当我们讲:一个男人

the name or the noun man is the name concept

这个名称或者名词就是名字概念

and the man, the person we call a man is thing concept.

我们称之为男人的,就是意义概念

and from this thing concept

从这个意义概念里

we extract the ultimate reality that is mind and matter

我们萃取出究竟法:名、色

so what we call man is a combination of mind and matter

所以我们称之为男人的,是名色的组合

and so what is real in the man is just mind and matter

所以,男人中真实的东西只是名和色

and not the man, because if we analyze the man into mind and matter

并不是男人,因为如果我们分析这个男人到名色

we lose the man himself

就不存在这个“男人”了

so everywhere we can get this three things

所以,我们处处都有这三者

name concept, thing concept and reality.

名字概念、意义概念、究竟法

now in the example of a car,

在汽车这个例子中

we may say that the word car is name concept

我们可以说“车”这个词是名字概念

and car itself is thing concept

车本身是意义概念

and the parts of the car are ultimate realities.

汽车的部件是究竟法

now again

同样

this is just an example

这仅仅是个例子

because if we take the parts of the car,

因为如果我们拆分汽车的部件

if we look at the parts of the car

我们观察汽车的部件

they themselves are concepts.

这些部件也只是概念

what is real in the part is the material particles

部件里真实的东西是色聚

the very very small material particles

非常小的色聚

so the ultimate reality in the parts is the material particles

所以,汽车部件里的究竟法是色聚

so with regard to conventional terms,

与世俗谛的名相相关

we have these three things,

我们有这三者

name concept, thing concept and ultimate reality

名字概念,意义概念,究竟法

and this concept is said to be timeless

概念是不具有时间性的

now timeless means we can not say a concept is present, or past or future.

不具时间性,意思是我们不能说概念是在现在、过去或未来

because the concepts exist only in our imagination

因为概念只是在我们的想象中存在

we just think of these concepts

我们只是思维这些概念

they have no intrinsic existence of their own

他们没有自身的固有属性

so we think of the combination of mind and matter as man or woman

我们思维名色组合成的人

and we think of the combination of parts as a car, a house and so on

我们思维由零件组成的车或房子

but we do not know when the concept came into being whether it is present or future

但我们不知道概念什么时候存在是现在,还是未来

simply because it has no real existence of its own

因为概念自身并不是真实的存在

because concept just exists in our imagination

因为概念只是存在于我们的想象中

and it has no division into present or past or future

不能归入现在、过去或未来

it can not become the object of vipassana meditation.

不能成为内观禅修的所缘

when we practice vipassana meditation

我们修习内观禅修时

we try to see the arising and disappearing of the object

我们尽力去观察所缘的生灭

but we do not know when the concept arises and when it will disappear.

但是我们不知道概念什么时候生灭

because sometimes concept may seem to disappear

因为有时候概念看起来灭去了

but actually they do not

但实际上没有

now the buddha was a hermit Sumedha

佛陀过去世做过隐士,名字叫善慧

during the time of buddha Dīpaṃkara

当时住世的是燃灯佛

now that concept that name sumedha

善慧这个概念,或名字

seem to be present at the time when sumedha was living

看起来存在于这个隐士住世的时候

and he aspired for buddhahood in the present of buddha dipamkara and so on.

在燃灯佛时,这个隐士志求佛果

but after he passed away

后来他去世了

the concept sumedha seem to have disappeared

善慧这个概念看起来消失了

but actually it did not

但是实际上并没有

because later on when buddha related his past life as sumedha

因为后来佛陀在叙述他过去世为善慧的时候

it seemed to come into being again

这个概念好像又重生了

and this name sumedha will go on in our minds

这个善慧的名称会一直在我们的心里

say, as long as the world lasts

可能要持续到世界的末日

even, it may be go on into the other worlds

它甚至可能传到其他世界

so paññatti or concept has no time frame

所以概念没有时间性

that is why paññatti can not become the object of vipassana meditation

所以概念不能成为内观禅修所缘

now the other truth is ultimate truth.

还有一个究竟谛

and in pali is called Paramattha-sacca

巴利语是:paramattha-sacca now sacca means truth sacca意思是真理

and paramattha means ultimate pramattha意思是究竟的

the final, final thing, or final truth

极终之物,或者极终真理

now the ultimate truth is that which conforms to reality

究竟谛是与究竟法一致的

that means which we can really experience

意思是我们可以体验

now for example,

例如

we take consciousness, consciousness is called an ultimate reality

我们以心为例,心属于究竟法

because it has existence of its own

因为心本身是存在的

and we can experience this consciousness in our minds

我们可以体验到心

and we know when consciousness arises we know that it arises,

当心生起时,我们知道

when it disappears, we know it disappears

当心灭去时,我们也知道

so consciousness is called an ultimate truth

所以,心被称为究竟法

it has existence of its own

它本身是存在的

now you’re listening to me,

你们现在听我讲课

and you have hearing consciousness at every moment you hear my voice

当你听到我的声音时,你们就生起耳识

so you know that consciousness is a reality

所以就知道心是究竟法

now when you see something that is a seeing consciousness in your mind

所以当你看到某物,心里就生起眼识

and you experience

你就有看的体验

and so you know that seeing, or seeing consciousness is a reality

所以,眼识也是究竟法

so the ultimate truth is that which conforms to reality which has its own existence.

所以究竟谛与究竟法一致,本身存在

and it is called paramattha in pali

巴利语叫:paramattha and paramattha is defined as the ultimate thing or the correct thing

究竟法被定义为极终的事物或者是正确的事物

it is called ultimate thing or correct thing

被称为极终事物或正确事物

because it is real as it is,

因为它如其所是

it is not otherwise than it’s stated

如所叙述的一致

that means consciousness is something that is aware of the object

意思是心就是对所缘的觉知

so when it is described as something that is aware of the object

当用“对所缘的觉知”来形容心时

it is the real awareness of the object not otherwise

是说对所缘的真实觉知,不是别的

and so it is called ultimate thing or correct thing, or in pali paramattha

所以被称为极终物,或真实物

now it is not like things as magic shows or mirage

所以这不像是幻术,或海市蜃楼

now that magic shows

那些幻术

the magicians show us things that are not real

魔术师的表演是不真实的

but we think that they are real

我们认为它真实

sometimes they may put a woman in a box

有时候他们将一个女人放到盒子里

and then they may cut her into different parts

将她切成几段

and we think that the woman is really cut

我们觉得那个女人真的被切断了

because they’re so realistic

因为看起来那么真实

but actually it’s just an illusion

但是实际上,不过是幻觉

and the same with other magic tricks

其他魔术表演也是如此

so at the magic shows,

所以幻术

whatever it shows, it’s always an illusion

无论如何,都是假象

they’re not real

它们并不真实

but this ultimate truth is not like magic shows.

但是究竟法,不像幻术

they’re real, they have their own existence

它们是真实的,本身存在

and also mirage

再谈谈海市蜃楼

i hope you have seen mirage in your life

我希望你们见过海市蜃楼

i was told that you do not have seasons in singapore

据说新加坡四季不分明

especially in summer when it is hot then you can see mirages

特别是在夏天,天热的时候,你就可以看到海市蜃楼

so they seem to be water

它们看起来像是水

and you think that is water at some distance

你认为远处有水

and then you follow that water and

你朝着那水走过去

moves from you as you move

你走过去,那水也移动

and so actually there is no water, but you think that is water

实际上并没有水,你觉得那是水

so the mirage is actually an illusion not a reality

所以海市蜃楼实际上是幻觉并不是真实存在的

the paramattha or ultimate reality is not like mirage it is real

究竟法不是海市蜃楼,是真实的

and also it can be seen by oneself

可以被自己观察到

it can be realized by oneself

可以被自己体证到

it can be experienced by oneself

可以被自己体验到

now things known from hearsay may or may not be real

道听途说的事情或真或假

say, we hear about something, that something from some other person

例如,我们从别人那里听说某事

and that may be real or that may be not

可能是真的,也可能不是

but the ultimate reality is not like that

但是究竟法不是如此

ultimate reality is something that we can see for ourselves

究竟法是我们自己可以观察到的

that we can experience for ourselves that we can realize for ourselves

我们自己可以体验并且体证到

especially through the practice of meditation

特别是通过禅修

so we practice vipassana meditation

所以我们进行内观禅修

that we experience consciousness

我们就能体验到心

we experience different mental states

体验到不同的心所

and we came to see the material properties also

我们也见到不同的色法

so they can be experienced or seen by oneself so they’re called paramattha or ultimate reality

所以它们都能被观察到,所以叫究竟法

and the ultimate reality is not easy to see

究竟法不能被轻易观察到

it is hidden from us

它们躲避我们

because we are so influenced by or so carried away by the convention

因为我们被世俗所影响,所牵涉

we live in a conventional world

我们生活在俗世

and so it is very difficult for us

所以我们很难

to cut through the outer layer of concept

切破概念的外壳

and get into the inner core of ultimate reality

进入究竟法的内核

that we have to do using the tools of abhidhamma

我们要依靠阿毗达摩的工具

the tools of analysis taught in abhidhamma

阿毗达摩中教授的分析方法

when buddha analyzed the world

当佛陀分析世界时

he analyzed it into five aggregates

将它分析成五蕴

so following this,

据此

we now see that what we call a human being

我们可以观察到称之为人的

is just the combination of these five aggregates

不过是五蕴的聚合

so these five aggregates are what are real

所以这五蕴是真实的

about the person we call a man or a woman

对于我们称之为男女的人而言

and a man or a woman himself or herself is just an illusion

而男女本身只是一个假象

we imagine that it is a being it is a man it is a woman

我们幻想那是一个人,或男或女

but in reality there is no man or woman

但是究竟法里没有男人或女人

apart from the five aggregates

只是五蕴

so when we analyze

所以我们分析

the things we come across or we analyze beings

分析我们遇到的事物或人

we come to see that

我们发现

there are only these five aggregates

它们只是五蕴

and nothing else

仅此而已

and so these five aggregates are what we call ultimate reality

所以这五蕴,我们称之为究竟法

so there are always the conventional truth and ultimate truths

所以总存在世俗谛和究竟谛

now with regard to terms of the ultimate truth

关于究竟谛的名称

there are only two things, name concept and ultimate reality

有两种:名字概念和究竟法

so there is no thing concept regarding the terms of ultimate reality

所以关于究竟法,不涉及到意义概念

for example, feeling

例如,受

now feeling is a mental state

受,属于心所

or a mental factor,

就是心的属性

and it is an ultimate reality

是究竟法

so the word feeling or the name feeling is a name concept

“受”这个词是名字概念

but the feeling itself is not thing concept because it is a reality

但是受本身不是意义概念它是究竟法

we feel or we experience the feeling

我们有受的体验

sometimes we are happy, sometimes we are unhappy, or sometimes we are neutral

有时候喜悦,有时候不喜悦,有时候是中性的状态

so we can experience the feeling, and so that feeling is an ultimate reality

我们能体验到“受”,所以它是一种究竟法

so with regard to terms of ultimate reality

关于究竟法的名相

we have only two things: name concept and ultimate reality:

只有两个:名字概念和究竟法

so we can take anything as an example, and try to find out the name concept, thing concept, and ultimate reality

我们可以任何事为例,找出名字概念、意义概念和究竟法

so from anything or everything we can squeeze out the ultimate reality

所以从任何事物中,我们都可以萃取究竟法

so these are the two kinds of truths taught in buddhism

这就是佛教里的二谛

and buddha used both terms of conventional truth and ultimate truth when he taught

佛陀讲法的时候,这二谛他都使用

if a person

如果一个人

is capable of understanding him when he used the terms of conventional truth

只有当他使用世俗谛时才能明白

then he would use the terms of conventional truth

他就使用世俗谛

like man woman animal and so on

就使用诸如:男女、动物之类的词

but if he found that a person will understand him only when he used the terms of ultimate truth

如果他发现某人只能在他使用究竟谛时才能明白

then he would use the terms of ultimate truth as aggregate

他就使用究竟谛的名相,例如蕴

sense bases, element, truth and so on

处、界、谛等等

but it is said in the books that

但是据说

buddha quite often did not thought with terms of ultimate truth

佛陀并不太想使用究竟谛的名相

because talking in terms about ultimate truth is rather dry

因为用究竟谛的名相讲法很枯燥

so if possible buddha started teaching using terms of conventional terms

所以,佛陀尽可能使用世俗谛的名相讲法

and only after a person had understood him

只有当某人能够理解时

would he use the terms of ultimate truth

他才使用究竟谛的名相

so

所以

according to the capability of the person and according to circumstances

根据不同人的根器和情况

buddha used both the terms of conventional truth and ultimate truth

世俗谛、究竟谛,都被佛陀采用

and as I said yesterday, when teaching people

如我昨天所说,当对人讲法时

buddha mostly used terms of conventional truth

佛陀大多数时候使用世俗谛

but when he taught the abhidhamma,

当他宣讲阿毗达摩时

he used mostly the terms of ultimate truth

他主要使用究竟谛的名相

because abhidhamma is very analytical and

因为阿毗达摩分析性很强

when analyzing being or things

当分析人或物时

buddha had to use the terms of ultimate truth

佛陀要使用究竟谛的名相

such as consciousness mental factors or material properties or so on

例如心、心所、色法等等

so these are the two kinds of truths we must understand

这就是我们要理解的二谛

and in abhidhamma

在阿毗达摩里

we will find mostly the ultimate truth

我们碰到的大多数是究竟法

and when we study abhidhamma, we will study the ultimate truth and their divisions

当我们学习阿毗达摩时,我们就学习究竟法及它们的分类

and in abhidhamma, it is said that four kinds of ultimate truths are taught

在阿毗达摩里,讲了四种究竟法

we have to be grateful to the teachers of old

我们要对过去的老师感恩

to tell us that in abhidhamma

他们在阿毗达摩里教授了

the four kinds of ultimate truths are taught

四种究竟法

if they did not tell us

如果他们没有教授

if they did not write books that

如果他们没有写这些著述

four kinds of ultimate truths are taught in abhidhamma

阿毗达摩里的四种究竟法

it will be very difficult for us to understand that

对于我们来说,很难理解

in abhidhamma pitaka the four kinds of ultimate truths are taught

论藏里面的四种究竟法

we would have to read the whole of abhidhamma pitaka

我们需要遍览整个论藏

and even then it’s doubtful we will understand

即便如此,能不能理解,也不好说

but now the ancient teachers have written all the abhidhamma pitaka for us

而现在,过去的老师写了这么多关于论藏的著述

and then they came out with this statement that

他们得出这样的结论

four kinds of ultimate truths are taught in abhidhamma

阿毗达摩里面教授了四种究竟法

so we should be very grateful to them

所以我们要非常感谢他们

and the four ultimate truth are:

这四种究竟法是:

1. citta now let me use the pali word citta

心,巴利语是:citta i told you yesterday that citta is translated as consciousness

我告诉过你们citta被翻译成心

and although we use the word consciousness for the word citta

虽然我们用心来翻译citta it is not accurate

但是这不准确

now citta is defined as something that thinks of the object

心的定义是:对所缘的思维

here, thinking means not the real thinking, just the awareness of the object

这里,思维,并不是真的思维只是对所缘的觉知

so citta may be defined as

所以,心的定义可以是

awareness of the object

对所缘的觉知

now when we teach meditation we use the word awareness

当我们教授禅修时,我们用到“觉知”这个词

to be aware of the object

觉知所缘

now in meditation instructions

在禅修指导中

awareness means mindfulness

觉知意思是具念

but here awareness means just the pure awareness of the object, just the mere awareness

但是这里觉知意思仅仅是对所缘的纯粹觉知,

so at the stage of this awareness

在这个觉知阶段

we do not yet know that the object is white or black or yellow or red

我们不知道所缘是白色,黑色,黄色,还是红色

we just know that there is an object

我们只知道有一个所缘

so that simple mere awareness of the object is what we call citta which is translate as consciousness

这种对所缘的纯粹觉知,就称之为“心”

and that awareness is just like the clear water, it has no color

这种觉知就像纯净的水,没有颜色

it is neither wholesome nor unwholesome, neither good or bad,

非善非不善,非好非坏

it is just the mere awareness of the object

只是对所缘的纯粹觉知

now when I’m talking: now i’m looking at you but i’m aware of something there

当我说:现在我看你我觉知到有某物

so that awareness is just an awareness, i don’t really know what it is, i know there is something there

所以那种觉知仅仅是觉知,我不知道它是什么,只知道有一个东西

so in the same way the awareness

所以觉知……

define of citta is like that just the simple or mere awareness of the object

对心的定义就是如此,对所缘的纯粹觉知

but when the commentators giving the definition

但是论师们给心下定义时

they have to use the word cinteti in pali which means to think

他们用了cinteti这个巴利词,意思是:去思维

but actually, thinking here means just knowing the object or the awareness of the object

实际上,“思维”在这里的意思只是知道所缘,或者觉知所缘

that mere awareness of the object is what we call consciousness in abhidhamma

这种对所缘的纯粹觉知,就是阿毗达摩里面的“心”

and citta is never without an object, we must understand this clearly

心总需要一个所缘,这点我们要了解清楚

this citta or consciousness must always have a object

心必须总要有一个所缘

since the definition is the awareness of the object, it must always have a object

因为心的定义是:对所缘的觉知所以必须有一个所缘

so citta can never be without an object

心不能脱离所缘而生起

sometimes, people say we put the mind blank without any object

有时候,人们说,心中一片空白,没有任何对象

but actually

但是实际上

without an object, citta can not arise, there can be no citta

没有所缘,心就不能生起,就没有心

so citta is always with an object

所以心总是有一个所缘

that object may be a vivid object

这个所缘可能是个明显的对象

as we see something or as we hear something

例如我们看到或听到什么

or it may be an obscure object like when we are asleep

或者是一个隐晦的所缘,例如我们睡觉时

so even when we are asleep there is consciousness

即便当我们睡觉时,心也存在

and that consciousness must have an object,

这个心也要有一个所缘

and that object is an obscure object

这个所缘是一个隐晦的所缘

so citta or consciousness can not be without an object at any time or any moment

所以,心任何时候都不能脱离所缘而存在

it must always have an object

必须总有一个所缘

since it’s definition is the awareness of the object or something that knows the object

因为它的定义就是:对所缘的觉知

and this citta is always with us.

我们时时刻刻都和心在一起

from the moment we take conception in the womb of the mother until we die there is always this citta

从我们在母胎受孕开始,直至死亡那一刻,心一直都存在

even when we are in deep sleep

即便我们进入深度睡眠

there is consciousness or citta

心也存在

taking the obscure object

此时它有一个隐晦的所缘

so we can never be without citta

所以我们不能离开心

that is unless we become anagmins and arahants

除非我们证得三果或者成为阿罗汉

and enter into what is called attainment of cessation

进入所谓的灭尽定

now a person after becoming an anagmin or an arahant

一个人证得三果或成为阿罗汉

if he has jhānas

如果拥有诸禅那

he can enter into what is called attainment of cessation

他可以进入所谓的灭尽定

attainment of cessation means attainment of cessation of mental activities

灭尽定意思是:灭尽所有心的活动

so when he is in the attainment, in that attainment of cessation

当进入灭尽定时

then mental activity is temporarily suspended

心的活动暂时停止了

so there is no mental activity during that time

所以这时候就没有心的活动

it may be one hour two hours it may be one days or seven days for human beings at most

可以持续一小时,两小时,一天…对于人类而言,最多是七天

if you are anagmins, if you are not arahants and not buddhas

如果没有证得三果,没有成为阿罗汉,不是佛

then we can not enter into that attainment of cessation

我们就不能进入灭尽定

and so for most people citta is always with them

对于大多数人而言,心总是存在

so we can not be without citta at any moment in our life

终其一生,我们不能须臾离开心

and then it is important to know the other words that mean the same thing used in the suttas as well as in abhidhamma

了解阿毗达摩里心的同义词也很重要

and these are:

这些词有:

now the synonyms of citta

这些都是心的同义词

Viññāṇa sometimes citta is called viññāṇa

有时候心被称为:viññāṇa so they are synonymous

这两者是同义词

sometimes it is called mana or mano

有时候被称为:mana或者mano yesterday i told you

昨天我讲过

the first verse in dhammapada: manopubbangama dhamma

法句经里的第一句偈子

so mano or mana is one synonym of citta

所以mano和mana也是心的同义词

sometimes, it is called ceta

有时候心也被称为ceta the next ultimate reality is cetasika

第二个究竟法就是cetasika心所

the word cetasika is compounded of ceta, cetas and ika

心所这个词由两部分组成cetas+ika so the word ceta is also the synonym of citta

所以ceta也是心的同义词

and then there is the word Manasa

还有一个是manasa we may find this in some discourses: manasa

我们可以在某些佛经看到manasa and the last is: Hadaya

最后一个是hadaya hadaya really means the heart hadaya实际上指心脏

the heart is said to be the seat of many types of consciousness

心脏被称为很多种心的依处

and the word hadaya or the heart came to be a synonym for citta or consciousness

所以hadaya也是心的同义词

so you may find these words when you read books on buddhism when you read books on abhidhamma

所以你在阅读佛书或者论书的时候你可能会碰到这些名词

so sometimes the word viññāṇa is used, sometimes mana, sometimes citta and so on

所以有时候用这个词,有时候用那个,诸如此类

so when we find these words, we must understand that

所以我们碰到这些词的时候,我们要知道

although the etymological meaning may be different

虽然从词源学而言,它们的意思可能不同

the real thing denoted by these words is the same

但这些词实际指代一样的东西

so consciousness is some…citta is sometimes called viññāṇa

所以心有时候被称为viññāṇa and so on

诸如此类

and you will find the word viññāṇa later on viññāṇa这个词稍后你们也会遇到

when we study individual types of consciousness

当我们学习各种类型的心的时候

and in abhidhamma

在阿毗达摩里面

citta is divided into 89 types

心被分为89种

or 121 types

或者121种

so there are 89 cittas

所有有89种心

or 121 cittas

或121种心

taught in or recognized in abhidhamma

这些都是在阿毗达摩里讲到的

now we will study these later on

我们稍后会学习这些

89 and 121 types 89种或者121种

so this is the first of the four ultimate truth

这是四种究竟法中的第一个

so the first of the four ultimate truths is citta or consciousness

第一种究竟法是心

now the second ultimate truth

现在讲第二种

the second ultimate truth is cetasikas

第二种究竟法是心所

mental factors or mental concomitants

心的属性,或者心的伴随

cetasikas is defined as those which are yoked on citta, or which are yoked with citta

心所的定义是:依附于心,或与心相随

that means which are associated with citta

意思就是与心联系在一起

which depend on citta for their arising

它们的生起依赖心

so these mental states are called cetasikas

这些心的状态被称为心所

now in abhidhamma mind is minutely analyazed

在阿毗达摩里,心被详细地分析

first it is analyzed into two: citta and cetasika

首先被分为心、心所

and then citta is analyzed into 89 or 121 types

心又被分为89或121种

and cetasikas are analyzed into 52, we will come to that later

心所被分为52种,稍后再讲

so cetasikas are those that are associated with citta

所以心所就是与心伴随

that is why they are called mental concomitants

所以也被称为:心之伴随

that means those that are concomitant with citta

意思是说它们与心相随

or those that arise at the same time with citta

与心同时生起

and they are called cetasikas

它们被称为心所

because they depend on the citta to arise

因为它们的生起依赖于心

that means if there is no citta, they will not arise, there can be no cetasikas

意思是,如果没有心,心所就不会生起

now citta is defined as awareness of the object

心的定义是对所缘的觉知

when there is no awareness of the object

如果没有对所缘的觉知

how can there be feeling of the object,

怎么会有对所缘的感受呢

how can there be understanding of the object,

怎么会有对所缘的理解呢?

how can there be mindfulness of the object

怎么能对所缘具念呢?

so that is why citta is said to be their leader, their forerunner

所以说心是心所的首领

so cetasikas or mental factors

所以说心所

depend on citta for their arising,

要依赖于心才能生起

only when citta arises, do they arise.

只有心生起,心所才生起

and if citta does not arise, they can not arise

如果心没有生起,心所也不能生起

so citta and cetasikas arise at the same time, simultaneously

所以,心和心所同时生起

but citta is called their leader or their forerunner

但是心被称为心所的首领,先驱

so forerunner means just they are leader,

先驱跟领袖一个意思

and they are leader here means that the cetasikas depend on citta for their arising.

领袖的意思是心所依赖于心才能生起

and the cetasikas have the following characteristics

心所有如下四相:

arising together with citta, a cetasika must arise together or at the same time with citta

与心同生,心所必须与心同时生起

and perishing together with citta

与心同灭

it disappears simultaneously with citta, so they arise together, they disappear together.

心所与心同时消失,所以说:同生同灭

and they must have the same object as the citta

心所与心同一所缘

there is no such case as citta taking one object

不存在这样的情况:心有一个所缘

and cetasikas taking another object

心所有另外一个所缘

so they must take the same object

它们必须缘取同一个对象

and the last characteristic is

心所的最后一个相是

they must have a common base with citta

心所必须与心有同一个依处

there are material properties that are called bases

有些色法可以被称为处

for example the eye

例如眼处

there are sensitive material properties in the eye, properly on the retina

眼净色,位于视网膜

the eye is said to be a base

眼被称为处

for seeing consciousness to arise

生起眼识

that means only when we have the eye, do we see,

意思是有了眼睛,我们才能看

if we have no eyes then we will not see and there will be no seeing or seeing consciousness

如果我们没有眼睛,就不能看,也就没有眼识

so when seeing consciousness arises, it must depend on a base

所以当眼识生起时,必须有所依处

a material base, here the sensitive part of the eye

色处,在这里就是眼净色

so the consciousness must have that sensitive part as a base

所以,心也需要有这样一个感受性的处

and so must the mental factors

心所也必须有这样的依处

they must have the same base, they must depend on the same base

它们必须有同一个依处,

so any mental state that is endowed with these four characteristics is called a cetasika

所以任何具有此四相的心理状态就被称之为:心所

the cetasikas are analyzed into 52 in abhidhamma

在阿毗达摩里,心所被分为52种

and we’re studying these cetasikas in due course

我们没多久就会学习这些心所

so this is the second ultimate reality

这是第二种究竟法

now the third ultimate reality is

第三种究竟法是

Rūpa or matter

色法

so matter is one reality taught in abhidhamma

色法是阿毗达摩里讲的一种究竟法

and matter or rupa is defined as something

色法的定义是

which changes when coming into contact with adverse conditions

遭受诸妨害缘所造成的变易物

such as cold, heat etc

诸妨碍缘包括冷热等等

now when we go out into the sun

我们走到太阳下

we have one series of material properties

我们出现一系列色法

when we go into the shade, we have another series of material properties and so on.

当我们走到阴凉处,就有另外一系列色法,等等

so

所以

the mateiral properties with these conditions such as cold heat

这就是在此等冷热诸缘下的色法

when we are thirsty we have one kind of material properties,

当我们口渴时,就有相应的色法

and when we are hungry, another kind of material property and so on

当我们饥饿的时候,就有另外的色法,诸如此类

and here change means the obvious or discernable change

这里的变易意思是明显的、可见的变化

because mind changes also, mind changes every moment

因为心也会变易,心时刻都在变化

but mind is not called rupa,

但是心不被称为色法

only that whose change is obvious is called rupa

只有发生明显可见的变易,才被称为色法

so in everyday time, rupa means matter

在日常生活中,色法就是物质

or material properties

或者物质属性

so they are called rupa in pali because they change with cold, heat and so on.

巴利语称之为rupa,是因为它随着冷热诸缘会变易

and this matter exists in living beings

此种色法存在于有情众生

and also in outside things.

也存在于外部无情之物

so there is rupa in our bodies, or in us, and there is rupa in outside things,

所以我们的身体中有色法,外部世界无情也有色法

in trees, plants, mountains, rivers, and so on.

诸如树木,植物,山河等等

it has no ability to cognize,

色法没有认知的能力

now rupa has no power to cognize

色法没有能力去认知

so rupa does not know anything, a rock does not know anything

所以,色法不能了知任何事物石头不知道任何事情

and even our bodies, if separated from mind, knows nothing

即便我们的身体,如果和心分离不知道任何事情

that is when we die

就像是我们死的时候

so

所以

the material property or rupa has no cognitive power, it does not know anything.

色法没有认知能力,不能了知任何事情

in contrast, citta and cetasika

相反,心、心所

have the cognitive power, they take object and they know the object.

它们具有认知能力,它们缘取对象,了知对象

the rupa or material property, has no such ability.

而色法不具有这样的能力

so it can not know anything, it cannot cognize anything

所以色法不能了知任何事情

and the rupa is analyzed into 28 kinds of material properties in abhidhamma

根据阿毗达摩,色法被分为28种

so according to abhidhamma, there are 28 material properties

所以根据阿毗达摩,有28种色法

they are comparable to elements in chemistry.

它们与化学元素类似

so we are composed of 28 material properties.

所以我们由28种色法组成

a man is composed of 27 material properties

男人由27种色法组成

and a woman is composed of 27 material properties

女人也由27种色法组成

and the outside things are composed of 8 kinds of material properties

外部世界的无情由8种色法组成

so we will come to that later

稍后我们再讨论这些

when we study the rupa or matter in detail

我们到时候再详细研究色法

now the last ultimate reality is nibbāna

现在谈谈最后一种究竟法:涅槃

it is the highest goal of buddhism

这是佛教的最高目标

so the highest goal or the aim of all buddhists is to reach nibbāna

佛教徒的最高目标就是证得涅槃

and what is nibbāna

什么是涅槃

it is very difficult to describe nibbāna

这非常难以描述

simply because we have not been into the nibbāna

因为我们并没有证得涅槃

and also it is so different than what we have been experiencing

也因为它与我们的体验大不相同

that it is difficult to perceive, difficult to understand

涅槃很难被认知、了解

it is described as extinction of desire ill will and delusion.

涅槃被描述为贪嗔痴的断除

that means the extinction of mental defilements

意思是心之诸漏被灭尽

although it is described as extinction of desire ill-will and delusion.

虽然涅槃被描述为灭尽贪嗔痴

it is not a negative state.

但涅槃并非一个消极的状态

it is like health or peace

例如健康、和平

now health, if you are asked to define health, how would you to do it?

健康,如果要你来定义,你怎么做?

or somebody ask, what is health, how would you answer?

有人问:什么是健康,你怎么回答

absence of disease

没有疾病

so we will use negative terms to define a positive state

所以我们用否定的词语来定义正面的状态

health is not a negative state

健康不是一个消极的状态

but when asked to define it, we will say health is the absence of diseases

但是我们定义健康时,我们就说健康是疾病的消除

if you are asked about peace, what is peace

如果让你定义和平,什么是和平?

peace is absence of violence and so on

和平就是暴力的消除,等等

so nibbāna is a positive state

所以涅槃是正面的状态

but mostly it is described in negative terms

但是我们常常用否定词来定义

not this, not this and so on.

非此,非彼,等等

it is liberation or freedom from all suffering

是从所有苦中解脱

so when a person attains final nibbana

当一个人证得最终的涅槃

he gets free from suffering,

他就免于诸苦

so that freedom from suffering is also called nibbana.

所以从苦中得到解脱就是涅槃

now out of the four ultimate realities, the first three are those, that are conditioned.

在这四种究竟法中,前三种是有为法

but the last one this nibbana is unconditioned

但是涅槃是无为法

so it is not caused by anything, it is not the result of anything.

涅槃不是因缘法

so it is a state by itself as freedom from suffering or freedom from the mental defilement

所以它是脱离苦、灭尽心中诸漏的一种自在状态

it is important to understand this

了解这点很重要

because there are some people who do not understand the pali word for it the unconditioned asankhata

因为有些人不懂巴利语“无为法”这个词

and then they say nibbana is uncompounded but is not unconditioned

他们说,涅槃非合成法,但不是“无为法”

i don’t think that is correct

我认为这种说法不对

the word asankhata means not made

“无为法”这个词,就是非造作的

not made means it must not made by anything it must not be conditioned by anything

非造作的,意思就是不受任何条件限制

so nibbana is called in pali asankhata

所以涅槃在巴利语里就是asankhata and it is translated as unconditioned

翻译成“无为法”

so whether it is unconditioned or uncompounded

不管它是无为法,还是非合成法

it has no cause, it is not caused by anything, it is not the result of anything.

它都不是因缘法

and it is not consciousness, it is not mind.

它不是心

in abhidhamma, nibbana is described as an external object

在阿毗达摩里,涅槃被形容为出世间法

external object means not belonging to us

出世间意思是不属于这个世间

just as we can take any external object as object at the moment of enlightenment

在觉悟的时候,我们可以缘取出世间法

the consciousness can take nibbana as object

心可以将涅槃当成所缘

only when the consciousness takes nibbana as object

只有心将涅槃作为所缘的时候

does the consciousness possess the power to eradicate mental defilements

它才有能力灭尽心中的所有染污

that means at the moment of enlightenment,

意思就是在觉悟的那一刻

a type of consciousness arises in his mind,

有一种心生起

and that consciousness is called path consciousness

这种心被称为道心

and that path consciousness takes nibbana as object

道心将涅槃作为所缘

it takes nibbana as object and at the same it eradicates mental defilements

同时灭尽心中诸漏

so nibbana is an external object

所以说涅槃是出世间法

that can be taken as object by the path consciousness and fruition consciousness

它可以是道心和果心的所缘

but there is a saying in a discourse that all four truths

在经中有这样的说法,所有四谛

can be found in this fathom-long body

都可以在我们七尺之躯找到

the truth of suffering, truth of origin of suffering, truth of cessation of suffering

苦集灭谛

and truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering

道谛

they can be found in this fathom-long body

都存在于我们的七尺之躯

but that does not mean that nibbana exists in us, in our body or in our mind

但这并不意味着涅槃存在于我们的身体或者心里

that means just that

它的意思只是说

nibbana is realized by oneself

涅槃的体证依赖于个人

and taken the nibbana as object

将涅槃作为所缘

so nibbana is not internal it is external, and nibbana is not mind or not mental

所以涅槃非内在,它是出世间的它不属于心

it is no mind no matter so it is outside mind and matter

不是名法,也不是色法,超越于名色

but there is a saying

但是有一个说法

or it is taught in abhidhamma

根据阿毗达摩

that nibbana is called nāma

涅槃被称为名法

that may be confusing

这可能让人困惑

in the sixth book of abhidhamma, nibbana is mentioned as nāma, one of the nāma

阿毗达摩论书第七部,涅槃被称为名法之一

but there

但是

it does not mean that nibbana

它不是说涅槃

has cognitive power

具有认知能力

or nibbana knows the other objects

也不是说能了知所缘

the word nama is defined in two ways

名法这个词有两种解释

the first is it inclines to the object that is one definition of the word nama

第一种:对所缘的趋向

so what is nāma? nāma is something that inclines to the object, that bends to the object

什么是名法,名法就是趋向所缘的

that means that takes the object, that is one definition of the word nāma

意思是缘取对象,这是名法的一个定义

and the second definition is something that makes other incline towards it

第二个定义就是让其他事物趋向它

so there is a causative sense here

有使他物趋向的意思

something that makes others incline toward it

让其他事物趋向于它

so according to that definition, nibbana can be called nāma

根据这个定义,涅槃是可以被称为名法的

that is why nibbana is mentioned as nāma

这就是涅槃也被称为名法的原因

but we are not to understand that, since it is called nāma, it is mental

但是我们不这样理解,因为名法,就是心法

nibbana is not mental, nibbana is neither mental nor physical,

涅槃不是心法,也不是色法

nibbana is something quite different from both mind and matter

涅槃与名法和色法颇不相同

therefore it is said it can not be adequately described in everyday terms

所以,涅槃不能用日常语言恰当地进行定义

so in everyday terms, however much we will describe nibbana

所以,如果用日常语言,不管我们怎么形容涅槃

we will not describe it accurately or adequately

我们都不能准确恰当地定义它

but nibbana is a positive state which can be realized

但是涅槃是可以被我们体证到的积极状态

through the practice of vipassana meditation

通过内观禅修就可以体证到

only through vipassana medition can one realize nibbana

只有通过内观禅修,我们才能体证到涅槃

so these are the four ultimate truth, citta, cetasikas, rupa and nibbana

所以,这些就是四种究竟法:心、心所、色法、涅槃

and these ultimate truths are taught in many ways in the seven books of abhidhamma

这四种究竟法,在阿毗达摩七论中得到了方方面面的解释

and in the abhidhammatthasangaha also

在《摄阿毗达摩义论》也是如此

which we are studying these four ultimate realities

我们学习这四种究竟法

are taught or described in detail

在这本书中解释的很详细

and so we will be studying these during this class

我们在这次课程中就要学习这些内容

ok, there will be a coffee break

好,现在是咖啡时间,休息一下

disk01track04

i hope you remember the seven books of abhidhamma that we studied yesterday

希望你记住昨天学的七部论书

among them there is one book called Puggalapaññatti descriptions of the types of beings

里面有一部《人施设论》讨论了各种不同种类的人

so that book deals with what are called concepts

所以这本书讨论的是“概念”

because that books deal with different individuals

因为这本书讨论的是不同的个体

apart from that, i mean, and also from Kathāvatthu, the points of controversy

除了这本书,还有一本《事论》是辩论之书

what is taught in abhidhamma is mostly four ultimate truths

阿毗达摩里讲的主要是四究竟法

and these four ultimate truths are taught in different ways

这四种究竟法被条分缕析

and now you might want to know how the four ultimate truths correspond to the four noble truths

你们可能想知道四究竟法和四圣谛的关系是怎样的

now the four noble truths are the noble truths of suffering, the noble truth of the origin of suffering, the noble of the cessation of suffering,

四圣谛是:苦谛、集谛、灭谛

and the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering.

道谛

now the first noble truth, the noble truth of suffering consists of

第一圣谛是苦圣谛包含了

mundane cittas, cetasikas and rupa

世间心、心所,色法

so among the four ultimate truths,

所以,这四种究竟法中

the first one, part of the first one, second one and the third one, correspond to the noble truth of suffering

部分第一、二种究竟法、第三种究竟法,与苦圣谛对应

and the second noble truth, the noble truth of origin, is craving,

第二圣谛,集圣谛,就是贪

which is a mental factor.

这是心所之一

now craving is among the cetasikas, 52 cetasikas

贪是52心所之一

because craving is lobha, attachment

因为贪就是lobha,是一种执取

so

所以

the second noble, the noble truth of the origin of suffering is just one of the 52 cetasikas.

第二圣谛,集谛是52种心所之一

and the third noble truth, the noble truth of cessation of suffering,

第三圣谛,灭谛

is nibbana which is the fourth ultimate truth

就是涅槃,是第四种究竟法

and the last one, the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering

最后一个,道谛

now this, the fourth noble truth is often called the middle way or the eightfold path

第四圣谛,通常被称为中道,或者被称为八正道

now eightfold path means this path has eight members or eight constituents

八正道的意思是这条道路由八个部分组成

and many of you may be familiar with these eight factors

你们许多人可能很熟悉这八个因素

right understanding and right thought and so on

正见、正思维等等

these eight factors are actually states of mental factors

这八因素实际上就是心所的状态

so they are included in the cetasikas

所以被包括在心所里

so these eight cetasikas from the middle path or the fourth noble truth

所以这八个心所源于中道,也就是第四圣谛

which is the way or the path leading to the cessation of suffering

这是导向苦之灭的方法或道路

so all four noble truths are included in these four ultimate realities

所以所有四圣谛都被包含在这四种究竟法里面

but not just one to one,

不只是一个对一个

so the first noble truth consists of some cetasikas and rupa

第一圣谛包含某些心所和色法

and the second noble truth consists of one cetasika which is craving or attachment

第二圣谛由贪心所组成

and the third noble truth consists of nibbana the extinction of all suffering

第三圣谛由涅槃(苦之灭)组成

and the fourth noble truth consists of the eight mental factors or eight cetasikas

第四圣谛由八个心所组成

after we understand the four ultimate truths that are taught in abhidhamma pitaka

理解了阿毗达摩里面的四种究竟法

we will now go to the detail study of these four ultimate realities

我们现在详细学习这四种究竟法

the first of the four ultimate realities is consciousness

第一种究竟法是:心

and so we will study the types of consciousness

所以,我们将学习不同种类的心

so consciousness is something that arises in our mind

心从我们的内心生起

by mind I mean consciousness and mental factors together.

这里的内心包括:心、心所

so consciousness is something that arises in our mind

心生于我们的内心

and consciousness arises when there are conditions for it

诸缘成熟,心就会生起

and there are different types of consciousness, different kinds of consciousness

有不同类型的心

so first, the consciousness is divided with reference to the planes of existence

首先,心依生命界而分类

so first you need to know the planes of existence

首先,你需要了解生命界

and these planes of existence are taught in the fifth chapter of this Comprehensive Manual

在《阿毗达摩概要精解》第五章讲到这些生命界

so if you want to know the 31 planes of existence, you go to this book

所以,如果要了解这31界,就可以参考这个章节

the fifth chapter

也就是第五章

but you need not go into detail now

不过你现在不需要详细了解

so there are 31 planes of existence 31个生命界

the lowest of them are the four that are called:

最底层的四个叫做:

planes of misery or planes of suffering:恶趣地

so those that are born in these four planes of existence had a lot of suffering,

投生到此四恶趣地的众生要受很多苦

like those born in hell and so on

例如投生到地狱等等

so first there are four planes of existence the lowest of them,

首先最底层的就是这四个生命界

then above the four, there is plane of human beings

这四界之上,就是人界

and above the human beings, there are six planes of devas or celestial beings

人界之上,有六个天界

and above the six planes of celestial beings

在这六个天界之上

are the 20 planes of existence called brahma

有20个梵天界

we may call them higher celestial beings

我们也可以将其称为:高等天界

so altogether there are 31 planes of existence

一起就是31生命界

again, the first four, that are the planes of misery

再重复一次,首先四个是恶趣地

and then human realm or human plane

然后是人界

and then six deva or celestial beings plane

然后是六个天界

and then 20 higher celestial beings

然后是20个更高的天界

so if we add up all of them, we get 31 planes of existence

如果我们把它们加起来,就是31个生命界

now among them

它们之中

the four lower planes,

四恶趣地

human plane

人界

and the six deva planes or six celestial planes

六天界

are collectively called sense-sphere planes

这些统称为欲界地

so, these 11 are called sense-sphere planes

所以,这11界叫做欲界地

and above them

它们之上

out of 20 planes for brahmas, we divide them into two

二十个梵天界分为两类

the brahmas of

这些梵天界

they call them material plane and immaterial plane

他们称之为色界、无色界

so material plane means those who are reborn in those planes have both mind and body

所以色界意思是投生到此界的众生具有名色

only one of them has body only and no mind

只有一界只具有身体,没有心和心所

and then the last four are called the immaterial planes

最后四界称为无色界

because they do not have the physical body, they only have consciousness and cetasikas

因为他们没有身体,他们只有心、心所

so roughly, we have three levels of planes

所以,大体上有三界

the lowest is called sense-sphere plane, and then the second is material plane, and the third immaterial plane

最低一个叫欲界,第二个是色界第三个是无色界

so the immaterial plane and the material plane beings are called brahmas

无色界和色界的众生被称为梵天

and the others are devas and human beings and beings of four states of misery.

其他是天人、人、四恶道众生

now all of these beings in the 30 planes have consciousness

所有这些众生中,有30界的众生具有心

so they experience consciousness in different ways and so there’re different types of consciousness

他们以不同的方式体验到心所以就有不同类型的心

and consciousness is divided with reference to these planes

心就是根据这些界来分类

consciousness that frequently arises in the 11 sense-sphere planes are called sense-sphere consciousness

经常出现在11欲界的心被称为欲界心

and the consciousness that frequently arises in the material plane

经常出现在色界的心

are called the material sphere consciousness.

就被称为色界心

and those that arise frequently in the immaterial plane are called immaterial plane consciousness,

经常在无色界生起的心被称为无色界心

immaterial plane consciousness

无色界心

so properly speaking, there are three planes of consciousness

恰当地说,心分三界

and then there is one more which is called supramundane plane

然后,还有一个叫出世间界

and supramundane plane means it has no actual place

出世间界意思是,它没有一个实际的处所

but just the some types of consciousness

但是只有某些种类的心

are called supramundane plane

称为出世间心

supramundane plane means the plane that transcends the lower three planes

出世间界意思是说超越它下面的三界

or that transcends the five aggregates of clinging, that are called the world.

或者说超越五取蕴,五取蕴被称为世间

so the supramundane plane is something like out of the world.

出世间界就是指超出这个世间

and the other three belong to the world.

其他三界属于这个世间

so broadly, the consciousness is divided into these four

所以概言之,心被分为此四类

according to the planes where they arise frequently

根据是在何界经常生起

the first group consists of again unwholesome consciousness, rootless consciousness and so on.

第一组包括不善心,无因心等等

so we will study them in detail one by one.

我们现在逐个详细学习

now first, let us consider an illustration

首先我们考虑一个场景

suppose there is a boy

假设有一个男孩

and he goes to a fruit store, and he sees mangoes there.

他去水果店,看到那里有芒果

and he holds the view that there is no evil in stealing

他觉得盗窃不是恶

it is alright to steal

盗窃没问题

and with happiness he steals a mango

他愉悦地偷了一个芒果

so when he steals a mango with happiness,

当他愉悦地偷了一个芒果

and with the view that there is no evil in stealing

并且认为偷窃不是一种恶

there arises one type of consciousness in his mind.

他生起了一种类型的心

his consciousness when he steals, there is lobha or attachment in his mind.

当他偷窃的时候,心里生起贪执

because he wants to steal, he wants that mango,

因为他想去偷窃,想得到那个芒果

and so there is lobha or attachment or greed accompanying his consciousness,

所以,贪就伴随他的心

so at that moment when he steals a mango

在他偷芒果的时候

there arises in his mind one type of consciousness

他心中生起一种心

and that consciousness is accompanied by let us say, greed.

贪就伴随着他的心

and since he steals with happiness, his consciousness is accompanied by happiness

因为他带着愉悦偷窃,愉悦就伴随着他的心

and since he steals with a view that there is no evil in stealing

因为他偷窃的时候,认为偷窃不是恶

it is alright to steal, he has a wrong view.

认为偷窃没问题,他就有邪见

and spontaneously he steals with not being prompted by anybody or any circumstances.

没有任何人怂恿,他自发地偷窃了

so in that case, there arises in his mind one type of consciousness

所以,在这种情况下,他心中生起一种心

now you remember what type of consciousness that is

你们现在知道他们生起什么心

a consciousness accompanied by greed

这种心与贪相伴

so to be short, I use with pleasure with wrong view unprompted

简言之:悦俱邪见相应无行心

so that first type of consciousness there

所以他生起的第一种心

with pleasure with wrong view, unprompted

悦俱邪见相应无行心

and it is accompanied by or rooted in attachment

与贪相伴,或以贪为根

we can know this consciousness in a boy who spontaneously steal an apple from, a mango or an apple from a fruit store.

我们知道,一个男孩从水果店自发地偷窃一个苹果或者芒果,就会生起此心

with a view that there is no evil and stealing, and he steals it with happiness

认为偷窃不是恶,带着愉悦偷窃

so in that case, this type of consciousness arises in his mind

在这个例子中,他心中生起这种心

so this is the first of the unwholesome consciousness

这就是第一种不善心

now this is called unwholesome consciousness, it is morally unwholesome

之所以叫不善心,因为从道德上讲,是不善的

and also unwholesome consciousness brings painful results.

同样,不善的心,带来苦果

in pali it is called akusala, unwholesome

巴利语是:akusala,不善

sometimes akusala is translated as unskillful

有时候,akusala被翻译成不善巧

so unskillful consciousness or unwholesome consciousness and i prefer unwholesome to unskillful

不善心,或不善巧的心我倾向于不善心

ok, now i will explain to you the meaning of word kusala first.

我现在先给你们讲讲

kusala这个词的意思

when you understand the word kusala you understand the word akusala

当你懂得kusala这个词,就会明白akusala这个词

kusala means wholesome, and akusala means unwholesome kusala意思是善的,

akusala意思是不善的

now kusala is also translated as skillful kusala也被翻译成善巧的

now it is correct that it is translated as skillful but

翻译成善巧也是对的,但是

I’m not in favor of using skillful for kusala

但我不喜欢将kusala翻译成善巧

because people can manipulate this, people can twist this

因为有人会利用这种翻译,扭曲它

you can skillfully kill a man and get away with this

你可以善巧地杀人,并逍遥法外

you can skillfully steal a object

你可以善巧地偷东西

when you kill a human being, when you steal something it is not kusala

当你杀人或偷东西时,这不是kusala i think we should avoid using skillful for the word kusala,

我认为我们不要用善巧来翻译kusala although basically, the word kusala means skillful

虽然,基本上,kusala这个词意思也是“善巧的”

sometimes the meaning of the word change with times.

有时候,词语的意义随着时间而改变

originally, the word kusala kusala这个词的本义

comes from two components: kusa and la

由两部分组成:kusa+la now kusa means a kind of grass kusa是一种草的名字

a kind of grass whose blades are sharp

这种草的边缘很锋利

so with sharp blades on both edges, that grasses like a knife.

因为边缘很锋利,就像一把刀

I don’t know whether there are grasses like this in this country.

我不知道这个国家有没有这种草

so that kind of grass

这种草

if you do not know how to handle that grass, you will cut your hand.

如果你不知道这种草,就会割到自己的手

so if somebody says, this man can handle the kusa grass,

所以,如果有人说,这个人能应付这种草

that means this man is clever enough to handle the grass without cutting his hand

意思是,这个人很聪明,不会被此草割到手

so a man who can handle the kusa grass without cutting his hand is called a kusala

所以,一个人不被此种草割到手就被称之为kusala later on this name is extended to mean anybody who is skillful, who is skillful to do anything.

后来这个词的意义扩大了,指做事具有善巧的人

so the original meaning of the word kusala is skillful

所以,这个词的本义是善巧的

but it is explained that it is also means to be healthy

但是也被解释成:健康的

so i like that meaning healthy for the word kusala

我喜欢kusala的这个意思:健康的

the opposite of the word kusala is akusala kusala的反义词是akusala so here akusala we translate as unwholesome, unwholesome consciousness

这里akusala,我们翻译成不善的,不善心

so this first unwholesome consciousness arises

所以,这里生起的第一种不善心

when a boy spontaneously steals a mango or an apple

当一个男孩自发偷盗一个芒果或苹果

without being prompted by anybody

没有任何人怂恿他

and he has a wrong view that it is alright to steal, and he steals with happiness

他具有邪见,觉得偷盗没问题很愉悦地偷了东西

so the first type of consciousness is

这第一种心

accompanied by pleasure, associated with wrong view and unprompted

悦俱邪见相应无行心

if he steals that mango

如果他偷了那个芒果

when he is prompted by somebody,

是被别人怂恿的

when he is encouraged by somebody, and then he steals it

别人鼓励他,然后他就偷了东西

then at that moment there is the second type of consciousness

这时候,他就生起了第二种心

arising in his mind that is with pleasure with wrong view and prompted

就是悦俱邪见相应有行心

so there are always these two kinds of consciousness,

所以常常碰到此两种心

one unprompted, and the other one prompted

无行,有行

so prompted and unprompted urged by someone or urged by oneself.

有行或无行,意思是被别人或自己怂恿

or encouraged by someone, or encouraged by oneself.

被别人或者自己鼓励

sometimes you have to encourage yourself to do something

有时候,你需要鼓励你自己做某事

so that is also called prompted

这也被称为有行

sometimes you do the act spontaneously without even thinking about it

有时候,你自发地做某事,想都不想就去做了

so that is called unprompted

这就叫:无行

the unwholesome consciousness arises sometimes unprompted and sometimes prompted

不善心生起的时候,可以是无行,也可以是有行

so we get the first two types of consciousness

我们了解了这两种心

the first one that is with pleasure with wrong view and unprompted,

第一种是:悦俱邪见相应无行心

the second one with pleasure with wrong view and prompted

第二种是悦俱邪见相应有行心

if that boy does not have that wrong view

如果那个男孩没有邪见

does not have the view that it is alright to steal

不认为偷盗是正确的

he knows that it is wrong to steal, but still he steals unprompted

他知道偷盗是错的,没有任何人的鼓励,他还是偷了

also he steals happily

他愉悦地偷了东西

then there arises in his mind, the third type of consciousness

他心中就生起了第三种心

that is with pleasure without wrong view and unprompted

悦俱邪见不相应无行心

and if he is prompted, then another type of consciousness in his mind

如果他是被怂恿的,就生起另外一种心

with pleasure without wrong view and prompted

悦俱邪见不相应有行心

so first we get four types of consciousness here

所以,我们知道了开始这四种心

that are accompanied by pleasure, and two with wrong view, two without wrong view, and two prompted, and two umprompted.

悦俱,两个邪见相应,两个邪见不相应,两个有行,两个无行

so first we get these four types of consciousness

首先,我们就知道了这四种心

to be easy to memorize i use the key words here

为了便于记忆,我这里用了关键词

if you want to know the four translation of these types of consciousness

如果你想知道这些心的翻译

please read this book: the comprehensive manual

就读读这本《概要精解》

and then there are the other four which are accompanied by indifference

所以还有四种舍俱

that is he is neither happy nor angry

就是说,他不愉悦,也不恼恨

so with the neutral mind, he steals the apple or the mango

在这种中性的心情下,他偷了芒果

and with wrong view, without wrong view, unprompted and prompted

与邪见相应或者不相应,无行或者有行

and so altogether we get eight types of consciousness

所以,一起我们知道了八种心

that are rooted in attachment, rooted in attachment really means

它们都是以贪为根,意思是

accompanied by or associated with attachment,

与贪执相伴

attachment here means just the desire to possess

贪执这里指占有欲

so we get eight types of consciousness that are rooted in attachment.

以贪为根的心有8种

and then there are two types of consciousness rooted in ill-will or anger.

以嗔为根的心有2种

now the example here is with hatred, one man murders another.

举例:一个人带着仇恨杀了另一人

in his spontaneous fits of rage

他自发生起怒火

so one person gets angry, and then he just kills another person

一个人带着愤怒,杀掉另外一个人

so when he kills another person he has anger or hate in his mind

当他杀掉另外一个人时,心里有嗔恨

since he murders without being prompted by anybody on the spot of the moment

因为此时他杀人的行为不是被人怂恿的

now his consciousness is said to be umprompted, so in this case

所以这是无行心,这种情况下

the first of the two consciousness rooted in ill-will arises in his mind

在他心里生起两种嗔根心的一种

that is with displeasure that means with hate or with hatred i mean with anger, with ill will and unprompted

忧俱嗔恚相应无行心

by he murders a man with premeditation

如果他经过谋虑之后杀人

then the consciousness that arises in him is with displeasure

他心里生起的就是:忧俱

with ill will and prompted

嗔恚相应有行心

so there are only two types of consciousness accompanied by ill will or anger or hate

所以嗔根心只有两种

but there are eight types of consciousness accompanied by attachment or lobha

贪根心有8种

i think we are fortunate that there are only two types of consciousness rooted in anger, ill will

我想我们还是很幸运,嗔根心只有两种

if there were eight of them, we can not imagine how miserable the world would be

如果它们也有8种,我们很难想象这个世界将是多么地痛苦啊

even these two kinds create a lot of cruelty or violence in the world.

即使只有这两种,也让这个世界充满了残暴行为

so there are two types of consciousness rooted in ill will

所以,嗔根心有两种

and then there are two more that are rooted in delusion, now delusion means ignorance

还有两种是痴根心,“痴”意思是愚痴

later on i will tell you the pali words for them

稍后我会告诉你们它们的巴利语

so delusion really means ignorance

痴实际上就是愚痴

consciousness rooted in ignorance, there are two of them

痴根心有两种

and the first one is with indifference and with doubt

第一种就是舍俱疑相应

now sometimes people have doubt about the buddha, about the dhamma, about sangha, abouth enlightenment of the buddha

如果有人对佛法僧有疑问,对觉悟有疑问

or about the practice and so on,

或者对修行有疑惑

so when a person due to delusion, that means he is deluded he is ignorant

当一个人因为愚痴,意思是他被蒙蔽了

and doubt the enlightenment of the buddha,

对佛陀的觉悟产生怀疑

or the efficacy of the dhamma as a way to deliverance.

对佛法的解脱功效产生怀疑

then he has this type of consciousness in his mind

在心里就生起此种心

with indifference with doubt,

舍俱疑相应

and here there is no difference between unprompted and prompted

这里就不存在无行、有行的差别

so there is no such division here

所以这里就没有此种区分

now this doubt is very damaging, especially when you practice meditation

这种怀疑,很有害处特别是在禅修的时候

sometimes doubt arises when you are meditating

有时候,你在禅修时会产生疑问

whether this method is really good,

这种方法是不是有效?

whether it will really lead to the understanding the true nature of things and so on

他是不是导向对事物性质的理解等等

but sometimes people will doubt about the efficacy of this method

有时候,人们会怀疑禅修方法的功效

or doubt about the trustworthiness of the teacher and so on.

或者对老师的可靠性也发生怀疑

so when such doubts arise a meditator can not go on meditating.

当产生这些疑问时,就不能继续禅修

so in this case when he is practicing vipassana meditation,

在内观禅修的时候

he just need to note the doubt, he just need to be aware of the doubt.

他只需要标记他的疑惑只需要觉知他的疑惑

and thus he eliminates the doubts

这样就消除了疑惑

so that is the consciousness accompanied by doubt

这就是疑相应的心

and with indifference

舍俱

since that doubt, his mind can not be happy, or can not have ill will

因为有疑,他的内心不会愉悦,也不会怀有嗔恨

so it is neutral

所以是中性的

and the last one is with indifference and with restlessness

最后一个是舍俱掉举相应

now a person is so distracted in mind, that he cannot focus his mind on any object.

一个人他的内心受到很大的干扰无法专注于任何所缘

did you have such an experience?

你们有没有此种经验?

i think you did

我觉得你们有

everybody has such an experience

每个人都有这种经验

sometimes we practice meditation and our mind doesn’t seem to be on the object.

有时候我们禅修,我们的心似乎不能安住于所缘

we don’t seem to be able to concentrate on the object

我们似乎不能够专注于所缘

our mind is like not stuck to the object

我们的心不能附着于所缘

but above the object, moving a little

只是在所缘上,略微动动

so that is called restlessness of mind

这就被称为心的掉举

so in abhidhamma restlessness means restlessness of mind

在阿毗达摩里,掉举指心的掉举

and restlessness of mind really means shaking or moving above the object

心的掉举实际指心在所缘之上晃动或者移动

our mind is not with the object,

我们的心并不与所缘在一起

now we do not see the object clearly when there is restlessness in our mind

如果心里有掉举,我们就不能清晰地观察所缘

at that moment this type of consciousness arises in our mind,

此刻,这种心就会生起

and so there are altogether two types of consciousness rooted in delusion

所以,痴根心共有两种

now the first eight consciousnesses rooted in attachment

贪根心有8种

in pali they are called lobha mūla

巴利语称之为lobha mūla you have the other sheet

你们有另外一张表

you may look at the pali sheet also, so lobha mūla

你们也可以看看巴利语的那个表

now mūla means root mūla就是根

and lobha means lobha attachment so lobha mūla means lobha就是贪执,合起来意思是

having lobha as root

以贪为根

and there are eight of them,

有八种

and the second group is called dosa mūla

第二种就是dosa mūla so dosa means ill will or hate or anger dosa意思是嗔恨、愤怒

so rooted in hate or rooted in ill will or rooted in anger

以恨、嗔、怒为根

they are called dosa mūla, two

就成为嗔根心,有两种

and then the third group is called moha mūla

第三种称为痴根

so moha means delusion or ignorance and

痴就是指受到蒙蔽,愚痴

the consciousness rooted in moha is called moha mūla

以痴为根的心就是痴根心

so altogether there are 12 types of consciousness,

所有一起一共是12种

and these 12 types of consciousness are called unwholesome consciousness

这12种心被称为不善心

you may also call it unskillful

你也可以称之为不善巧的心

but i think we better call it unwholesome

我觉得最好称之为“不善心”

so unwholesome types of consciousness

所以不善心这个类型

whatever bad karma we do, we do with one of these types of consciousness

我们造恶业的时候,就会生起它们之中的一种

sometimes we are attached to something,

有时候,我们贪执于某事

sometimes we may take something that is not given to us.

有时候,我们不予而取

then there is this lobha or the lobha mūla consciousness in our mind and so on.

这样贪根心就会生起,诸如此类

sometimes we get angry and

有时候我们发怒

then there is one of the two types of consciousness arising in our mind

所以就会生起嗔根心中的一种

now in abhidhamma the anger or hate includes fear

在阿毗达摩中,嗔包括恐惧

so when we are afraid of something, when we fear something

当我们惧怕某事时

then one of these two types of consciousness rooted in ill will arises in our mind

嗔根心中的一种就会生起

so when we’re afraid of something, we have dosa mūla consciousness

当我们害怕某事的时候嗔根心就会生起

or when we fear something, we have dosa mūla consciousness

当我们恐惧的时候,也会生起嗔根心

so the dosa can cover many types of emotions

所以,嗔可以包括很多种情绪

sadness, depression, dissatisfaction, anger, hate and fear

忧伤、沮丧、不满、愤怒、痛恨、恐惧

all come under the head of ill will

都归于嗔

so when we are afraid of something, we have one of these two types of consciousness

当我们害怕某事的时候嗔根心中的一种就会生起

now prompted or unprompted

现在谈:有行、无行

you may read the note at the bottom of the page

你们可能看到了这页底部的注释

the pali word saṅkhāra is used here in the sense specific to abhidhamma

“行”这个词在这里是阿毗达摩的特有用法

to mean prompting, instigation, inducement, or the application of an expedient.

意思是:怂恿、教唆、劝诱、采用方便手法

this prompting may be induced by others or it may originate within oneself.

这种怂恿,可能来自别人,也可以源自自身

the means employed may be bodily, verbal, or purely mental.

使用的方法可以是肢体的、语言的或者仅仅是思想方面的

that consciousness which arises spontaneously

如果心自发生起

without prompting or inducement by expedient means,

没有被怂恿或者劝诱

it’s called unprompted

就被称为无行

that consciousness which arises with prompting or inducement by expedient means

如果心被怂恿或者被劝诱

it’s called prompted

就被称为有行

so this is from the comprehensive manual of abhidhamma

这些都来自《阿毗达摩概要精解》

so prompting can be one’s own, or it may can from outside other persons

所以怂恿可以来自自身,也可以来自外部别人

sometimes when we want to do something, we want to encourage ourselves.

有时候,我们想做某事,需要自我鼓励

sometimes we do it spontaneously,

有时候,是自发地去做

and so when we do it spontaneously the consciousness that arises in our mind is called unprompted and

如果是自发地做,我们生起的心就是无行心

when we do with prompting it’s called prompted

当我们受到怂恿,就是有行心

now the pali words for this word prompted or unprompted are asaṅkhārika and sasaṅkhārika

无行有行的巴利语分别是:

asaṅkhārika 和 sasaṅkhārika now you may notice that there is the word saṅkhāra there in the word asaṅkhārika and sasaṅkhārika

你可能注意到里面有saṅkhāra这个词

now the word saṅkhāra in pali is a difficult word to understand,

巴利语里saṅkhāra这个词很难理解

and also it can not be translated by just one english word.

也不能用仅仅用一个英语单词来翻译

so you have to find out what it means to get the correct translation of the word.

所以,你必须理解意思,才能找到合适的词来翻译

for example, when we say all saṅkhāras are impermanent

例如,当我们说:诸行无常

we mean those that are conditioned

这里指的是有为法

but in the formula dependent origination the sentence is

但是在十二缘起支里

because there is ignorance there is a condition

无明缘行

there are saṅkhāras

这里也有“行”

now in that sentence the word saṅkhāra can not be translated

这里的“行”就不能翻译成

as conditioned things, or conditioned phenomena

有为法

there saṅkhāra is translated as formations or kamma formations

这里的“行”就被翻译成造业的心所

the word saṅkhāra has at least two meanings, one is active and the other is passive

“行”这个词至少有两个意义一个是主动的意义,一个是被动的意义

so saṅkhāra means something that makes, or that produces

“行”指:造作、创造

and also saṅkhāra means that something is made or that is produced.

也指:被造作,被创造

so we need to understand what meaning is appropriate in a given context

所以,我们要明白在特定的语境下,它是什么意思

that is why we can not translate this word with just the mental formation or just conditioned phenomena

所以,我们不能将它一律翻译成:思想活动,或者有为法

so we have to depend on the context

所以得参照语境

but here in this particular context, the word saṅkhāra means effort.

在这里,在这个语境下,“行”指:使力

that is why it is very difficult to get a correct translation

所以说很难找到一个正确的翻译

when you translate from pali into english or any other language

很难将巴利语翻译成英语或其他语言

so here prompted and unprompted are

这里有行、无行

the translations of the pali word sasaṅkhārika and asaṅkhārika

就是对这两个巴利语的翻译

and here saṅkhāra means effort

这里,“行”指“使力”

but in other places saṅkhāra may mean all conditioned phenomena or kamma formation

在其他地方“行”可能指:有为法,或者造业的心所

that means or that produce results

意思是:造作结果的

so now we have the 12 unwholesome types of consciousness

我们已经学了12种不善心

do you bring the small card with you today

你们今天带了那张小卡片吗?

that is for memorization of the consciousness

它们是用来帮助记忆这些心的

so please look at the first column represent the 12 unwholesome types of consciousness

请看第一列,代表12个不善心

and in order to differentiate those that are accompanied by pleasure from those that are accompanied by indifference

为了区分悦俱、舍俱

we use colors, so red color means accompanied by pleasure

我们用不同的颜色,红色表示悦俱

and blue color means accompanied by indifference

蓝色表示舍俱

so this card will help you to memorize the different types of consciousness

这卡片将帮助你记忆不同种类的心

in a different sheet, you may write down the name so those,

你可以用另外一张纸写下这些心的名称

but later you may not need the descriptions

但以后你可能就不需要这些描述

just look at this chart, and you know this is

看这张表,你就知道

pleasure with wrong view unprompted, with pleasure with wrong view prompted and so on

悦俱邪见相应无行,悦俱邪见相应有行,诸如此类

the first column represents the 12 unwholesome types of consciousness

第一列代表12种不善心

the first 8 are those accompanied by or rooted in attachment

前八种是贪根心

and then the two green color,

然后是两个绿色的

the two are accompanied by ill will with displeasure

这两个是忧俱嗔恚相应

and the last two the blue ones are accompanied by indifference.

最后两个蓝色是舍俱

indifference means neutral feeling

舍俱指中性的感觉

neither pleasure nor displeasure, neutral feeling

不愉悦也不忧伤,中性感觉

so we study these 12 looking at these dots

我们通过这些圆点来学习此12种心

so the first 8 are accompanied by attachment

首先的8个是贪根心

and the two green dots are accompanied by hate or anger

两个绿色的嗔根心

and the last two accompanied by delusion or moha

最后两个是痴根心

and we can exercise with these chart

我们可以通过这张表来练习

so how many are accompanied by pleasure

悦俱的有几个?

out of these 12, how many are accompanied by pleasure

这12个之中,有多少是悦俱的?

number 1, 2, 3 4

第1、2、3、4 how many are accompanied by indifference or neutral feelings

有多少是舍俱的?

5,6,7,8 oh, there are no numbers

哦,这些没标数字

5, 6, 7, 8, and 11 and 12 5, 6, 7, 8,11,12 and how many are accompanied by displeasure or dosa

有多少是忧俱的

the two green dots

两个绿色的圆点

so now we know

我们现在知道

that out of 12 unwholesome types of consciousness 12种不善心中

4 are accompanied by pleasure

有四种是悦俱

and 6 are accompanied by indifferent feeling or neutral feeling 6种是舍俱

and the 2 accompanied by ill will or anger 2种是嗔根心

so you keep this card with you, put it in your pocket

你将这张卡片随身带着,放在口袋里

and then you take it out at odd moment and look this and memorize it

在空闲时拿出来记记

so if you do this, you will get the whole card very easily

如果你这样做了,就很容易记下整个卡片

once you’re familiar it

一旦你熟悉这张卡片

you know the value of this card.

你们知道这张卡的价值

because it is like a map

因为它就像一张地图

so wherever you go, you read a map

当你旅行时,你就要看地图

before you’re going

在出发之前就要读地图

so when you know the map, then when you reach the place

你如果读过地图,抵达之后

you know where to go or where you are and so on

你知道该去哪里,你在哪里诸如此类

so in the same way, it’s important that you remember this,

所以,同样,你记住这些也很重要

because in the next chapters

因为在以后的章节里

they will be referred to again and again

这些将被反复提到

so it is important that you are familiar with this before you to the next chapter and so on

所以,在学习下一章之前,熟悉这些很重要

and if you’re familiar with this, then you will find joy in studying and understanding

如果对这些熟悉了,你们就会在学习和理解中找到乐趣

so please give some time to this card and then memorize this

所以,请对这张卡片花些时间记住这张卡的内容

so ok now we have 12 unwholesome types of consciousness

我们学了12种不善心

and I think we know what types of consciousness is arising in our mind when we do something bad

我想当我们做坏事的时候,就会知道生起什么心了

so when we get angery with somebody,

当我们对某人生气时

then what type of consciousness will be in our mind?

在心里会生起哪一种心?

one of the two green ones

两个绿色之一

suppose after the class you drive and somebody cut in front of you

假设下课后,你开车时,有人插到你前面

and you are angry

你生气了

so in that case, one of these two, and i think your anger will be umprompted

这样,就是这二者之一我想你的愤怒是没人怂恿的

and so it may be the first type of consciousness.

就是嗔根心的第一种

and if you have doubt about the teachings, doubt about the buddha,

如果你对佛法有怀疑对佛陀有怀疑

the consciousness accompanied by delusion has arisen in your mind, number 11

痴根心,也就是11号,就会生起

so something like that

诸如此类

then you want something, when you want something

当你想得到某物的时候

then one of the 8 may be in your mind 8种贪根心的其中一个就会生起

so this is the practical benefit we get from understanding abhidhamma

这就是我们理解阿毗达摩的实际益处

because now you know that the unwholesome consciousness is described as morally unwholesome or morally unhealthy

因为现在你们知道了不善心就是道德上不善或道德上不健康的心

and it is productive of painful results

它会导致苦果的产生

now if we get painful results then we must avoid having these types of consciousness

如果我们不想得到苦果,就必须避免这些不善心

we may not be able to avoid all together.

我们可能不能一下子全部避免这些

because only when we become buddhas and arahants

因为只有我们成了佛,或者阿罗汉

we will be able to avoid all of them but

我们才不会生起所有这些心

we can avoid as much as we can and

但是我们可以尽可能多地避免

in provision as we can avoid these types of consciousness

如果我们能避免这些不善心

so we will have less painful results in the future.

在未来就会少受一些苦果

so if we hate pain or if we want to avoid painful results in the future

如果我们不喜欢苦,想在未来避免苦果

try to prevent these types of consciousness from arising in our mind

尽量阻止这些心的生起

and yesterday i told you about the teaching of buddha that not to do any evil

昨天我告诉你们诸佛通偈中的诸恶莫作

now you know what evil is

现在你们明白了何为恶

now whenever one of these types of consciousness arise in our mind

当这些不善心中的一个生起时

that means there is evil in our mind

就表示我们心中有恶

so when we know that it is evil then we will get rid of it as soon as we can.

当我们知道它是恶,就要尽快处理它

so that we do not acquire much unwholesome or bad karma

所以我们就不会造作太多的恶业

so when we know that something is harmful then we can avoid it

所以当我们知道有害的事情我们就可以去避免它

if we do not know that something is harmful we will be doing it

如果我们不知道它是有害的,就会去做这些事情

so this is the practical benefit we get from the knowledge of abhidhamma

这就是我们从阿毗达摩里得到的实际利益

now there is some sheet saying that not all craving is bad

有些地方说并非所有的贪都是坏的

so not all craving is bad

并非所有的贪都是坏的

I’m not encourage you to have craving

我并非鼓励你们起贪心

but i want you to understand that some craving is not bad for us

我希望你们了解有些贪心对我们而言,并非是不好的

so here craving is

这里的贪

craving for enlightenment

对觉悟的贪心

we want to get enlightenment, so we are attached to enlightenment

我们希望获得觉悟,所以执于觉悟

that craving is good or bad

这种贪心是好是坏?

now the commentary says that

注释书说

based on the present craving, that is desire for becoming an arahant

基于现在的贪欲,即贪求成为阿罗汉

he gives up previous craving

而放弃之前的贪欲

that was the root cause of once involvement in the cycle of rebirth.

而之前的贪欲是轮回的根本原因

depending on one craving

依靠现在的这个贪心

you try to give up another craving

你放弃之前的那些贪

because you want to attain enlightenment you try to get rid of attachment

因为你想获得觉悟,想对治贪执

or you try to get of craving,

或对治贪欲

so that kind of craving, craving for enlightenment

所以那种对觉悟的贪

desire to become enlightenment is here said that

贪求觉悟在这里

what does the commentary say

注释书怎么说?

now it may be asked whether such present craving for arahantship is wholesome or unwholesome

这种现前对阿罗汉果的贪求是善的,还是不善的?

it is wholesome or unwholesome to crave for enlightenment

贪求觉悟是善,还是不善?

now we want to get enlightenment, that desire, is that wholesome or unwholesome

我们现在追求觉悟,这种欲望,是善还是不善?

abhidhamma, look at faces, in the pun as we call look at faces that mean abhidhamma does not exercise partiality

阿毗达摩直面这个问题并没有厚此薄彼

so it must be impartial when we come to abhidhamma

阿毗达摩对此一视同仁

so that craving, is that wholesome or unwholesome? it is unwholesome.

这种贪心,是善还是不善?它是不善的

then the commentary said here, should it be pursued or not,

注释书在这里说:要不要追求

that kind of craving?

这种贪心?

it should be pursued, so it is alright to have such craving

应该追求,所以可以有这种贪心

does it drag one into rebirth or not

它会不会把人拽入轮回?

that means, now the unwholesome kamma gives painful results.

意思是,不善的业带来苦果

but this kamma will not drag you into rebirth

但是这种业不会拽你入轮回

that means it is not too bad

意思是这种业并不是那么糟糕

so it does not drag one into rebirth

所以,它不会把人带入轮回

such permissible craving is abandoned when its object is obtained

当目的达成之后,就会舍弃这种贪心

now we crave for enlightenment

我们现在贪求觉悟

when we become enlightened, then we are able to discard or abandon the craving

当我们觉悟之后,我们就能舍弃这种对觉悟的贪心

so we should have some kind of craving for enlightenment

所以我们应具有对觉悟的某种贪

we should have some kind of craving to get result when we practice meditation

我们在禅修的时候,也需要具有某种贪心,以便获得成果

only when we have this expectation

只有当我们具有此种期望

we will practice

我们才会去修行

if we do not expect anything out of the practice of meditation we will not practice at all

如果我们对禅修没有任何期待我们就不会去禅修

therefore

所以

expecting for result of the practice of meditation is pursuable as the commentary says here

根据注释书在这里说的对禅修的结果抱有期望,是可以的

but what is important when you practice meditation is

但是当你禅修的时候,重要的是

to leave them alone

就不要理睬这些贪求

that means it is good to have expectation before you practice meditation

意思是在禅修之前,具有期望很好

but when you are right in the practice, when you are sitting down in practicing they will become obstacles

当你正在禅修,正在禅坐时这些期望就会成为你的障碍

so at that time you can not afford to have this kinds of expectations

所以,禅修当中,带着这些期望你就会不堪其负

but they may come they will come quite often to you

但是这些期望可能会经常现身

and when they come up, you just be mindful of them

当它们出现时,你只要对它们保持正念

make mental notes of them

在心中对它们进行标记

so that is advice for practice meditation

所以这就是对于禅修的建议

although lobha or craving is unwholesome mental states

虽然贪是一种不善的心所

craving for arahantship, craving to become an arahant, craving to gain enlightenment

贪求成为阿罗汉或者觉悟

is a pursuable craving

是可以被允许的贪求

and so it is not so bad, now that is one thing

并没有那么不好,这是一点

and another thing is, another sheet, what is the greater evil

另外一点,另外一张纸,哪种恶更大一些

once king milinda asked reverend venerable nagasena now he asked

有一次弥兰王问那先比丘

revered nagasena

那先长老

for whom is the greater demerit

这两者谁的恶更大

he who does evil deeds knowingly

一个是知其恶而为恶者

or he who does an evil deed unknowingly?

一个是不知其恶而为恶者

so which would be greater demerit, greater akusala, greater unwholesome act

哪一种罪恶更大呢?

when he does an evil deed unknowingly or

是不知其恶而作恶者

he does it knowingly.

还是知其恶而作恶者?

the answer is

答案是

his is the greater demerit sir, who does an evil deed unknowingly

大王,不知其恶而作恶者,罪恶更大

now it is opposite to what we think, right?

这跟我们想的相反,对吧?

because we can forgive people who say: oh because i don’t know i did this, please forgive me

因为如果别人说:哦我不知道,所以做了错事,请原谅我们就会原谅他

then we can forgive him readily

我们就会欣然原谅他

but here the venerable nagasena saying, he who does an evil deed unknowingly

在这里,那先比丘说不知恶而作恶者

get greater demerit

罪恶更大

milinda was not satisfied with just this answer so he said

弥兰王对这个答案并不满意,说

well then bhante, do we doubly punish the royalists of ours or chief minister who does an evil deed unknowingly

尊者,对于那些王室成员,或者大臣如果他们不知其恶,而去作恶是不是应该加倍地处罚?

then the venerable nagasena said: what do you think about this?

那先比丘说:想想下面这个例子

if one man should unknowingly take hold of a red hot bowl of iron

如果一个人无意地去拿一个很烫的铁碗

aglow, aflame, ablaze

这个铁碗很红很烫

and another should take hold it knowingly

另外一个人有意地去拿这个碗

which would be more severely burned

哪个人被烫的更厉害?

it is very apt question, right?

这个问题很聪明,对吧?

so you know that it will burn your hand but you pick it up

你知道会烫手,但是你拿起它

and you don’t know that it will burn your hand and you pick it up

你不知道它烫手,你拿起它

so if you pick up without knowing it

如果你在不觉察的状态拿起它

and you will take hold of it firmly, so you will be burned more

你会紧紧抓住它,就会被烫的更厉害

so that is what the venerable nagasena was saying here

这就是那先比丘的意思

so king milinda said, he who took hold of it unknowingly would be more severely burned

弥兰王说:没有觉知而拿的那个人他被烫的更严重

then venerable nagasena said that if so sir

那先比丘说:如果这样,大王

the greater demerit is his who does an evil deed unknowingly

不知其恶而为恶者,罪恶更大

and milind said, you are dexterous, reverend nagasena

弥兰王说,你很有智慧,那先长老

so according to this

根据这个故事

answer given by the venerable nagasena doing demerit unknowingly

那先比丘的回答,不知其恶而作恶

will bring us more demerit

会有更大的罪恶

or bring us more painful results

带来更多的苦果

because when we know that it is unwholesome it brings painful results

因为当我们知道他是不善的,会带来苦果

then we will be careful when doing it

我们就会小心一点

but if we don’t know it then we will do it with might and main

但是如果我们不知其恶,就会尽全力去做

so that we will get the painful results of it in the future.

所以在未来就会获得苦果

so this is the answer given by venerable nagasena

这就是那先比丘给出的答案

we should keep it mind whatever the situation is we should try to avoid doing evil

我们要记住它,在何种情况下都要尽量避免作恶

having the akusala cittas as much as possible

尽可能地避免作恶

now we know these 12 akusala cittas we will be able to avoid them

我们知道了这12种不善心,我们就能避免它们

in our daily activities in our dealing with people and so on

在日常生活,与人相处中等等

and so this is one great advantage we have when we understand abhidhamma

这就是我们理解阿毗达摩的益处

so i want you to look at the chart again and memorize it

希望你们再看看那个表,记住它

ok, the first one

第一个

with pleasure with wrong view unprompted

悦俱邪见相应无行心

the second one

第二个

with pleasure with wrong view prompted

悦俱邪见相应有行心

the third one

第三个

with pleasure without wrong view, unprompted

悦俱邪见不相应无行心

the fourth one

第四个

with pleasure without wrong view prompted

悦俱邪见不相应有行心

the fifth

第五个

with indifference with wrong view unprompted

舍俱邪见相应无行心

the sixth

第六个

with indifference with wrong view prompted

舍俱邪见相应有行

seventh

第七个

with indifference without wrong view unprompted

舍俱邪见不相应无行心

then eighth

第八个

with indifference without wrong view prompted

舍俱邪见不相应有行心

these eight are accompanied by or rooted in lobha or attachment

这八个是贪根心

and then the next two

接下来两个

the first one with displeasure with ill will unprompted

第一个忧俱嗔恚相应无行心

the second one with displeasure with ill will prompted

第二个忧俱嗔恚相应有行心

these are the two that are accompanied by ill will or dosa

这两个是嗔根心

and the last two, the first one

最后两个,第一

with indifference with doubt,

舍俱疑相应

and the second one with indifference and with restlessness.

第二个舍俱掉举相应

here the feeling is indifferent

舍俱

and there can be no pleasure or displeasure

就是不愉悦也不忧伤

because when there is delusion, mind is dull

因为愚痴的时候,心很暗淡

so when mind is dull it can not experience the object

当心暗淡的时候,就不能体验到所缘

pools of folly

一团浆糊

and so the feeling is only indifference or neutral

这就是舍俱,中性的感觉

so now we know that 12 types of consciousness

我们现在知道了12种心

that are unwholesome and unwholesome means morally unhealthy

不善心,不善意思是道德上不健康的

and also productive of painful results

也会导致苦果

and when we know this, we will try to avoid, we will try to prevent these types of consciousness

知道这点,我们就会尽量避免这些不善心

from arising in our mind as much as possible,

尽量让它们不生起

we will be able to get rid of them altogether when we reach arahantship.

当我们证得阿罗汉果就能全部舍弃它们

so today we come to the end of unwholesome consciousness

对于不善心的学习,今天就到此为止

and we will continue our study of cittas tomorrow

明天继续学习心

any questions?

有问题吗?

student: …one question on the which is the greater evil

学生:关于“哪个罪恶更大”的问题

which you mentioned that the person to do the demerit unknowingly actually has the greater demerit

你提到不知其恶作恶的人罪恶更大

I think to find out is it because of the wrong view elements that present when he’s doing it unfavorably?

我觉得因为这种心与邪见相应,所以它的罪恶就更大,对么?

sayadaw: it can be wrong view

尊者:可以是邪见相应

yes, because, unknowingly means he is not aware it will bring painful results to him

是的,因为不知其恶,意思是他不知道这种行为会带来苦果

so it is a kind of wrong view

这是一种邪见

anyone?

还有人问么?

student: venerable sir, suppose someone were to kill a small creature by stamping on it knowingly

学生:假设一个人故意踩死了一个小虫

and someone who unknowingly stamp on a creature and kills it

另外一个人不经意踩死了一个虫子

who has the greater demerit?

谁的罪恶更大?

sayadaw: that depends on step on it intentionally or unintentionally?

尊者:这取决于他是有意还是无意?

sometimes he doesn’t know he is stepping on an insect

有时候人们不知道踩到了昆虫

so in that case there is no unwholesome deed or demerit for him

这样他并没有犯下罪过

but if he intentionally step on the insect and kills it

如果他故意踩死昆虫

that will be a great demerit for him

这就是很大的罪过

because here in the other case he has no intention to kill

因为那种情况,如果他没有杀生的动机

he step on it accidentally

只是不小心踩到了

so i think you know the story of the monk cakkhupāla during the time of buddha he was an arahant and he was blind.

我想你知道佛陀时代的护目长老他是一个阿罗汉,眼睛瞎了

and then he practice meditation walking up and down

他行禅的时候

he step on many insects and kill them, right?

踩死了很多昆虫,对不对?

so but when it is reported to the buddha, buddha said:

当有人将此报告给佛陀,佛陀说:

he was innocent because he did not see these insects.

他没有任何罪过,因为他看不到这些虫子

so he steps on the insect unintentionally, if he does not know

如果他无意之中踩死了昆虫他并不知道

that there are insects and step on them

不知道有昆虫,踩到它们

and that he is free from akusala

他就没有任何不善心

but there would be akusala only when he steps on them intentionally

只有他刻意去踩死蚂蚁,才生起不善心

but if he intentionally steps on the insect

如果他故意去踩昆虫

and he knows that it is akusala it may be

知道那是不善

for him, it maybe a little less akusala than he steps on it without knowing it is akusala

比他不知道是不善,而去踩这个罪过可能会小一点

student: venerable sir, one of them refer to the cittas

学生:尊者,当你提到心时

you define citta as pure awareness of the object

你对心的定义是:对所缘的纯粹觉知

so what is the definition of object

那么所缘的定义是什么?

for example with sound an object

例如,对于声音的所缘

and the second question is

第二个问题是

awareness, does it depend on senses? we have five senses?

觉知依赖于诸根么?我们有五根?

sayadaw: first everything is the object

尊者:首先,任何东西都是所缘

this class is an object, this bag is the object, also the mind is the object of the other mind

这门课是所缘,书包是所缘心也可以是另外一个心的所缘

we’re aware of our mind

我们觉知到我们的心

we are aware of the mind of other’s

我们觉知到别人的心

and so the object means anything we can experience

所缘意思是我们能体验到的任何东西

that we can see that we can hear and so on, so they are all called object.

我们可以看到听到等等它们可以被称为所缘

next one?

第二个问题?

so does consciousness mean something experienced by the senses, the five senses like

心意思是被五根所体验到的么?例如五根

the eye and the ear

眼、耳

sayadaw: consciousness is experienced not five senses in buddhism there are six senses

尊者:心通过六根而被体验到在佛教里,不是五根,是六根

mind is also called a sense in buddhism

还有一个意根

actually, they are called doors,

实际上它们被称为“门”

so you will study the doors in the third chapter of this book

在本书第三章你们就会学到各种“门”

so consciousness is something that arises in one of or through one of these senses

心就是在诸根或者通过诸根产生的 you should have no more questions, shall we call it a day, please rise

提问结束,到此为止,请起立

disk01track05

now we go back to akusala

现在我们回到akusala last time we studied the akusala citta, unwholesome consciousness

上次课,我们学了不善心

with that you see, with pleasure with wrong view unprompted and so on

悦俱邪见相应无行等等

now consciousness or citta is said to be pure

因为心是纯净的

consciousness is not wholesome or unwholesome

心不是善或者不善

it is exactly neutral

它是完全中性的

but when it is accompanied by unwholesome mental states

如果伴随它的是不善的心所

then it is called unwholesome citta

就被称为不善心

when it is accompanied by wholesome mental state it is called wholesome citta

如果伴随它的是善的心所,就被称为善心

now in the first citta, pleasure, pleasure is a mental factor

在第一个心里,悦俱,喜悦是一个心所

pleasure can be either wholesome or unwholesome

喜悦可以是善或不善的

but the second one wrong view is an unwholesome mental state

第二邪见,这是一个不善的心所

and also there are other unwholesome mental states arising with these consciousness

伴随心的还有其他不善的心所

so these consciousness is called unwholesome consciousness

所以,这些心被称为不善心

so the consciousness becomes wholesome or unwholesome depending on

所以心是善还是不善取决于

whether the cetasikas or whether mental factors arising together with it wholesome or unwholesome

伴随这个心的心所是善还是不善

that is why cetasikas are compared to color, citta is compared to pure water

所以将心所比作颜料,心比作纯净的水

so when water is pure, it is pure and there is no color

纯净的水没有颜色

but you put red color in the water and we call it red water

你将红色颜料放进去,我们就称之为红色的水

and when you put green color we call it green water and so on

你将绿色的颜料放进去,我们就称之为绿色的水,等等

citta by itself is neither wholesome nor wholesome

心本身非善非不善

but when it comes into contact with or when it is associated with the mental factors that are unwholesome

当与不善的心所为伴时

then it is called an unwholesome citta

它就被称为不善心

and when it is accompanied by wholesome mental states or mental factors, it is called wholesome citta

当它与善的心所相伴时就被称为善心

so last night we studied the unwholesome cittas,

昨天晚上,我们学习了不善心

now how many unwholesome cittas are there?

不善心有多少种?

12, right? 12种,对不对

how many are rooted in attachment?

以贪为根的有几种?

8, how many in ill will? 8种,以嗔为根的几种?

2, and how many in delusion, 2, ok. 2种,以痴为根的几种?

how many are accompanied by pleasure?

悦俱的几种?

4, how many by indifference? 4种,舍俱的几种?

6, and how many by ill will? 2, very good 6种,忧俱的几种?2种

now imagine yourself are back to school, like school children

把自己想象成小学生,重返校园

ok, now we will go to next section of the consciousness

好,现在进入心的下一章节

the rootless consciousness.

无因心

now last night i told you that consciousness is divided into different categories.

昨晚我讲过心被分成不同的类型

according to the sphere or the realms it frequently arises in

根据心在哪一界经常生起

now consciousness can be divided in another way

心也可以按照其他方式分类

and it is according to the books by way of its nature

在本书还可以按照它的性质来分类

but we may call it by karmic activity

我们可以说是业果活动的性质

that means, consciousness that produces results

意思是,造业的心

and consciousness that are results

和受报的心

and consciousness that neither produces results nor results themselves.

不造业也不受报的心

so result-producing consciousness

造业的心

result-consciousness

果报心

and consciousness that is neither producing nor result themselves

还有不造业也不受果报的心

akusala citta or unwholesome consciousness are those that produce results

不善心属于造业的心

and in this case, they produce painful results

在这里,它们会造成苦果

today we are going to study another kind of cittas or types of consciousness

今天我们要学习另外一种心

and they are mostly the resultant consciousness

基本上都是果报心

now when we see something

当我们看到某物的时候

there arises in our mind a consciousness

我们生起一个心

actually we see with that consciousness

实际上,我们用那个心看

so that consciousness is called eye consciousness

这个心被称为眼识

because it depends on the eye for its arising

因为它依赖于眼睛而生起

if there is no eye, there can be no eye consciousness

如果没有眼睛,就没有眼识

and we may call it seeing consciousness, but in the books, it is called eye consciousness

我们也可以称之为“观看的心“在这本书里称之为眼识

consciousness that depends on the eye to arise

依赖于眼睛而生起的心

so in order for the eye consciousness to arise

所以,眼识的生起

first we need the eye and we need the thing to see

首先我们要有眼睛,被看的物体

the eye means not the whole eye ball but

眼睛并不是指整个眼球

but the sensitive part in the eye

是指眼睛里敏感性的部位(眼净色) the material properties in the eye that are sensitive to the light

就是眼睛里对光敏感的物质属性

so according to medical science, it may be the retina in the eye

所以根据医学理论,可能是眼睛的视网膜

so that we call eye,

我们称之为眼[净色] so in order for the eye consciousness to arise

所以眼识的生起

we need that eye and also we need that is to be seen or a visible object

需要有眼净色、色所缘

so when these two come into contact then

当这两者接触时

the eye consciousness arises, or eye consciousness is produced

眼识就会生起

so that eye consciousness is called seeing consciousness

这就是眼识

now we need not just

我们不仅需要

the eye and the visible object

眼净色和色所缘

we need two more conditions for the eye consciousness to arise

眼识生起,还需要两个条件

and there are light and attention

光、作意

because even though we have the eyes and there is a visible object when there is pitch dark

因为即使我们有眼净色,色所缘如果是一片漆黑

when there is no light, the consciousness will not arise

如果没有光,眼识就不能生起

so light is one condition for eye consciousness to arise

所以光线是眼识生起的一个条件

and also attention is important

作意也很重要

sometimes, even a big object may pass in front of us but we may not see it

有时候,即便是一个很大的东西从我们眼前经过,我们也可能看不到它

if we are not attentive, if we do not pay attention

如果我们不作意

then eye consciousness or seeing consciousness can not arise

眼识可能就不会生起

so for the seeing consiousness to arise we need four conditions

所以眼识的生起,需要四个条件

the eye, the visible object, light and attention

眼净色、色所缘、光、作意

when these four come together, there is what we call seeing consciousness or the eye consciousness

具备这四者,才生起眼识

now this first consciousness

所以这第一个心

is called eye consciousness

就被称为眼识

and this is the result of past karma

这就是过去的果报

when we see something ugly

当我们看到一个丑东西

when we see something we don’t want to see

当我们看到我们不想见的东西

there is this eye consciousness arising in our mind

这种眼识就会生起

and this eye consciousness is the result of the akusala kamma we did in the past

这种眼识的生起是由于我们过去所造的不善业

so when we see something, let us say here an ugly thing

当我们看到某物,例如,一个丑陋的东西

it is because of our past akusala kamma, that we see it

这是因为我们过去世的不善业,我们才会看到它

if we understand this

如果我们理解这点

we will not blame anybody

我们就不会迁怒于别人

if we want to blame we must blame our kamma in the past

如果说非要责怪谁,那就要责怪我们过去造的业

so knowledge of abhidhamma can help us to avoid unnecessary anger

所以,阿毗达摩的知识可以帮助我们避免生起不必要的愤怒

when we see something bad

当我们看到不好的事情

so when we see something bad there is the eye consciousness

当我们看到不好的事情,眼识生起

and this eye consciousness is the result of past kamma

这个眼识是过去的果报

and so we alone are responsible for this seeing an ugly object.

我们自己得对看到这个丑陋的东西负责

so if to blame at all we must blame ourselves

如果要责怪,就责怪我们自己吧

and not the other people and not the object

而不是去怪别人,或怪某个东西

so we are not to get angry with the object so abhidhamma can help us

所以我们就不会对所缘发怒阿毗达摩可以帮助我们

and to keep ourselves away from unwholesome mental states arising in our mind

帮助我们的心远离不善的心所

now the second consciousness is called ear consciousness

第二个心是耳识

and in order for the ear consciousness to arise

耳识的生起

we need four conditions again

也需要四个条件

auditory organ that means the ear

听觉器官,也就是耳净色

or sensitive material qualities particles in the ear

或者说是耳朵里的敏感细胞

and then sound and then space and then attention

声所缘、空间、作意

if there is no space no ether

如果没有空间

we will not hear the sound

我们就听不到声音

so space is one condition for the ear consciousness to arise

所以空间是耳识生起的一个条件

so here this consciousness is the result of akusla kamma in the past

所以这个心也是不善果报心

and so the object here is an ugly sound the sound we don’t like

所以所缘就是难听的声音我们不喜欢听的声音

and then the next is the third one is nose consciousness

第三个就是鼻识

that means smelling consciousness

嗅知的心

the smelling consciousness arises when an odor comes into contact with our nose

香所缘和鼻净色接触就生起鼻识

and this particular citta is the result of akusala, so in this case the smell is bad smell

这个心也是不善果报心所以这种香所缘是难闻的气味

when we had bad smell these types of consciousness arises in our mind

当我们闻到难闻的气味就会生起这种心

for the smelling consciousness or nose consciousness to arise

鼻识的生起

we need the nose, smell, and air, and attention

需要:鼻净色、香所缘、风界、作意

and the next one is tongue consciousness

下一个是舌识

when we experience some taste

当我们尝到某种滋味

so for the tongue consciousness to arise we need the gustatory organ

舌识的生起,需要尝味的器官

that means we need the tongue

需要舌头

there are taste buds in the tongue

舌头上有味蕾

and when these taste buds come into contact with some taste

当舌净色和味所缘接触时

then we have this consciousness called tongue consciousness

就会生起舌识

so for the tongue consciousness to arise we need the tongue the taste or the food with the taste

舌识的生起需要:舌净色、味所缘

water or moisture and attention

水界、作意

and the next is body consciousness

下一个是身识

or touch consciousness

或者触碰时产生的心

in order for this type of consciousness to arise we need the tactile organ, that means we need the body

这个心的生起需要:身体器官

some parts of the body and then something to be touched tactile object

身净色、触所缘

and the earth element and attention

地界、作意

so when these four conditions are fulfilled then the body consciousness arises

满足这四个条件,身识就会生起

and since this group is the result of akusala

因为这组心都是不善果报心

the touch must be displeasurable touch such as pain or numbness and so on

这种触碰肯定是不舒服的例如:疼痛、麻木等等

so corresponding to the five senses we have these five types of consciousness

对应于五根,我们有五识

so these are eye consciousness ear consciousness nose consciousness tongue consciousness and body consciousness

眼识、耳识、鼻识、舌识、身识

so again eye consciousness means consciousness depending only eye for its arising and so on

眼识指依赖于眼生起的心,等等

and the sixth is called receiving consciousness

第六个是领受心

when the object is presented to the senses

当所缘呈现于诸根

first the consciousness arises that experiences the object

首先生起的那个心体验到这个所缘

you smell, taste and touch

你闻、尝、触

immediately after that moment, there comes in your mind another type of consciousness

随即生起另外一种心

that receives the object

领受目标

now first the object is presented we experience it

首先目标出现,我们体验到了

just for a very brief moment

只是一个很短的时间

and then there arises a type of consciousness that receives its object

然后有一种心来领受这个目标

now when we talk about these things we have to blow up the picture maybe a million times

当我们谈论这些事情的时候我们要将这个图景分成一百万次

as I said on the first night

第一天晚上我讲过

thought moments can come and go a million times in a second

一秒钟可以出现十亿次心路

so these types of consciousness last for that just one billion or one nine billions of a second

所以这种心的持续时间只是十亿或者九十亿分之一秒

so after seeing let’s say regarding seeing

现在以视觉为例

after seeing consciousness arising and disappears

眼识生起又灭去之后

there arises another consciousness that receives the object

生起的另外一个心领受目标

so that is called receiving consciousness

所以它被称为领受心

and after receiving consciousness

领受心之后

there arises another consciousness called investigating consciousness

生起另外一个心,叫推度心

after receiving it the mind investigate it

领受目标之后就要分析目标

so altogether we get seven types of consciousness

所以,一起有七种心

and these seven types of consciousness are the result of unwholesome kamma in the past

这七种心是过去不善业的果报

these are called ahetuka rootless

这些心被称为无根心(无因心) now before we try to understand rootless we must understand what are the root

在理解“无根”之前,我们必须理解什么是“根”

in abhidhamma there are six mental states they are called roots

在阿毗达摩里有七个心所被称为“根”

three are unwholesome roots

三个是不善根

and another three beautiful or good roots

另外三个是美根

now three unwholesome roots are greed hate or hatred and delusion

三个不善根是:贪嗔痴

in pali lobha dosa and moha

巴利语是:lobha dosa 和 moha and three good roots are the opposite of these three

三个美根与此相反

so non-greed, non-hatred and non-delusion

无贪无嗔无痴

these are called good roots

这些被称为美根

I do not say wholesome roots because both wholesome and other roots are called beautiful roots

我没有称之为善根因为善根和其他根,被统称为美根

so there are these six roots

一共是这六根

since there are mental factors they always arise with certain types of consciousness

因为它们是心所,它们总是与某种心一起生起

but with these actually they are 18 in this section

在这章里,实际介绍了18种

with these types of consciousness none of these roots arise

这18种心里,没有这些心所

so they arise without these mental factors that they are called roots

这些心的生起并没有此六个称为根的心所

last night when you studied the unwholesome consciousness you found the word rooted in attachment, rooted in ill will rooted in delusion

昨晚,学习不善心的时候,你们知道有些心以贪为根,以嗔为根,以痴为根

that means accompanied by attachment and so on

意思是伴随着贪等等

but these today’s types of consciousness are not accompanied by anyone of these roots

但今天所学的心没有这些根的伴随

either unwholesome root or beautiful root so they are called rootless consciousness

没有不善根,也没有美根所以被称为无根心(无因心) since they are rootless they are not as strong as others that have roots

因为它们是无因心,所以比有因心弱

so this first group consists of seven types of consciousness

所以第一组无因心有七个

and these seven types of consciousness arise when we experience something we don’t like

当我们经历不喜欢的事情这七个心就会生起

we experience the visible object audible object and so on

我们经历的色所缘、声所缘等等

and

并且

all these types of consciousness are accompanied by what feeling?

所有这些心伴随的是什么样的感受?

indifferent or neutral feeling

中性的心,也就是舍心

so when we see something when we hear something

所以当我们看到或者听到

that seeing consciousness or hearing consciousness is always accompanied by indifferent or neutral feeling

眼识或耳识总是舍俱的

but the fifth one arises with what feeling? painful feeling.

但是第五个生起的时候是什么感受?苦受。

it is called in pali it is called dukkha

巴利语成为:dukkha now in order to understand why the others are accompanied by neutral feeling,

为了理解为什么其他的是舍俱

and number five accompanied by pain

第五个是苦受呢

we need to understand some material properties

我们需要了解一些色法

now there are 28 material properties taught in abhidhamma

阿毗达摩里讲了28种色法

among them the first 4 are called the primary elements

其中前4个被称为元素色(四大种) and the primary elements are as you know the element of earth water fire and air

元素色,就是地水火风

these primary elements are said to be great essential

这四种元素色也被叫做大种

these primary elements are said to be hard

这些元素色是坚硬的

and the other material properties like the material properties in the eye in the ear and so son

其他色法,例如眼净色、耳净色等等

are called dependent material properties

被称为所造色

they depend on the great essential to arise and to exist

它们依靠四大种生起并存在

and they are said to be not hard so let us say they are soft

这些都不具坚硬性,所以称之为柔软的

the four great elements are hard

四大种是坚硬的

and the other material properties are soft

其他色法是柔软的

now when we see something

当我们观看的时候

that is the eye, the eye is also a soft material property

这是眼净色,眼净色也属于柔性的色

and what we see the visible object is also dependent matter so it is also soft

色所缘也是所造色,也是柔性的

when one soft thing hit another soft thing there is no strong impact

一个柔性的物体撞击另外一个柔性的物体,没什么强烈作用

since there is no strong impact the feeling that arises with this consciousness can not be strong feeling

因为没有强烈的作用,所以随着那个心生起的感受也不强烈

so it is the neutral feeling

所以是舍受

now it is compared to this, you have this diagram in the handout also?与此比较,你们有没有这个表?

yes, the one of the screen may not look the same as on the sheet you are distributed

是的,屏幕上的与发给你们的表可能看起来有所不同

this diagram on the screen was created just today

屏幕上的表格是今天做的

and it was not by professional person

也不是出自专业人士之手

actually venerable nandisena did it this afternoon

实际上是一位法师做的

but it serves the purpose

但是可以实现我们的目的

the two yellows balls on the left represent the cotton balls

左边的两个圆球代表棉花球

when one cotton ball is hit by another cotton balls

当一个棉花球被另外一个棉花球撞击

even though it is on the anvil the hitting cotton ball will not hit the anvil

即便它在铁砧上,撞击它的棉花球也碰不到铁砧

even it hits the anvil, it hits very softly

即便撞到了铁砧,也很柔软

so that is no strong impact

所以不是很强的作用

in the same way, when you see something

同样,当你看到某物

what you see is soft material property and your eye is material property

你看到的是柔性的色法,你的眼净色也是柔性的

but your eye depends on the four essential elements

但是眼净色也是四大所造

like the anvil here

四大就像是铁砧

so the visible object when it strikes the eye

当色所缘撞击眼净色时

since both are soft material properties

两个都是柔性的色法

there is no strong impact and so there can be no pronounced feeling

所以没有强烈的作用,就产生不了感觉

when there is no pronounced feeling, then the feeling is neutral

产生不了作用,就是舍受

now with regard to the number five

现在来看第五个

touch, now touch means the combination of the three great essential

触(身所缘),身所缘就是三个大种的结合

the earth element, fire element and air element

地、火、风

so what we call touch or tactile object

所以触,也就是身所缘

is just the combination of these three great essential so they are hard material properties

是三大种的结合,所以是坚硬的色法

so in the diagram they are like the hammer

所以在图表中,就像是锤子

so when the hammer hit the cotton ball on the anvil

当锤子撞击铁砧上的棉花球

it will not stop on the cotton ball but it will take the anvil so there is impact

它不会停止在棉球上,它会触及到铁砧,产生作用

so in the same way when the tactile object hit the tactile organ in the body

同样,当身所缘撞击身净色

which is soft material property

身净色是柔性色法

it strikes at that material property

它撞击到那个色法

and reaches the great essential which are like anvil here

然后冲击到大种,这里就是铁砧

so the impact is strong and so here the feeling is not neutral

这种作用就是强烈的,感受就不是舍俱

when it is a good or pleasant tactile object then it is pleasure

当身所缘是美好的,感受就是愉悦的

and when it is an unpleasant object then it is unpleasant feeling

当身所缘是不好的,就是不愉悦的感受

that is why number five it is said to be accompanied by pain not by joy or neutral feeling

所以第五个就是苦受不是乐受、舍受

now this is at the moment of seeing consciousness and so on

这仅仅是眼识等等的生起

but immediately following the seeing consciousness, are receiving consciousness, investigating consciousness

紧随眼识之后,就是领受心和推度心

and also the other types of consciousness will follow

同样其他类型的心也随之生起

and then comes the full experience of the object

这就是对目标的完整体验

so at that moment when it comes the full experience of the object

当达成对目标的完整体验时

it may be accompanied by pleasure or it may be accompanied by pain or it may be accompanied by the neutral feeling.

伴随的可能是乐受、苦受、舍受

but at the very moment of seeing hearing and so on

如果是看、听等等

the consciousness is always accompanied by neutral feeling

这些识都是舍俱的

and if it is the tactile object, it is always accompanied by painful feeling

如果碰到的是身所缘境,那就是苦受

so these 7 are called the rootless resultant consciousness of unwholesome kamma

所以这七种被称为无因不善果报心

in pali they are called akusalavipāka

巴利语就是akusalavipaka akusalavipākacitta

不善果报心

now here akusala qualifies vipaka not citta

这里的不善,是形容果报的并不是形容心的

so these 7 types of citta or these 7 types of consciousness

所以这七种心

are the result of the akusala are the result of bad kamma in the past

是过去不善业的果报

but when we see something beautiful when we see something we like to see

但是当我们看到美丽的东西看到我们喜欢的东西

then the seeing consciousness arises and again it is accompanied by indifferent feeling and so on

眼识生起,伴随的是舍受等等

so when we experience somthing that is pleasurable that is good that we like

当我们体验到愉悦的、美好的事情

then we have these types of consciousness

我们就会生起这些心

and ahetukakusalavipākacitta

无因善果报心

they are eye consciousness, ear consciousness, nose consciousness

眼识、耳识、鼻识

tongue consciousness and body consciousness

舌识、身识

now when it comes to body consciousness

对于身识

since it is the result of wholesome kamma in the past

因为是过去善业的果报

the feeling is pleasure

感受是快乐的

and in the kusalavipaka or the wholesome resultant cittas

在善果报心里

there is one more the number seventh called in pali it’s called santīraṇa, the investigating consciousness

多一个,第七个是推度心

now there are two investigating consciousness among the resultant cittas of kusala

对于善果报心,有两种推度心

that is because there are two kinds of objects

因为有两种所缘

ordinarily desirable or very desirable

中等可喜、极可喜

so when the object is very desirable, the investigating consciousness is accompanied by pleasure

当所缘是极可喜,就是悦俱推度心

and if the object is just ordinarily desirable

如果所缘是中等可喜

then the investigating consciousness is accompanied by neutral feeling

就是舍俱推度心

so there are two types of investigating consciousness among the cittas that are the result of wholesome kamma

所以善果报心里的推度心有两种

now again there when we see something beautiful when we see something that we like to see

当我们看到愉悦的事物

we can praise ourselves

我们就可以赞美自己

because we did something good in the past now we see or we hear and so on the beautiful objects or the objects we like

因为我们过去造了善业,所以我们就看到或听到这些美好的东西,等等

so if we understand this, we understand a lot of kamma

如果我们理解了这点,就对业有所了解

good kamma produces good result, bad kamma produces bad result

善有善报,恶有恶报

when we see something good that is the result of the good kamma in the past

当我们看到好的东西,就是过去善业的果报

and when we see something bad, and again that is the result of bad kamma in the past

当我们看到不好的东西同样,是过去不善业的果报

so we alone are responsible for our pleasure or our suffering

所以我们对自己的苦乐负责

so there are eight types of consciousness in this group

所以这一组心有八种

seven plus just one which is the investigating consciousness accompanied by pleasure

七种之外,加一个悦俱推度心

so these two groups are the resultant consciousness

这两组心都是果报心

there are the result of past kamma

是过去所造业的果报

now we come to the third group, there are called functional consciousness

现在谈第三组:唯作心

functional consciousness means these consciousness just arise they do their function and disappear

唯作心意思是这些心生起实行其作用,然后灭去

without leaving any karmic force in the continuity of a being.

这种心并不造业

and they just arise and they disappear without leaving any karmic force

只是生起,然后灭去,不造业

and these three are first five-sense-door-adverting

这三个心中的第一个是五门转向心

now it is a long name in pali also it is a long name

这个名字很长,巴利语也很长

so five-sense-door-adverting

五门转向

now when let’s say when the visible object is presented to the mind

例如,当色所缘呈现于我们心里

the mind turns to that object

心转向这个目标

so that point of turning is called here five-sense-door-adverting

这个转向就被称为五门转向

before the visible object strikes the mind

色所缘撞击心之前

our mind may be on some other object

我们的心可能在其他所缘上

our mind may be on the obscure object

我们的心可能在隐晦的所缘上

but when a visible object comes into the avenue of our eyes

当色所缘进入我们眼睛的领域

this visible object is said to strike at the sense organs

这个色所缘要撞击感觉器官

after it is taking, the four of the inactive thought moments stopped and the mind turned to the object

撞击之后,四个不活跃的心识刹那就停止,心就转向目标

that turning to the object is what we call five- sense-door-adverting

这种转向,就被称为五门转向

maybe let us say, you’re looking at another place

例如,你看其他地方

and then you hear a noise you turn to the noise

然后你听到一个声音,你就转向那个声音

so that turning [inaudible] you call five sense-door-adverting

这个转向就是五门转向

because it arises with regard to five senses

因为它与五根有关

with regard to eyes, ears, nose, tongue and body

眼、耳、鼻、舌、身

and this also is accompanied by indifferent or neutral feeling

这也是舍俱的

so this is one type of consciousness

所以这种心

it is no karmic power it does not give any results

是不造业的,不产生业果

and it is not the result of any kamma

也不是果报心

now second one mind-door-adverting

第二个是意门转向心

that means when you think of something without the use of the five sense you just think of something

意思是你思虑某事没有涉及五根,仅仅是思虑

then a type of consciousness arises that turns the mind to the object

你的心就转向所缘,生起这种心

so that is the mind door adverting consciousness

这就是意门转向心

this mind door adverting consciousness is also not the result of any kamma and it does not give any result

这种意门转向心,不是果报心,也不造业

and this second type of consciousness arises in five senses as well as in the mind

这第二种心可以生起于五门心路过程也可以生起于意门心路过程

so when it arises in the five senses or through the five senses, it has just one function

当它生起于五门心路过程时只有一个作用

that is called determining

就是:确定

and when it arises through the mind door it has the function of turning the mind to the object

当它生起于意门心路过程它的作用就是转向目标

you will understand more of this when you study the thought process because it is contained with thought process

当你学习心路过程时,你就能了解更多,这包含在心路里面

and the last one is called smile producing

最后一个是生笑心

but do not think that you can experience this type of consciousness

不要觉得你也可以体验到这种心

now you are smiling, right?

你们现在在笑,对吧?

but you’re smiling with another type of consciousness not with this type of consciousness

但是你们笑的时候,生起的不是这种心

because this type of consciousness is peculiar to arahant

因为这种心专属于阿罗汉

arahant here means both arahants, buddhas and paccekabuddhas

阿罗汉这里指:阿罗汉、佛、辟支佛

so these beings or arahants smile with this type of consciousness

他们笑的时候,就生起此心

so this is called smile producing

它就被称为生笑心

since it is smile producing it is accompanied by pleasurable feeling

这种生笑心是悦俱心

so these three are called

所以这三种心被称为

rootless functional consciousness

无因唯作心

they are rootless because they are not accompanied by any of the roots any of the six roots

它们没有任何六根之一为伴所以被称为无因心

and they are called functional because they just arise and they disappear they do not have any productive power

它们被称为唯作心,是因为它们仅仅生起,然后灭去没有造作任何业

and among these three the first two can arise both in ordinary worldings and arahants,

这三者中,前两种都可以在世间人和阿罗汉心中生起

but the last one can arise only in the minds of arahants,

但是最后一种只能在阿罗汉心中生起

here arahant means arahants as well as buddhas and paccekabuddhas

这里的阿罗汉指:阿罗汉、佛、辟支佛

that means those who have eradicated all mental defilements

就是已经灭尽心中诸漏的人

so all together now we have 18 rootless consciousness

我们一起学了18种无因心

seven are the result of unwholesome kamma 7种是不善果报心

and eight are the result of wholesome kamma 8种是善果报心

and the three are not the result of any kamma and they are not kamma themselves

三种不造业,也不是果报

they just arise and disappear performing their function

只是生起,灭去,实行其作用

the last three are called functioning

最后三种被称为唯作心

so all together these 18 cittas are called rootless consciousness

所以一起这18种被称为无因心

because they are not accompanied by any of the six roots

因为它们不和任何六根相伴

now in pali the word hetu

在巴利语里hetu这个词

hetu, the meaning of the word hetu is a cause hetu的意思是:原因

so if you take just pali ahetuka you may misunderstand this word

如果仅仅从巴利语ahetuka来看你可能会对这个词产生误解

since hetu is a cause, ahetu means no cause

因为hetu的意思是原因

ahetu就是指没原因

so you may think that these types of consciousness arise without cause, but that is not true

所以你可能觉得这种心的生起不依赖于任何原因,但这是不对的

so here hetu represents what we call the roots or in pali mula

这里的hetu,就是指“根”,用巴利语讲就是mula you’re familiar with the word mula, mula(根)这个词你们已经熟悉过了

when we say lobha mulu dosa mula and moha mula

我们讲:贪根、嗔根、痴根

so these types of consciousness are called ahetuka or rootless because

这种心被称为ahetuka或无根心

they are not accompanied by any of the roots

因为没有任何“根”伴随

and how many roots are there? there are six roots

一共有多少”根“,六种

three are unwholesome roots, and the other three are called beautiful roots

三种是不善根,其他三种是美根

and now the first group in pali they are called akusalavipaka

第一组心是不善果报心

and the second group ahetukakusakavipaka

第二组是无因善果报心

do you have the correct name they are?

你们上面印的巴利语是正确的吗?

in pali ahetukakusalavipaka

巴利语:ahetukakusalavipaka now the first seven are called just akusalavipaka

第一组七个是不善果报心

but the second are called ahetukakusalavipaka not just kusalavipaka

但是第二组无因善果报心不仅仅是善果报心

they are qualified by the word ahetuka

前面有“无因”来形容

that is because later we will find kusalavipaka that are with roots

因为,稍后我们会学到“有因”善果报心

so in order to differentiate these eight from the resultant consciousness that are with roots

为了将这8种与有因果报心区别

they are here qualified by the word ahetuka

前面就加了“无因”这个词

the rootless resultant consciousness

无因果报心

the third group is also called ahetukakiriyā第三组也被称为无因唯作心

because there are functional consciousnesses that are accompanied by hetus or roots

因为有些心是:有因唯作心

so to differentiate these three from the others that are with roots

所以为了将这三者与有因心区分

they are called ahetukakiriyā称其为:无因唯作心

now when we talk about these types of consciousness we will be using these names again and again

当我们谈到这些心的时候,我们会反复用到这些名称

so we want to refer to the last three we will say ahetukakriya, three ahetukakriya and so on

当我们要称呼最后三种,我们就会用巴利语讲出名字

so these 18 types of consciousness are called rootless because they have no concommitant root.

所以这18种心,被称为无因心因为没有任何根与之相随

and these arise when we see something when we hear something and so on

当我们看到、听到等等它们就生起

and all these have, they are placed in thought process

它们在心路里都有自己的位置

now when we see something, we see the object with thought process

当我们看到某东西我们就会经历心路过程

not just with one type of consciousness,

不仅仅生起一种心

actually our mind has to go through different types of thought processes

实际上我们的心经历不同的心路

and there we can say we see something or we see a man and so on

我们才能看到某物、某人等等

these types of consciousness taught in this section

在这章学到的这些心

have a place in the thought processes

在心路过程里有它们的位置

and when we come to thought processes, you will understand them more clearly

当我们学习心路过程时你们就会了解的更清楚

here the sequence is first turning to the object

这个过程在这里首先转向目标

the first and second of the last group

最后一组的第一个、第二个心

turning to the object and then seeing the object hearing the object and so on

转向目标,看到或听到目标等等

and then accepting or receiving the object and then investigating the object and then determining the object

然后领受目标、推度目标,确定目标

and after determining comes, the full experience of the object

确定目标之后,我们就有关于目标的完整体验

so we will study these different stages in the experience of the object when we come to the thought processes

我们学到心路过程时,我们就会学习心的这些不同的阶段

so we will have a break now

现在休息一下

disk01track06

so at the beginning

开始的时候

I told you about the pali alphabet and pali pronunciation

我教了巴利语字母的发音

now I want you to read the pali on the screen

我希望你们读一下屏幕的巴利文字

get familiar with the pali

熟悉一下巴利语

upekkhāsahagata cakkhuviññāṇa

捨俱眼識

upekkhāsahagata sotaviññāṇa

捨俱耳識

upekkhāsahagata ghāṇaviññāṇa

捨俱鼻識

upekkhāsahagata jivhāviññāṇa

捨俱舌識

dukkhasahagata kāyaviññāṇa

苦俱身識

upekkhāsahagata sampaṭicchana

捨俱領受心

upekkhāsahagata santīraṇa

捨俱推度心

I want you to guess the meaning of these words

我希望你们猜猜这些词的意思

upekkhāsahagata with indifference or with neutral feeling

舍俱

cakkhuviññāṇa eye consciousness

眼识

sotaviññāṇa ear consciousness

耳识

ghāṇaviññāṇa nose consciousness

鼻识

jivhāviññāṇa tongue consciousness

舌识

dukkhasahagata dukkhasahagata, with pain

苦俱

kāyaviññāṇa body consciousness

身识

upekkhāsahagata, with indifference

舍俱

sampaṭicchana receiving, accepting, sampaṭicchana

领受[心] upekkhāsahagata, with indifference

舍俱

santīraṇa, investigating

推度心

ok, little by little you come acquainted with these pali words

你们将慢慢熟悉这些巴利词

and then the next again upekkhāsahagata cakkhuviññāṇa

再来一次:捨俱眼識

upekkhāsahagata sotaviññāṇa

捨俱耳識

upekkhāsahagata ghāṇaviññāṇa

捨俱鼻識

upekkhāsahagata jivhāviññāṇa

捨俱舌識

sukhasahagata kāyaviññāṇa

樂俱身識

upekkhāsahagata sampaṭicchana

捨俱領受心

somanassasahagata santīraṇa

喜俱推度心

upekkhāsahagata santīraṇa

捨俱推度心

ok, again, cakkhuviññāṇa

好,再来,眼识

eye consciousness

眼识

sotaviññāṇa, ear consciousness

耳识

ghāṇaviññāṇa, nose consciousness

鼻识

jivhāviññāṇa, tongue consciousness

舌识

kāyaviññāṇa body consciousness

身识

sampaṭicchana receiving consciousness

领受心

santīraṇa investigating

推度心

santīraṇa, again, investigating, ok

再来一次,推度心,好

now the last three

最后三个

upekkhāsahagata pañcadvārāvajjana

捨俱五門轉向心

upekkhāsahagata manodvārāvajjana

捨俱意門轉向心

somanassasahagata hasituppāda

喜俱生笑心

now, pañcadvārāvajjana, pañca means five pañca的意思是“五”

dvāra means door dvāra意思是“门”

and āvajjana means turning

āvajjana意思是“转向”

so turning to the object in five sense doors

所以转向于五根门中的目标

the eye, ear and so on are called doors

眼耳等等被称之为门

because it is through these that consciousness enter our mind, so they are called doors

因为通过它们才生起心所以,它们被称之为“门”

altogether they are six door, the five senses and the mind

门一共有六个,五根、意

and manodvārāvajjana, mano means mind, mano意思是“意”

dvāra means door dvāra的意思是“门”

and āvajjana means turning

āvajjana意思是“转向”

so turning in the mind door

所以:意门转向

the last one hasituppāda, hasita means smiling

最后一个hasituppāda,

hasita是笑的意思

uppāda means producing or cause to be uppada的意思是:产生

so hasituppāda means smile producing

所以这个是生笑心

and when we see something, what consciousness arises

当我们看到某物,生起什么心

eye consciousness

眼识

and when we see something ugly?

当我们看到丑陋的事物呢?

akusala resultant

不善果报心

when we see something we like, beautiful?

当我们看到美丽的事物,我们很喜欢

kusalavipaka, very good

善果报心,非常好

say, when we hit ourselves against something, we have pain?

当我们撞到了自己,很痛?

body consciousness, akusalavipaka, body consciousness.

身识,不善果报心

when we have good touch?

当我们触摸到很舒适的东西?

again body consciousness, resultant of kusala, very good

也是身识,善果报心,非常好

and when buddha smiles, not us.

当佛陀微笑时,不是我们微笑

then why are these called ahetuka or rootless?

为什么这些被称为无因心

because they have no concommitant roots

因为没有任何“根”伴随着它们

because they arise without roots, what are the roots?

因为它们无根而生起,什么是根

three unwholesome roots and three beautiful roots.

三个不善根,三个美根

what are the unwholesome roots?

哪些是不善根?

greed, hatred and delusion, and the beautiful roots? non-greed, non-hatred, and non-delusion

贪嗔痴,美根呢?无贪无嗔无痴

very good, so the six are called roots

非常好,所以这六个就是根

so next will go to kāmāvacara sobhana citta sense-sphere beautiful consciousness

下面我们学习欲界美心

these types of consciousness are called beautiful consciousness because

这些被称为美心因为

they are accompanied by beautiful mental factors

美心所与它们相伴随

now in the second chapter of the manual you will study the 52 mental factors

在本书第二章,你们会学到52心所

and these 52 mental factors are divided into

这52个心所被分为

the common or neutral mental factors, unwholesome mental factors and beautiful mental factors

通一切心所、不善心所通一切美心所

those types of consciousness that are accompanied by beautiful mental factors are called beautiful consciousness

美心所伴随的心,就被称为美心

and here in this section these types of consciousness

这章里,这种心

mainly arise in the sense sphere

主要在欲界生起

sense sphere means 11 planes of existence

欲界指的是十一欲界地

so they mainly or frequently arise in these realms and so they are called sense sphere beautiful consciousness

这些心主要或经常出现在这些界所以被称为欲界美心

and they are again divided into three

它们又被分为三种

wholesome, resultant and functional

善、果报、唯作

so sense sphere wholesome consciousness, sense sphere resultant consciousness with roots

欲界善心,有因欲界果报心

and sense sphere functional consciousness with roots

有因欲界唯作心

now if you are familiar with the 8 types of consciousness accompanied by attachment or rooted in attachment

如果你们熟悉8种贪根心

you can easily understand these 8 sense sphere wholesome consciousness, there is only one difference

你们就很容易理解这8种欲界善心它们只有一个地方不同

now if you read the consciousnesses you will see with pleasure with knowledge unprompted

你们看看这些心就知道悦俱智相应无行

so the only difference is with knowledge, instead of with wrong view, it goes with knowledge

所以唯一的区别就是:智相应,而不是邪见相应

so with pleasure with knowledge and unprompted, this is the first type of consciousness

所以,悦俱智相应无行心,这就是第一种心

so the examples are given in the manual

书里也举了例子

someone joyfully performs a generous deed

某人愉快地布施

understanding that this is a wholesome deed

认识到这是一种善行

spontaneously without prompting

自发自愿,不是被人劝说的

so that means say you go to a temple and happily you make a donation

意思是你去寺院,愉快地供养

spontaneously without being prompted by any person

自发自愿,而不是被人劝说

so in that case the first type of consciousness in this group arises in your mind

所以,生起这组心里的第一种

someone performs the same good deed with understanding after deliberation or prompting by another

在别人的鼓励下,一个人有着同样的认知行布施

sometimes another person may say to you why not make donations to the temple and then make the donation,

有时候别人对你说:怎么不去寺院做供养然后你就去做供养

or sometimes you encourage yourself

有时候你自己鼓励自己

so in that case the consciousness is prompted that is with knowledge with understanding

所以这时候的心就是智相应有行心

someones joyfully performs a generous deed without prompting but without understanding

一个人愉快地布施没有别人鼓励,也没有认知

that it is a wholesome deed

这是善行

without understanding sometimes means without understanding the law of kamma

没有认知有时候指不理解因果法则

so in that case the third type of consciousness arises

这样就生起第三种心

and the fourth type of consciousness is someone joyfully performs a generous deed

第四种心是一个人愉快地布施

without understanding after deliberation or prompting by another

是被自己或别人劝说的,没有智慧的认知

so in that case the fourth type of consciousness arises

所以就生起了第四种心

and number five to number eight types of consciousness should be understood in the same way as the presetting four

第5到8种跟前面四种一样

but with neutral feeling instead of joyful feeling

只是把悦俱换成舍俱

sometimes you do a meritorious deed with neutral feeling

有时候你带着舍受做好事

you’re not happy but you do the meritorious deed

你并不愉悦,但是你做了好事

so in that case the type of consciousness is accompanied by indifference or neutral feeling

所以,这种情况下,就是舍受的心

so like the eight types of consciousness rooted in attachment

如同贪根的那八种心

here we have eight types of consciousness accompanied by knowledge and not accompanied by knowledge

这里我们有八种心,智相应或智不相应

so sometimes we do some meritorious deed with understanding

有时候我们带着正确的知见做好事

with understanding the law of kamma, with understanding that

认识到因果的道理

this is the good kamma this good kamma will give us pleasant results in the future

认识到善业将会带来好报

with that understanding we do meritorious deeds

带着这种知见,我们去做好事

so sometimes we do meritorious deeds without understanding

有时,我们做好事时与智不相应

that can happen when we do it lightly when we do not pay attention to the deed

当我们对所作所为不注意就会发生这种情况

now this teaches us that when we do some meritorious deeds

这教导我们,当我们做好事的时候

we must see to it that knowledge is present in us

我们要生起智慧

you do some good deeds you do some charity

你做好事,做慈善

you keep precept or you help other people and so on

你持戒,你帮助别人等等

but whatever you do you try to know or you try to understand the law of kamma when you do the meritorious deed.

不管你做什么,当你做好事时你尽量去理解业果的道理,

so that is important for us

对于我们来说,这很重要

sometimes we do meritorious deeds without thinking of it

有时候我们做好事,不假思索

say, you may just pick up a flower and offer to the buddha without understanding

例如,你可能摘一朵花供佛没有任何智慧的认知

so in that case it will be merit without knowledge

在此情况下,就是智不相应的好事

so when we understand these types of consciousness

当我们理解这些心的时候

then we can do meritorious deeds which will give us best results

我们就能让我们的好事给我们带来最好的果报

so these are the wholesome consciousness, kusala consciousness

所以,这些都是善心

and since these types of consciousness are wholesome they are bound to give good results

因为这些心是善的,所以与善果报相连

and the good results are in the form of another type of consciousness that are called resultant consciousness

善的结果就是另外形式的心是一种果报心

so the resultant consciousness of the eight wholesome consciousness are the same or identical

所以就会有八种相同的果报心

so we can with regard to resultant consciousness

对于这些果报心

we also say, with pleasure with knowledge unprompted, with pleasure with knowledge prompted and so on

我们也说:悦俱智相应无行悦俱智相应有行等等

now these eight types of consciousness

这八种心

arise as a result of the eight wholesome consciousness shown above

就是上面八种善心的果报

it is said that the sense sphere wholesome kamma can produce identical as well as non-identical results

欲界善业可以产生相同的果报心,也可以产生其他类型的心

so these eight the second group resultant consciousness,

所以第二组的八个果报心

these eight are identical results

这八个就是相同的果报

can you tell me which are the non identical results?

你们能告诉我不同的是哪些吗?

where do you find the non-identical results?

不同的在哪里可以找到

you go back to ahetuka

翻回到无因心

rootless consciousness, the second group of the rootless consciousness is the result of the wholesome kamma, right?

无因心,第二组无因心,它们是善业的果报,对不对?

so you see something good, that is the result of kusala, right?

你们看到好的东西,这就是善业的果报,对不对?

you hear something good you smell something good and so on, and

你们听到、闻到好的东西,等等

that consciousness is the result of the wholesome sense-sphere wholesome consciousness

这些心都是欲界善心的果报

so the sense-sphere wholesome consciousnesses give identical results as well as non-identical results.

所以欲界善心产生相同的果报心也产生不同的果报心

identical results are given here as eight sense-sphere resultant consciousness with roots

相同的就是这里的八个有因欲界果报心

and the non-identical result consciousness can be found among the eight rootless resultant consciousness

不同的就是八个无因果报心

and the third group sense-sphere functional consciousness with roots

第三组欲界有因唯作心

now these eight types of consciousness are called functional

这八种心被称为唯作心

again, functional means they just arise and disappear without any potential to give results or without any karmic activity.

同样,唯作意思是生起灭去不产生果报,也不造业

and these eight types of consciousness are identical with the first eight, the sense-sphere wholesome consciousness

这八种心与第一组八个欲界善心是一样的

but they arise in the mind of buddhas and arahants

但是佛陀和阿罗汉才有这些心

they are called functional consciousness

它们被称为唯作心

now when we do some act of charity or we make some donation, we get kusala we get merit

当我们做慈善,当我们捐款我们获得善业

but when arahants make the same kind of charity, what does he get?

但是当阿罗汉做同样的慈善,他得到什么?

does he get good kamma?

他也得到善业吗?

no, he is just doing the act

不会,他只是施行那个行为

his act is not called kamma

他的行为不叫“业”

because he has eradicated the roots of kamma that are ignorance and craving

因为他已经断尽了业根:无明和贪

since he has no ignorance and no craving whatever he does is just doing

因为他没有无明、贪,不管做什么,仅仅是一种行为

without any potential to give results.

没有产生果报的可能性

so when a arahant does an act of charity

所以当阿罗汉做善事

then one of the functional consciousness here the sense-sphere functional consciousness will arise in his mind

其中一个欲界唯作心就会生起

it is the same type of consciousness as the wholesome consciousness

跟善心是一样的

but the difference is that it doesn’t give any results.

区别是它不会产生任何果报

because the volition in these types of consciousness does not constitute kamma

因为这种心里面的“思”心所不会产生任何“业”

so when we add these eight wholesome eight resultant and eight functional consciousness

所以这八个善心、八个善果报心、八个唯作心一起

we get altogether 24 types of consciousness

一共就是24种心

and these 24 types of consciousness are called sense-sphere beautiful consciousness

这24种心被称为欲界美心

when we do enumerations of the cittas

当我们数这些心时

sometimes we have to use short collective names for group of consciousness

有时,我们要用集体名词称呼不同分类的心

so since these are called sense-sphere beautiful consciousness

这些被称为欲界善心

the others that we have just studied

我们学习的其他心

are called non-beautiful consciousness

就被称为“不美心”

12 unwholesome consciousness and 18 rootless consciousness are called non-beautiful 12个不善心,18个无因心一起被称为“不美心”

called means they’re called in myanmar in our country

这只是在我们缅甸这么叫

but they’re not called non-beautiful in the books

在书本里,并没有称它们为:不美心

but when we study these types of consciousness

当我们学习这些心

we need to be very familiar with the particulars of these types of consciousness

我们需要对于它们的特性很熟悉

so when we try to be familiar with these types of consciousness

当我们尽量去熟悉这些心时

sometimes we have to use short names for groups, types of consciousness

有时候我们要用简称称呼不同分类的心

so if you want refer to the 30 types of consciousness

所以如果你想称呼30种心

that are 12 unwholesome and 18 rootless consciousness

就是12个不善心和18个无因心

we will say non-beautiful consciousness

我们就称他们为:不美心

it is important that we remember

重要的是要记住

we always are able to see these types of consciousness clearly in our mind

我们时刻要在心里清楚地知道这些心

in order to mermorize them

为了记住它们

that card is very useful

那张卡很有用

so please take out that small card

请拿出那张小卡

and let us see, identify the consciousness

让我们看看,认一认这些心

types of consciousness represented by each

每个代表一种心

now altogether we have finished 54 types of consciousness

我们现在一共学了54种心

now the first 12 are akusala

首先的12种是不善心

and then the 3 columns consist of 18 rootless consciousness

接着三列是18种无因心

and then the next 3 columns consist of sense-sphere beautiful consciousness

接下来的三列是欲界美心

so we get altogether 54 types of consciousness

一共是54种心

and these 54 types of consciousness are called sense-sphere consciousness

这54种心被称为欲界心

so among the sense sphere consciousness, 30 are non beautiful and 24 are beautiful.

这些欲界心,30个为不美心

24个为美心

now I want you to find out some types consciousness

现在告诉我一些心的类型

ok, seeing a ugly object, right

好,看到一个丑陋的东西,对

seeing a beautiful object, right.

看到一个美丽的东西,对

hearing a ugly sound, hearing a beautiful sound

听到不好听的声音,听到好听的声音

and when we are angry, one of these two

当我们生气时,这两者中的一种

when we doubt about the efficacy of the dhamma

当我们怀疑佛法的功效

when our mind can not take the object clearly

当我们的心不能清晰地专注目标

whe it is just moving above the object

只是在目标上移动

the last one called restlessness

最后这个被称为掉举

then when we are attached to something and we have no wrong view

当我们贪执于某事物,没有邪见

fourth of them, right?

第四个,对不对?

you can exercise like that

你们可以这样练习

looking at this and then imagine different situations, what type of consciousness arises in your mind?

看这些,想象不同的场景各生起什么心?

and with the help of this card, you are get more and more familiar with these types of consciousness

在这张卡片的协助下,你们会对这些心越来越熟悉

so all together there are 54 types of consciousness

一起是54种心

and among them how many are unwholesome?

其中有多少不善心?

12 how many are wholesome?

多少善心

8 how many are resultant?

多少果报心

how many?

多少?

8, 7, 8 23 so 23 are resultant, how many are functional? 23种果报心,多少唯作心?

3 plus 8, 11 3加8,11种

now the wholesome and unwholesome

善心,不善心

can they produce results or not?

它们可以产生果报吗?

yes, they can produce results

是的,它们可以产生果报

then the resultant consciousness can they produce results?

果报心,它们能产生果报吗?

no, because they are themselves results they have no ability or power to produce results

不能,因为它们自身就是果报没有能力产生果报

and then functional consciousness can they produce results?

唯作心,它们能产生果报吗?

no, are they results of anything? no

不能,它们自身是果报吗?不是

so they are called indeterminate

所以,它们被称为“不定的”

that means not declared as kusala or akusala

意思是不由善与不善而定

so the functional consciousness are also called indeterminate

所以唯作心也被称为:不定

that means not declared as kusala or akusala

意思是也不是由善与不善而定的

now let us say how many are accompanied by pleasure?

看看,悦俱的有多少种?

so 30 [18] are accompanied by pleasurable feeling 18种悦俱

how many are accompanied by neutral feeling?

舍俱的有多少种?

you can pick up the blue dots, right?

你们可以数蓝色的点,对不对?

maybe 32

可能是32种

so in this way also you can make yourself familiar with these types of consciousness

这样你就能熟悉这些心

so when we study abhidhamma

当我们学习阿毗达摩时

in the beginning when we are novices

刚出家当沙弥时

we are expected to be very familiar to this

被要求对这些很熟悉

and we are expected to be able to give the answers right away

要立刻就能回答这些问题

so we have to exercise again and again so that we are asked we are able to give answers

所以我们需要不断练习当被问的时候,就能迅速作答

now you’re not taking any examinations

你们现在不是在考试

and so it’s alright if you cannot give the answer without looking at the books

所以,如果你们不看书就无法作答, 也没关系

so what i want you to be able to do is to find the answer you want in the book or in your notes

我只希望你们能够从书中或者笔记里找出答案

so if you can give the answer looking at the book it’s ok

如果你们看书能找到答案,就可以了

now we finish the types of consciousness that are called sense-sphere consciousness

我们学完了欲界的心

they are called sense-sphere consciousness, why?

它们被称为欲界心,为什么?

because they arise mainly in the realms called sense sphere

因为它们主要在欲界生起

and how many realms are there? how many planes of existence are there?

欲界一共是多少个界?

11, so they arise in the minds of human beings 11个,所以这些心生起于人类心里

they arise in the minds of animals

也生起于动物心里

and hell, hell beings, and they arise in the minds of celestial beings.

也生起于地狱众生,或者天人心里

but they arise in the minds of brahmas also

它们也在梵天人心里生起

but since they arise mainly or frequently in the minds of the beings in the sense sphere

但是它们主要或经常生起于欲界众生的心里

they are called sense-sphere consciousness, so we must understand this.

所以被称为欲界心,我们要明白这点

because they are called sense-sphere consciousness

因为它们被称为欲界心

we must not say that they arise only in sense-sphere,

我们不要说它们只生起于欲界

not in material sphere and immaterial sphere

不会生起于色界和无色界

because they arise in those spheres too

实际上它们也生起于色界、无色界

but their main area of arising is the 11 sense-sphere planes

但是它们主要生起于11欲界地

so they are called sense-sphere consciousness

所以它们被称为欲界心

and the types of these sense-sphere are altogether 54

欲界心一共有54种

so the next group of consciousness is called rūpāvacara consciousness or form sphere consciousness

另外一组心被称为色界心

or we may call it material sphere consciousness

色界心

and these form sphere or material sphere consciousnesses

色界心的种类

are 15 in number

一共是15种

and they’re divided into again wholesome

分为善心

resultant and functional

果报心、唯作心

now the first sentence you see the first jhana

你们看到的第一句就是初禅

and the second the second jhana, third jhana, fourth jhana and fifth jhana

第二句二禅,三禅,四禅,五禅

now

现在

these types of consciousness are we may call them higher states of consciousness

这些类型的心我们可以称之为比较高层次的心

they arise in those who practice meditation and who attains what are called jhanas

禅修者如果获得禅那,就会生起这些心

now a person may practice a kind of samatha meditation

一个人可能修习止禅

now there are different types of samatha meditation

止禅有很多种

and let us say a person is practicing the disk meditation

我们假设他用盘子修禅

now disk meditation means you make a disk with clay and

这种禅修就是用泥巴做一个圆盘

you put the disk in front of you and then look at it and keep your mind on the disk

将圆盘放在你面前,看着它将你的心专注在盘子上

saying, it is a earth disk, so: earth, earth, earth

因为是泥盘,你就念:泥、泥、泥

thousands of time actually memorizing that earth disk

经过成千上万次,你实际就记住了那个泥盘

and a time will come you have memorized that image

最终你就记住了它的形象

and so you can see that image without looking at it

然后你不需要盯着圆盘就可以看到它的形象

with your eyes close even you can see that image

即便是闭上眼睛,你也可以看到它的形象

then when you can see that image

当你可以看到它的形象

you go on practicing meditation on that mental image

你就通过你心里的这个形象继续禅修

and that mental image will become more and more refined

这个心里的形象会越来越精细

now the first the mental image will appear to you

首先你心里的这个形象就会向你显现

the same as the real image

跟真实的样子一模一样

that means if there are some blemishes in the disk

如果原来泥盘上有瑕疵

then they will appear in the mental image

这些瑕疵也会出现在心里

when you practice meditation on it again and again

你这样以它为对象不断禅修

then that mental image will become refined and clean and

那个心里的形象变得精细,干净

all the blemishes will disappear

所有瑕疵都会消失

it will appear to you as a polished mirror

它就像一个抛光的镜子显现在你面前

and then you practice meditation on it

你用它做对象进行禅修

and then a type of consciousness arises

然后就会生起一种心

as the results of that practice

这是禅修的结果

that type of consciousness you have not experienced before

这种心你之前没有体验过

and that type of consciousness is called jhana consciousness

这种心就被称为禅那心

and this jhana consciousness is accompanied by mental factors

这种禅那心也伴随着心所

and the important mental factors are they are given

重要的几个心所如下:

vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha, ekaggatā寻、伺、喜、乐、一境性

now will have to memorize these pali words

你要记住这些巴利词语

because english translations are long

因为英译太长了

so vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha, ekaggatā记一下:vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha, ekaggatā

these five are called factors of jhana

这五个被称为禅支

or constituents of jhana or members of jhana

就是组成禅那的要素

so the first jhana consciousness arises accompanied by these five jhana factors

初禅心的生起伴随着这五种禅支

after getting the first jhana a person wants to attain the second jhana

获得初禅后,禅修者就想获得二禅

so in order to attain the second jhana he practices meditation again

为了获得二禅,他继续禅修

this time finding fault with the first one vitakka

这时候他就发现“寻”的问题

it is like after you graduate from high school

就像你从高中毕业

you want to get a degree

你希望获得一个文凭

so after you get a BA degree you want to get a MA degree

然后你获得学士学位,你就想获得硕士学位

after you get a MA degree you want to get a Phd degree

获得硕士学位之后,你希望获得博士学位

so in the same way a person who has reaches the first jhana wants to get the second jhana

同样,获得初禅的人就会想获得二禅

so in order to get the second jhana

为了获得二禅

he has to see fault in vitakka

他要明白“寻”的弊端

now vitakka means thinking

“寻”的意思是思考

so this thinking is a little distracting

这种思考有一点干扰性

so it can distract the mind

你可以扰动你的内心

so he finds fault with vitakka and practice meditations

禅修者看到“寻”的弊端

so when he gets the second jhana

获得二禅

vitakka is missing in his jhana

他的禅那里就没有“寻”

simply because he doesn’t want vitakka

仅仅是因为他不需要“寻”

so in this way he eliminates one after another of these mental factors or jhana factors

同样,他一个个舍弃禅支

so when he gets the second jhana there are only four jhana factors with it

他获得二禅时,只有四个禅支

when he gets the third jhana there are only three jhana factors with it.

当他获得三禅时,只有三个禅支

when he gets the fourth jhana there are only two jhana factors with the jhana consciousness

当他获得四禅时,他的禅那心只有两个禅支

when he gets the fifth jhana there are only two jhana factors.

当他获得五禅时,也是两个禅支

so the first jhana factors are accompanied by vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha, ekaggatā所以初禅禅支是:寻伺喜乐一境性

second is vicāra, pīti, sukha, ekaggatā二禅是:伺喜乐一境性

third: pīti, sukha, ekaggatā三禅:喜乐一境性

fourth: sukha, ekaggatā四禅:乐一境性

and fifth with upekkhā and ekaggatā五禅:舍一境性

so these five types of consciousness are called jhana consciousness

所以这五种心被称为禅那心

now

现在

the pali word jhana

巴利语:禅那

you see the note,

你们看注释

the pali word jhāna is derived from the pali root jhe,

巴利语jhana的词根是jhe meaning to contemplate and to burn up

意思是:念虑、烧尽

does the jhanas are so called because they closely contemplate the object

因为它们密切地念虑目标

and because they burn up the adverse states or pours to concentration

还因为它们烧尽与定对抗之法

the adverse states are the five hindrances or nivāraṇas

与定对抗之境即是五盖

of sensory desire, ill-will, stoth-and-torpor, restlessness-and-worry, and doubt

五盖即:欲欲、嗔恨、昏沉与睡眠、掉举与恶作、疑

so jhana the word jhana has two meanings,

所以禅那有两个意思

one is to closely contemplate the object

第一是密切地念虑目标

and the second meaning is burning up the mental hindrances

第二个意思是:烧尽五盖

when one gets jhana, the mental hindrances are subdued

当一个人获得禅那,五盖就得到镇服

so there subduing is called burning up,

所以这种镇服被称为烧尽

so the word jhana has these two meanings

禅那这个词有这两个意思

closely observing the object

密切地观察目标

and also burning up the mental hindrances

烧尽心中诸盖

now the five factors of jhana:

禅那的五支:

vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha, ekaggatā寻伺喜乐一境性

now vitakka is translated into english as initial application of mind

寻翻成英语是:心的初次应用

initial application of mind to the object

心对目标的初次应用

and vicāra is translated as sustained application of the mind to the object

伺的翻译是:心对目标保持应用

pīti is translated as zest

喜翻译成热情

sometimes it is translated as joy

有时候被翻译成愉悦

some authors translated it as happiness

有些人翻译成幸福

and also it is translated as rapture

也被翻译成狂喜

so, which translation do we stick to?

所以,我们要用哪个翻译?

we would rather stick to the word pīti

还不如直接用巴利语

right?

对吧

so otherwise

否则

we can not be accurate

就不准确了

or people may misunderstand us

或者造成别人的误解

suppose I say joy as the meaning pīti

如果我用愉悦指“喜”

but you may understand joy to be sukha or somanasa

但是你可能会讲它理解成sukha或somanasa and so in this case we have to keep the word, pali word as it is

所以,在这种情况下,我们就要使用巴利语

and use it pīti

就用piti so pīti is a kind of joy it is a kind of pleasurable interest in objects.

所以“喜”是一种愉悦,也是一种对目标喜悦的兴趣

and then sukha, sukha is translated as happiness

“乐”被翻译成幸福

now piti and sukha are different

喜和乐是不同的

sukhu is one kind of feeling, vedanā“乐”是一种受

piti is not vedanā,

而“喜”不是受

so these two are different

所以这两者是不同的

and then the last one is ekaggatā, one pointedness of mind

最后一个是一境性

mind having only one object

心只有一个所缘

so ekaggatā is actually another name for samadhi or concentration

所以一境性实际上是三摩地或者禅定的同义词

now only when you have strong concentration do you get jhana

只有当你有强烈的禅定时,才获得禅那

so in the jhana factors ekaggatā is very important

所以在诸禅支中,一境性很重要

now vitakka these are all mental states mental factors

“寻”,这些都是心所

and so we will find them in the second chapter in the manual

我们可以在本书第二章心所里找到它们

the function of vitakka is to put the mind on the object

“寻”是将心置于目标上

without vitakka mind cannot climb onto the object it is said

没有寻,据说心不能投入目标

so vitakka is a mental factor

所以寻是这样一个心所:

that takes the mind and put the mind on the object

把心投入到目标

the function of vicāra is to keep the mind on the object

伺的作用是将心保持在目标上

now vitakka put the mind on the object, vicāra keep the mind on the object

寻将心投入到目标,伺将心保持在目标上

and pīti is just pleasurable interest or zest or joy

喜只是愉悦的兴趣或者热情或愉悦

and sukha is happiness and ekaggatā firmly fixed on the object

乐就是幸福,一境性是牢固地专注于所缘

so when these five jhana factors are strong

当这五个禅支很强烈

and they are doing their own function properly

正确地实行起功用

then a person is said to get the first jhana

这个人就获得了初禅

and after the first jhana, he may want to get the second jhana

获得初禅,他就想获得二禅

and so he practices meditation and he gets the second jhana and so on

所以他禅修,获得二禅等等

so first jhana has five factors and second jhana has four, the third jhana has three

所以初禅有五禅支,二禅四个,三禅三个

fourth jhana has two, and fifth jhana has two also

四禅和五禅都是两个

now you see the difference between the fourth and fifth jhana

你们可以看到四禅和五禅的区别

fourth jhana is accompanied by sukha and ekaggatā, happiness and one pointedness of mind

四禅的禅支是:乐、一境性

and the fifth jhana is accompanied by upekkhā and ekaggatā五禅的禅支是:舍和一境性

so when he gets these types of consciousness are called wholesome consciousness

当他获得这种心,被称为善心

wholesome jhana consciousness

善的禅那心

if a person dies with these jhanas intact

如果一个人带着完整的禅那心死亡

then he will be reborn in the world of brahmas

他就会投生为梵天

he will not be reborn in the world of human beings

他就不会投生为人

or he will not be reborn in the world of lower celestial beings called devas

也不会投生到低一级的欲界天

so he will be reborn in the world of brahmas

他会投生到梵天

when he is reborn in the world of brahmas

当他投生为梵天

his first type of consciousness in that life will be the resultant of these five jhanas

他此世的结生心就是相应五禅的果报心

suppose a person gets first jhana in this life

假设一个人在此生获得初禅

and he dies with that first jhana intact

他的死心是完整的初禅心

then he will be reborn as a brahma in the world of brahmas

他就会投生为梵天

and the first consciousness that arises there

他在那里的结生心

will be the resultant first jhana form-sphere resultant consciousness

就是色界初禅果报心

so in the same way, if the person gets the second, third, fourth and fifth jhana

同样,如果他获得二、三、四、五禅

and he dies with the jhana intact

他的死心是这些禅那心

and he will be reborn as a brahma

他就会投生为梵天

and the first type of consciousness that arises in that life will be the resultant of these jhanas

他的结生心就是这些禅那的果报心

so these five jhana consciousness produce five identical results

所以,这五个禅那心产生相同的果报心

and these five vipāka or resultant consciousness can be experienced only in the world of brahmas

这五个果报心只能在梵天心里生起

now the first five can be experienced in the human world and in the world of devas

第一组五个心可以在人间和欲界天生起

but the five vipāka consciousness can be experienced only in the brahma world.

但是五个果报心只能在梵天生起

and the third group kriyā citta, rūpāvacara kriyā citta, or form-sphere functional consciousness

第三组唯作心,或色界唯作心

can be experienced in the world of human beings in the world of devas in the world of brahmas

可以在人间、欲界天、梵天生起

they are experienced by buddhas and arahants

他们属于佛陀和阿罗汉

whenever you see the world kriyā, you remember buddhas and arahants mostly

当你看到唯作心,大多数情况就要想到佛陀和阿罗汉

so when a person becomes an arahant

所以当一个人成为阿罗汉

and then he practices samatha meditation and he gets jhana

他修止禅,获得禅那

so when he gets jhana, then his jhana consciousness is said to be functional,

当他获得禅那后,他的禅那心就是唯作心

because even though that is the jhana consciousness, it has no potential to give results

因为即便是禅那心,它也没有造业的可能

simply because he has eradicated the root of existence

仅仅因为阿罗汉已经断尽了轮回的根源

which are ignorance and craving

就是断尽了无明和贪爱

so an arahant has no more rebirth in the future,

所以阿罗汉不会再投生

so whatever he does constitute just doing and there are no results

不管他做什么,只是纯粹做不会产生业果

so the form-sphere consciousness consists of five wholesome five resultant and five functional

所以色界心包括五个善心,五个果报心,五个唯作心

and they are not difficult to remember

记起来也不难

because just first jhana, second jhana, third jhana, fourth jhana and fifth jhana

因为仅仅是初禅、二禅、三禅、四禅、五禅

now please

现在请

you have the sheet with the title factors in jhanas

你们有那张禅支的资料

now you will see the heads fivefold method fourfold method and factors

你会看到标题:五分法、四分法、禅支

now in the sutta discourses

在经藏里

four jhanas are always mentioned not five

经常提到的是四禅那,而不是五禅那

it is very rare that we find five jhanas mentioned in the discourses or in the suttas

我们很少看到经文里提到五禅那

even then not expressly with the name five jhanas

即便是五禅那这个名字,也没有明确提出

but we infer from the words used by the buddha

但是我们从佛陀的法语推导

as to mean five jhanas

得出五禅那

so almost always in the sutta pitaka we find mention of only four jhanas

所以在经藏里,我们只能找到四禅那

but in abhidhamma

但是在阿毗达摩里

jhanas are mentioned as four and also as five

提到四禅那,也提到五禅那

so we have these fivefold method of jhanas and fourfold method of jhanas

所以我们有对禅那的五分法、四分法

now in the suttas we find fourfold method of jhanas,

在经文里,我们看到禅那的四分法

and in abhidhamma we find both fivefold and fourfold

在阿毗达摩里,两种都可以看到

now why are there four jhanas and five jhanas

为什么有四禅那和五禅那两种?

it maybe confusing

可能让人困惑

why not they have the four jhanas or five jhanas only?

为什么不只有这二者中的一种?

now it depends on the ability of the yogi

其实这取决于瑜伽士的能力

now some yogis some meditators have so high standard of intelligence

有些禅修者的智力很高

or high standard of understanding

或者理解力很强

that they are able to get rid of the two jhana factors at one time

他们能够一次性舍弃两种禅支

now there are five jhana factors: vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha, ekaggatā五个禅支是:寻伺喜乐一境性

there are meditators who can get rid of vitakka and vicāra at just one time

有的禅修者可以同时舍弃寻伺

so for them there are only four jhanas, not five

对于他们而言,只有四禅那,不是五个

but for those who can get rid of the jhana factors just one by one

但是对于那些一个一个舍弃禅支的

there are five jhanas

就有五个禅那

so that is why jhanas are described four or five

所以这就是为什么有四个或五个禅那的方法

so when jhanas are described as four we call it fourfold method

所以当分为四个禅那时我们就称之为四分法

and when they are described as five we call it fivefold method

当分成五个,就称为五分法

the first jhana in fivefold method is the first jhana in fourfold method

五分法的初禅就是四分法的初禅

there is no difference here

这个没有区别

but the second jhana in fivefold method has no corresponding jhana in fourfold method

但是五分法的二禅在四分法里没有对应的

the third jhana in fivefold method corresponds to second jhana in fourfold method

五分法里的三禅对应四分法的二禅

and the fourth jhana in fivefold method correponds to third jhana in fourfold method

五分法的四禅对应于四分法的三禅

then fifth jhana in fivehold method correponds fourth jhana in fourhold method

五分法的五禅对应于四分法的四禅

so first jhana in fivehold method has five factors: vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha, ekaggatā所以五分法的初禅有五禅支寻伺喜乐一境性

second jhana, first jhana in fourhold method has the same number of factors

四分法的初禅跟五分法初禅一样的禅支

but the second jhana of fivefold method has four jhana factors

五分法的二禅有四个禅支

and the third jhana of fivehold method

五分法的三禅

and the second jhana of fourhold method

和四分法的二禅

has the same number of jhana factors they are: pīti, sukha, ekaggatā有相同禅支:喜乐一境性

fourth jhana of fivehold method and third jhana of fourfold method have two jhana factors: sukha and ekaggatā五分法的四禅和四分法的三禅有两个禅支:乐、一境性

and the fifth jhana of fivefold method and fourth jhana of fourfold method have upekkhā and ekaggatā五分法的五禅和四分法的四禅都有:舍、一境性

so

所以

if we understand the fivefold method we can easily understand the fourfold method

如果我们了解五分法也就很容易了解四分法

we skip the second jhana in fivefold method

也就是忽略五分法的二禅

and go to the third jhana as second in fourfold method and so on

直接跳到三禅,与四分法的二禅对应,以此类推

so, we should be familiar with both the fivehold method and fourfold method

所以,我们要熟悉这两种分法五分法和四分法

and these jhanas are also called attainment or samāpatti

这些禅那也被称为”等至“

now we will come to that later when we start with formless jhanas also

我们讲无色界禅那时会讲到

now these jhana factors have their opposites

这些禅那有其对抗之法

and we should understand these opposites too

我们也要了解这些对抗之法

it is said that vitakka is the opposite of thina-and-middha that is sloth-and-torpor

寻是对治昏沉睡眠的

now sloth-and-torpor are called hindrances

昏沉睡眠被称为“盖”

there are five hindrances, so sloth-and-torpor is one hindrance

盖有五种,昏沉睡眠是其中之一

so vitakka is the opposite of sloth-and-torpor,

寻对治昏沉睡眠

sloth-and-torpor simply means sleepiness

昏沉睡眠就是爱睡觉

so when you have so much thought, you can not go to sleep

当你有许多思虑,就无法入眠

sometimes you can not go to sleep because you are thinking too much

有时候,你想的太多,就无法睡眠

so that means vitakka is at work and so it drives away sloth-and-torpor or sleepiness

就是说“寻”在起作用赶走了昏沉睡眠

and vicāra is the opposite of doubt, vicikicchā or doubt

伺对治疑

now vicāra is keeping the mind on the object for some more time

伺就是让心在目标上保持更长时间

and so when mind is on the object for some long time, it is able to discard doubt of the object

当心能在目标上保持更长时间,就能够消除疑

so vicāra is said to be

所以说伺

the opposite of vicikicchā or doubt

是对治疑的

and pīti is the opposite of ill will

喜对治嗔恨

pīti is opposite of anger,

喜是愤怒的对治法

and sukha, happiness is the opposite of restlessnes and remorse

乐对治掉举与恶作

so when a person is in happiness, there is no restlessness in mind there is no remorse

所以当一个人快乐时,心里就没有掉举和恶作

now remorse means regret about some bad thing done in the past

恶作意思是对过去不好的事情后悔

and regret about some good thing that one did not do in the past

或者对过去没做的好事感到后悔

and then upekkhā is also the opposite of restlessness and remorse

舍也是对治掉举与恶作

the last one ekaggatā is the opposite of kāmacchanda or sensual desire

最后一个一境性对治欲欲

so when we know the oppoistes of these jhana factors

所以当我们知道这些禅那的对抗之境

we can do something if we want to get rid of or if we want to diminish these mental hindrances

如果我们想消除五盖,就可以有所作为

suppose we want to develop samadhi or ekaggatā假设我们想开发一境性

now the opposite of samadhi is sensual desire

它的对抗之境是欲欲

so if you want to develop samadhi then you should avoid sensual desires

所以如果你想开发禅定就要避免欲欲

if you’re indulging sensual desires at the same time you want to get samadhi

如果你沉浸于欲欲,又想获得禅定

if may not get samadhi

那是不能成功的

simply because you have not got rid of the opposite

因为你没有处理掉它的对抗之境

so understanding of these can help us

所以明白这些可以帮助我们

to get rid or to diminish these mental hindrances

对治或消除心中诸盖

the factors of jhana

禅支

are able to inhibit these mental hindrances

就可以制服这些盖

and so long as these mental hindrances are subdued, there is jhana

只要五盖被镇服,禅那就会生起

now when they arise again, jhana will disapear

如果五盖生起,禅那就会消失

so it is important that we understand the opposites of jhana factors

所以理解禅支的对抗之境很重要

here they are given as vitakka is opposite of sloth-and-torpor and so on

这里寻对治昏沉睡眠等等

because these five jhana factors are the opposites of sloth-and-torpor and so on

因为这五禅支对治昏沉睡眠等等

they alone are called jhanas

它们就被称为禅那

although there are some other mental factors that arise with jhana consciousness

所以有其他心所也随着禅那心生起

now it is not on the sheet

不过资料上没有写

we must understand three things: jhana, jhana factor, jhana consciousness

我们需要知道三件事:禅那、禅支、禅那心

jhana, jhana factors, jhana consciousness

禅那、禅支、禅那心

the name jhana is the collective name for the five factors

禅那是对于五禅支的统称

vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha, ekaggatā these are collectively called jhana

寻伺喜乐一境性一起被称为禅那

so when we say jhana we mean these five or four or three mental factors or jhana factors

当我们说禅那的时候我们指五个或四个或三个禅支

and when we say jhana factor we mean these individual factors

当我们说禅支的时候,指单独的一支

if may be just vitakka, it may be just vicāra and so on

可能指寻,也可能指伺等等

and jhana consciousness means consciousness that is accompanied by these jhana factors

禅那心指被这些禅支伴随的心

so we need to understand these three things clearly

我们需要清楚地了解这三者

jhana, jhana factors and jhana consciousness

禅那、禅支、禅那心

if wen want to be precise we should follow these division or difference

如果我们想准确,就要这样区别

but sometimes when talking not seriously, we may use a word jhana meaning jhana consciousness

但有时候,在不严谨的情况下我们可以用禅那指禅那心

but it is good to understand the terms used in abhidhamma as they are taught in abhidhamma

但是最好了解这些词在阿毗达摩里的用法

and so we must understand precisely what each term represents

我们必须准确理解每个名相的内涵

so here these three terms jhana, jhana factors and jhana consciousness, these three are different

所以,这个三词:禅那、禅支、禅那心他们是有区别的

when we say jhana we mean these five or four or three factors together

当我们说禅那的时候我们指五禅支、或者四禅支、或者三禅支

so they are called jhana

他们被称为禅那

and jhana factors means these individual members of the jhana

禅支是指禅那里的单独某一个

and jhana consciousness means consciousness associated with or accompanied by these five four three two factors

禅那心指具有这些禅支的五个、四个或者三个的心

these 15 types of consciousness are called form-sphere consciousness

这15个心被称为色界心

so five wholesome five resultant and five functional

五个善心、五个果报心、五个唯作心

and these types of consciousness arise in human beings arise in celestial beings also

这些心生起于人间,也生起于欲界天

and they arise frequently in the form-sphere realms

它们经常在色界天生起

so they are 15 form-sphere consciousness 15色界心

they are called jhana consciousness because they contemplate the object closely

它们被称为禅那心,因为他们密切地念虑所缘

and also they burn up the mental hindrances

同时也烧尽心中诸盖

ok, tomorrow we will continue our study of the types of consciousnesses

明天我们继续学习其他种类的心

so formless, [inaudible] jhana text, ok, tomorrow we will continue

明天我们继续

now we have question time, we have five minutes for questions, anybody?

现在是五分钟的问答时间,有人问吗?

student: venerable sir, just one, i think i have two questions,

学生:尊者,我想我有两个问题

the first question is that, does nimitta or bright sign have to arise before you actually continue practice to attain jhana

第一个,当你禅修真正获得禅那之前,是不是需要生起明亮的禅相?

ok that the first queston

这是第一个问题

second question is that how deep the concentration is needed that [means still??] require to reach jhana in order to do vipassana

第二个问题需要多深的禅定,来获得禅那以便进行观禅?

or is it a normal nimitta when we do vipassana?

当我们修观禅的时候,是需要一个普通的禅相吗?

sayadaw: in order to get jhana you need to get nimitta, nimitta means a sign

尊者:为了获得禅那,你需要得到禅相

let us say you practice the kasiṇa, or disk meditation

例如你修基础遍相,或者说用圆盘作为修定的目标

so when you have memorize the disk in your mind and you can see it even with your eyes closed

当你在心里默念这个圆盘你闭着眼睛都可以看到它

and that is one sign one nimitta

这是一个禅相

and when that sign becomes a mental image

当这个禅相成为你心里的一个形象

when that mental image becomes more and more refined and it is like a polished mirror

当这个心里的形象变得越来越精细,就像一面光亮的镜子

then it is call a counterpart sign, patibhāga-nimitta

它就被称为:似相

so in order to get jhana you need to get the counterpart sign

为了获得禅那,你需要获得“似相”

so the first sign is called, it is translated as learning sign

第一个相被称为:学习之相

but I don’t like that translation, the pali word is uggaha nimitta

我不喜欢这个翻译

now uggaha means it can mean learning also uggaha也可以指学习

but I think here it is not learning sign the sign which has been grasped

但是我认为不是学习之相,应该是被抓取的相

the sign which has been taken up something like that

就是被获取的相,类似的意思

so first that is uggaha nimitta the sign let us say memorized sign

所以,首先是“默念的相”

and then the second one is called patibhāga-nimitta or counterpart sign

然后是“似相”

that is polished or refined image of the kasina disk

这就是遍相圆盘的精细光亮形象

so only after getting the counterpart sign can one reach jhana

只有获得“似相”,才能获得禅那

and then practice of vipassana

然后修观禅

now a person can practice samatha meditation and gets jhana

一个人可以修止禅,获得禅那

so after getting the jhana he may take that jhana as the object of his vipassana meditation

获得禅那之后,他可以用那个禅那作为他修观禅的所缘

he may take the factors of jhana as the object of his meditation

他可以将禅支作为禅修的所缘

he will contemplate on these factors as impermanent, suffering, and non-soul

他省思这些禅支:无常、苦、无我

so a person can change to vipassana after getting jhanas

当获得禅那之后,可以去修观禅

that is one way of the practice of vipassana

这是修观禅的一个方法

first samatha meditation and then change to vipassana

先修止禅,然后修观禅

and the other method is

另外一个方法是

just practice vipassasna meditation without practice of samatha meditation

不修止禅,直接修观禅

so there are two ways of the practice of meditation taught in the text and also in the commentaries

根据经文和注释书,有这两种禅修的方法

so you can follow any path you like

你可以选择任何你喜欢的方法

you may practice samatha mediation first and then change to vipassana meditation

你可以先修止禅,再修观禅

or you may practice vipassana meditation in the outside

也可以直接修观禅

student: sayadaw just now you want us to practice about using this small card

学生:刚才你让我们作卡片练习

and you asked us there are how many citta or so called consciousness associated with joy,

你问我们有多少悦俱的心

but this card I counted there are 18,

我数了这张卡片,是18个

but just you mentioned about 30, so which are accurate?

但是你说是30个,哪个正确?

[sayadaw laughs] maybe

可能

student: because all the red one i counted it only have 18

学生:我数了所有的红点,只有18个

sayadaw: 18, ok, maybe I made a mistake

尊者:18个,好,可能我讲错了

you get only 18, yeah, ok

你只找到18个,好

student: good evening, venerable sir can you elaborate again on receiving consciousness and investigating consciousness?

学生:尊者,晚上好你能将领受心和推度心再讲讲吗?

is this subset of mind consciousness or

它们是意识的子项吗?

sayadaw: they are different types of consciousness

尊者:它们是不同的心

receiving consciousness is one type of consciousness and investigating consciousness is another type of consciousness

领受心是一种心推度心是另外一种心

as the name implies, receiving consciousness means receiving the objects

根据它的名字可知领受心就是领受目标

the object is presented to the senses

目标呈现于诸根

and then the senses experience the object

诸根体验到目标

after the experience the object is received or accepted by the mind

体验到目标之后,心就领受目标

and then after receiving it the mind investigate this object

领受之后,就推度目标

whether it is desirable or undesirable and so on

是令人愉悦还是让人难受等等

so they are two different types of consciousness

所以它们是两种不同的心

these two types of consciousness arise through five sense doors

这两种心通过五根门生起

so they are different, distinct types of consciousness

所以它们是不同的心

with different functions

有不同的作用

so receiving is one function, investigating is another function

领受是一种作用,推度是另外一种作用

but in the thought process, it does not stop there

但是在心路过程里,这并不是终点

after investigating will come determining

推度心之后,是确定心

so after determining there will come the full experience of the object

确定心之后,就是对目标完整的体验

so we study the thought process, we have to explain this

所以等我们学习心路过程时,会解释这些

so you wait until we come to the thought processes

所以你等到我们学心路过程时

no more questions, shall we call it a day, please rise

提问到此结束,请起立

disk01track07

yesterday we finish the study of form-sphere consciousness

昨天我们学习了色界心

so today we will study the formless-sphere consciousness

今天我们学习无色界心

i hope you remember the formless-sphere

我希望你们记得无色界

among the 31 planes of existence

在31生命界里

there are 4 planes, the 4 highest planes that are called formless-sphere

有4个最高的界,被称为无色界

formless means immaterial, so in that world there is no rupa no matter

无色界意思是非物质性的在那个世界没有色法

these beings are only citta and cetasikas

这些众生只是心和心所

so bodiless beings we may call them

所以我们可以称他们为无身体的众生

so only mind exists in these realms

所以这些界地只有名法

and there are types of consciousness

有些种类的心

that lead to the rebirth in these realms

会让人投生到这些界

and also the same types of consciousness that arise in arahants

这些心也会在阿罗汉心里生起

so the formless sphere consciousness is divided into three wholesome, resultant and functional

所以,无色界心被分为三种:善心、果报心、唯作心

and the wholesome consciousness of formless sphere are four

无色界的善心有四个

the first is first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

首先是第一个无色界禅那心

now the pali name of this is long and it is difficult to remember

此心的巴利名字很长,很难记

it is ākāsānañcāyatana

是空无边处心

so we may just call the first citta, first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

我们可以称它为第一心第一无色界禅那心

and then the word infinite space is remind you these types of consciousness

“空无边”这个词提醒你们这种心

has infinite space as object

的所缘是:无限的空间

or these consciousness takes the infinite space as object

或者这些心以无边的空间为目标

now in order to attain the arūpāvacara jhana or formless jhana

为了获得这种无色界禅那

a person must has already attained the five form jhanas the five rūpāvacara jhanas

一个人必已获得五个色界禅那

now after getting or attaining the fifth rūpāvacara jhana

获得色界五禅之后

he wanted to go on

他想继续

now in his case he first tries to see fault in the physical body

于是他就努力找出色身的过患

so he thinks that because people have physical bodies

他想,因为人有色身

they come to blows they come to killing each other and so on.

他们就互相争斗、杀戮

if there were no physical body there would be such suffering in the world

如果没有色身,世间就不会有这种痛苦

so he hates matter or material body and so he practices meditation with that disgust for matter.

所以,他厌恶色身,所以他带着这种对色身的厌恶禅修

now when he practices meditation to attain the formless jhana first he enters the fifth jhana

当他禅修要获得无色界禅时首先他要进入第五禅

and then getting out of that jhana he takes the object of that jhana

然后他从第五禅出来将它作为所缘

now the object of fifth jhana is the counterpart sign

现在第五禅的所缘就是似相

if he begins his practice with the earth kasiṇa the earth disk

如果他开始修的是地遍,也就是泥巴做的圆盘

then the mental image of that earth disk is the object of his fifth jhana

所以这个泥盘的在心中的形象就是第五禅的所缘

now he takes that mental image of the disk

他将这个圆盘在心中的形象

as the object of his meditation

作为禅修的所缘

and he tries to expand that object to as much as he likes

他尽量将这个所缘扩大

even to the end of the world

甚至扩大到世界的边缘

and then after expanding that mental image in his mind

然后当他已经将这个心中的形相扩大

he just stops paying attention to that image

然后他停止对这似相作意

instead he pay attention to the space touched by or occupied by that image

去注意该似相所占有的空间

so when he does not pay attention to the counterpart sign or mental image

当他不注意这个似相的时候

then that mental image disappears and only the space remains and he dwells on that space

这个似相就消失了,只剩下空间他就安住于这个空间

as space space or infinite space infinite space many times

空间,空间,空无边,空无边这样重复很多次

and when his meditation become mature and he will attain the first arūpāvacara of formless jhana

当他对这种禅修熟练之后他就获得第一个无色界禅

or a type of consciousness will arise in his mind and that type of consciousness will take that infinite space as object

就会生起一种心,这种心以无边空间作为所缘

so this is how a person practices meditation to attain the first formless jhana

这就是禅修者获得无色界第一禅的方法

now the second one is second arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

第二个无色界禅心

now after attaining the first arūpāvacara jhana he wants to go on

获得第一个无色界禅心后,想继续

so he tries to practice meditation again,

所以继续禅修

and this time he takes the first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness as the object of his meditation

此时,他将第一个无色界禅心作为他禅修的所缘

so he takes the first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

所以他缘取第一个无色界禅心

and contemplates on it as infinite consciousness, infinite consciousness, infinite consciousness and so on

专注于该心为“识无边,识无边”

that consciousness is said to be infinite because it takes the infinite space as its object

这个识之所以无边,因为它的所缘是无边的空间

so in the case of second arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

所以对于第二种无色界禅心

the object is infinite consciousness or the first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

所缘是无边之识,或者说是无色界第一个禅心

after getting the second arūpāvacara jhana consciousness he continues his meditation

获得无色界第二禅心后,继续禅修

and he reaches the third arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

就会获得第三个无色界禅心

in order to gain third arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

要想获得第三个无色界禅心

he takes the absence of first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness as object.

就要将第一个无色界禅心的“不存在”作为所缘

now when he gets the second arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

当他获得第二个无色界禅那心时

that is no first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness, it has disappeared

第一个无色界禅心就消失了

so when he practices meditation to gain the third arūpāvacara jhana

当禅修者获得第三个无色界禅心

he takes that absence of the first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness as object

他将第一个无色界禅心的不存在作为所缘

that absence is a concept it is called nothingness

这种不存在是个概念,被称为“无所有”

so nothingness of the first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

就是第一个无色界禅心的“无所有”

that nothingness or that absence he takes as the object of his meditation

这种“无所有”或“不存在”被用来作为禅修的所缘

so he may take that object as meditation and say to himself

他可以用这个所缘禅修,并对自己说:

nothing, there is nothing, there is nothing, something like that

无所有,无所有,诸如此类

and so when his meditation becomes mature

当他这样禅修,熟练后

he gains the third arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

就获得第三个无色界禅心

again he goes on practicing meditation for attaining the fourth arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

然后他继续禅修,想要获得第四个无色界禅心

when he practices meditation for the fourth arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

当他为获得第四个无色界禅心禅修

he takes the third arūpāvacara jhana consciousness as object

他将第三个无色界禅心作为所缘

so he takes third arūpāvacara jhana as object and he contemplates on it

他将第三无色界禅心作为所缘,专注于它

as it is peaceful it is sublime, it is peaceful it is sublime and so on

安宁庄严,安宁庄严,诸如此类

and when his meditation becomes mature then he reaches the fourth arūpāvacara jhana

当他的禅修熟练后就获得第四个无色界禅那

or fourth arūpāvacara jhana consciousness arises in his mind

或者说心中生起第四个无色界禅心

so in this way a yogi attains the jhanas that are called arūpāvacara

禅修者就是这样获得无色界禅那

because the attainment of these jhanas were enable him to be reborn in the arūpāvacara realms or formless-sphere realms

获得这种禅那,可以让他投生到无色界天

now the fourth is called neither perception nor non-perception

第四个就是非想非非想处

the names of these, long names in pali and also the meaning is not easy to understand

这些名字的巴利语都很长它们的意思也不是很容易理解

the first arūpāvacara jhana is called ākāsānañcāyatana

第一个无色界禅那被称为空无边处ākāsa means space

空,意思是空间ākāsānañca means infinite space

空无边,意思是无边的空间

so the object of the first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness is the infinite space

所以第一个无色界禅心的所缘就是无边的空间

infinite space means the counterpart sign of the fifth jhana consciousness

空无边,指第五禅心的似相

he takes the infinite space which is obtained by removing the counterpart sign

除去似相之后,缘取无边空间

regarding the first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

对于第一个无色界禅心

when he practices meditation and he stops giving attention to the counterpart sign

当他禅修时,不再注意似相

and then contemplating on the space occupied by the counterpart sign as infinite space

专注于似相所占据的空间:

空无边,空无边

he is said to remove the counterpart sign

这样就移除了似相

so removing the counterpart sign means just not paying attention to it

移除似相,就是不再注意它

and instead paying attention to the space occupied by that sign

去注意似相所占据的空间

so that is called removing in abhidhamma term

在阿毗达摩里称为“移除”

the commentaries explain to us that removing does not mean like rolling the carpet

注释书说“移除”不是像卷起地毯

or removing the pancake from the pan and so on

也不是像在锅里拿起煎饼等等

so here removing means just not paying attention to that object and instead paying attention to the space

这里的“移除”是说不注意似相,注意空间

and that space is called infinite space

这个空间就是“空无边”

since space has no existence of its own, it is a concept

因为空间自身并不存在,只是个概念

we call space to be void place we call space

我们称没有东西的处所为空间

and so that infinite space a concept

所以,空无边只是个概念

and the first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness takes that infinite space which is concept as object

第一个无色界禅心将无边空间这个概念作为所缘

but the second arūpāvacara jhana consciousness takes the first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness as object

第二个无色界禅心将第一个无色界禅心作为所缘

so here the object of the first and second are different

这里第一个禅心和第二个禅心的所缘是不同的

so the object of the first is infinite space

第一个的所缘是无边的空间

the object of the second is the first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

第二个的所缘是第一个无色界的禅心

and the object of the third arūpāvacara jhana is absence of the first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

第三个无色界禅心的所缘是第一个无色界禅心的“不存在”

again this is a concept

这同样是个概念

or nothingness of the first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

或者说是第一个无色界禅心的“无所有”

and the fourth arūpāvacara jhana consciousness takes the third arūpāvacara jhana consciousness as object

第四个无色界禅心将第三个无色界禅心作为所缘

now when it reaches the fourth stage it becomes so subtle

心达到第四个阶段,就变得很微细

that it is very difficult to say that there is mental activity at all

所以很难说心的活动是否存在

there is no apparent mental activity

此时心没有明显的活动

when a yogi reaches the fourth arūpāvacara jhana

当禅修者获得第四个无色界禅那

but still there is a very subtle residual of mind or mental activity

仍然有非常微细的心理活动残余

that is why this fourth jhana is called neither perception nor non-perception

所以,第四个禅那被称为:非想非非想

perception here means not just perception but also all mental activities

“想”并不是只是指“想”也指其他心理活动

so it means neither mental activity nor non-mental activity

意思是,不能说有心理活动,也不能说没有

and it is explained with the simile in the commentaries

在注释书里有一个寓言来阐释

there were a monk and a novice

一个和尚和沙弥

and there was some oil in the bowl of the monk very little oil

在和尚的钵里有一点点油

when the monk asked the novice to give him the bowl, the novice said, bhante there is oil in the bowl

当和尚让沙弥把钵拿给他沙弥说:尊者,里面有油

now the monk thought that there was much oil in the bowl, so he said that

和尚以为钵里有很多油,他说

ok, bring it to me i want to fill my oil tube

拿过来,我想给我的油筒加油

then the novice said, bhante there is no oil

随后,沙弥说:尊者,没有油

because there is not enough oil to fill the tube in the bowl

因为钵里并没有足够的油给油筒加油

so first he said there is oil in the bowl and next he said there is no oil in the bowl

开始沙弥说有油,然后又说没油

so in the same way, there is some kind of mental activity in this fourth arūpāvacara jhana

同样,在第四个无色界禅那里有某些心理活动

but it is so subtle it is almost no existent

但是很微细,几乎是不存在

so this fourth arūpāvacara jhana is called neither perception nor non-perception

所以第四无色界禅那被称为非想非非想

oh here perception is used in the sense of all mental activities not just perception

这里“想”指所有心所,并不是专指“想”

these four are called wholesome, because they are accompanied by wholesome mental factors

这四个被称为善心,因为伴随它们的心所都是善的

if a person get first arūpāvacara jhana and he dies with this first arūpāvacara jhana intact

如果一个人获得第一个无色界禅死亡的时候,这个禅那还没退失

and he will be reborn in the formless brahma world

他就会投生到无色界梵天

and the first consciousness that arises in that realm for him would be this first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

他投生到那一界的结生心就是第一个无色界禅那心

since it is the result of the wholesome arūpāvacara jhana consciousness it is called first resultant arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

因为它是无色界善心的果报所以被称为第一个无色界果报心

and if a person gets the second arūpāvacara jhana here and then he dies

如果一个人获得第二个无色界禅那,他死后

then he will be reborn in the formless brahma world

他会投生到无色界梵天

and the first consciousness he experiences in that life would be the second arūpāvacara jhana consciousness as a result

在那里的结生心就是第二个无色界果报心

if he gets third arūpāvacara jhana here

如果他在此世获得第三个无色界禅那

then he will be reborn in the formless brahma world

他就会投生到无色界梵天

and his first consciousness there will be the result of the third arūpāvacara wholesome consciousness here

他在那里的结生心就是第三个无色界果报心

and if he gets fourth arūpāvacara jhana here

如果他在此时获得第三个无色界禅那

then he will be reborn in the fourth formless brahma world

他就会投生到第四个无色界梵天

and the first consciousness will be the resultant of the fourth wholesome arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

他的结生心就是第四个无色界果报心

so corresponding to the four wholesome consciousness of formless sphere there are four resultant formless sphere

对应于四个无色界善心有四个无色界果报心

and if an arahant experiences these four arūpāvacara jhanas then they are called functional

如果一位阿罗汉获得此四个无色界禅那,那这些心就被称为唯作心

an arahant may attain any one of these jhanas or all four jhanas

阿罗汉可以获得此四个禅那之一或者全部

but for him these jhanas will not give results

但是对于阿罗汉,这些禅那不会造业

because he has eradicated ignorance and craving all together

因为阿罗汉已经断尽了无明和贪

whatever he does whatever an arahant does is just the doing, it has no karmic force, it does not give any results

无论阿罗汉做什么都是纯粹的作为,不会造业

so these same types of consciousness when they arise in the mind of an arahant,

所以,这些心,如果在阿罗汉心里生起

so they are called functional consiousness

它们被称为唯作心

so there are four functional consciousness of formless sphere corresponding to the four wholesome consciousness of formless sphere

所以对应于四个无色界善心就有四个无色界唯作心

now you may have notice that no jhana factor no factors of jhana is mentioned here

你可以注意到了,这里没有提到禅支

in the case of rūpāvacara jhanas in the case of material jhanas

在色界禅那里

you remember it’s said first jhana with vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha, ekaggatā你们记得初禅:寻伺喜乐一境性

but here no factors are mentioned instead the objects are mentioned

但是在这里没有提到禅支但是提到了所缘

the first is called the consciousness that has infinite space as object

第一个无色界心的所缘是空无边

the second is called consciousness that has infinite consciousness as object

第二个心的所缘是识无边

and the third is called consciousness that has absence of first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness as object

第三个是以第一个无色界心的“不存在”作为所缘

and the fourth is called consciousness that has the third arūpāvacara jhana consciousness as object

第四个是以第三个无色界心作为所缘

so with regard to formless-sphere consciousness the objects are mentioned, and not the jhana factors

所以,对于无色界心,提到的是所缘,而不是禅支

but a jhana must have jhana factors

但是禅那必定有禅支

because as i explained yesterday jhana means a group of the jhana factors

因为我昨天解释过,禅那指一组禅支

so how many jhana factors arise with these formless-sphere consciousness?

所以这些无色界心有多少禅支?

it is said that formless-sphere consciousness are similar to the fifth form-sphere consciousness

据说无色界心与色界第五禅的禅支类似

so you go back to fifth form-sphere consciousness and find out how many jhana factors arise with fifth jhana consciousness

所以回到色界五禅,看看有多少禅支

how many jhana factors? only two jhana factors

有多少禅支,只有两个禅支

and they are upekha and ekaggata

舍、一境性

so with regard to factors of jhana all these 12

所以这12个禅那的禅支

formless-sphere consciousnesses are accompanied by two jhana factors, they are:

无色界心有两个禅支,分别是:

upekkha or neutral feeling and ekaggata, one pointedness of mind

舍(中性感觉)、心一境性

now the difference between the form-sphere consciousness and formless-sphere consciousness

色界心和无色界心的不同是

is that in order to get the higher jhanas in form-sphere consciousness you have to

对于色界心,为了获得更高的禅那

overcome or surmount the jhana factors

你必须克服一个个的禅支

that means you have to eliminate the jhana factors

意思是你得舍弃禅支

so in order to get the second jhana you have to eliminate vitakka the first jhana factor

所以为了获得二禅你必须舍弃“寻”禅支

in order to get the third jhana you have to eliminate one more, vicara

为了获得三禅, 你需要再舍弃一个禅支:伺

and in order to get the fourth jhana you eliminate piti and so on

为了获得四禅,你要舍弃:喜诸如此类

so by eliminating the jhana factors you get the higher jhanas

所以,通过舍弃禅支,你就可以获得更高的禅那

and that eliminating is called surmounting in abhidhamma

这种舍弃,在阿毗达摩里称之为:克服

but in the formless-sphere consciousness

但对于无色界心

there are only two jhana factors every one of these 12 types of consciousness has two jhana factors

只有两个禅支,这12种心每个都只有两个禅支

and these two jhana factors can not be surmounted

这两个禅支是不能被克服的

so instead of surmounting the jhana factors here in the formless-sphere consciousness

所以,对于无色界心不是克服禅支

they are said to surmount the object

是要克服所缘

so every type of formless-sphere consciousness has two kinds of objects

所以每个无色界心都有两种所缘

objects taken and objects surmounted or objects transcended

缘取的所缘,克服的所缘

so at the bottom of the page you see those

你可以在该页的底部可以看到这些

so the object taken by first arūpāvacara jhana is infinite space

所以第一个无色界禅那的所缘是空无边

and the object it surmounts is the counterpart sign

它克服的所缘是似相

because the yogi does not pay attention to the counterpart sign and that

因为禅修者不注意似相

that means he has surmounted the counterpart sign

意思是他已经克服似相

now the second arupavacara jhana takes first arupavacara consciousness as object

第二个无色界禅那将第一个无色界心作为所缘

and it surmounts the infinite space

它克服空无边

and the third arupavacara jhana takes absence of first arupavacara jhana consciousness as object

第三个无色界心将第一个无色界心的“不存在”作为所缘

and it surmounts the first arupavacara jhana consciousness

它克服第一个无色界心

and the fourth arupavacara jhana consciousness takes

第四个无色界心的所缘是

the third arupavacara jhana consciousness as object

第三个无色界心

and it surmounts the absence of first arupavacara jhana consciousness

它要克服的是第一个无色界心的“不存在”

so there are two sets of four objects,

所以有两组所缘,每组四个

one set is the set of objects taken and the other is the set of objects that are surmounted

一组是要缘取的所缘,另一组是要克服的所缘

in order to get the arupavacara jhanas

以便获得无色界禅那

now it is said in our books those who attain arupavacara jhanas

根据佛经,获得无色界禅那的人

are those who hate matter who hate body

是厌恶色法,厌恶色身的人

and actually their view is not correct

实际上,他们的见地不正确

they think that because of this body we suffer

他们认为因为色身所以受苦

but even without the physical body there is still suffering

但是即使没有色身,也会受苦

because suffering means being oppressed by arising and disappearing

因为“苦”意即被生灭所压迫

now there is always arising and disappearing even though there is no matter and no body

即便没有色法和色身,生灭总是存在,

but these people think that

但是这些人认为

there will be happy they will experience happiness if they are without physical body

如果没有色身,就会快乐

but what about noble persons what about those who has obtained enlightenment

但是对于圣者而言,对于觉悟的人呢?

what about those who have become Sotapanna, Sakadagami, Anāgāmi, and Arahant

对于,初果、二果、三果圣人还有阿罗汉而言

they may also practice meditation to get these jhanas

他们也可能通过禅修获得这些禅那

since they are noble persons since they are already enlightened persons

因为他们已经是圣人已经是觉悟的人

they may not have that notion that

他们可能没有这样的观念

if they are without physical body there would be no suffering for them

不会觉得没有色身就不会有苦

this is not explained in the book

佛经里对此并没有解释

so i don’t know the answer to this problem

我不知道这个问题的答案

i think that

我认为

when noble persons try to get these jhana

当圣者要获得这些禅那

they try to get this jhana not for the sake of this jhana only, they have something higher than this in mind

他们并非为了禅那而修禅那他们心里有更高的目标

and that is what is called the attainment of cessation

这就是灭尽定

now attainment of cessation means attainment of cessation of mental activity altogether

灭尽定意思是所有的心理活动都消失了

in pali it is called nirodha-samāpatti

巴利语是nirodha-samāpatti and it is said that

据说

nirodha-samāpatti can be attained only by anāgāmis or non-returners and arahants

灭尽定只有三果圣者和阿罗汉才能修得

and those anāgāmis and arahants who have attained all rupavacara and arupavacara jhanas

这些三果圣人和阿罗汉获得了所有的色界无色界禅那

so when they attain this cessation then all mental activities are temporarily suspended

当他们获得灭尽定,所有的心理活动都会暂时停止

so during the attainment of cessation they maybe like statues

所以在灭尽定时,他们可能就像是雕像

they have no mental activity only the body goes on

他们没有心理活动,只有生理活动

but it is said that when they are without mental activity

据说当他们没有心理活动时

they have less suffering

苦迫就更少

so it is a kind of enjoying the peacefulness that that the non-returners or arahants get into this kind of attainment

当三果圣者和阿罗汉进入灭尽定时,好像在享受安宁

and this kind of attainment can be entered into only by those who have attained all nine jhanas

进入灭尽定的人必然已经证得了九个禅那

all five rupavacara jhanas and four arupavacara jhanas

也就是色界的五禅和无色界的四禅

i think it is for that purpose that the noble persons especially the non-returners and arahants

我觉得就是为了获得灭尽定,这些圣者,特别是三果圣者和阿罗汉

try to get the four arupavacara jhanas

就想获得四个无色界禅那

now we have studied the different types of jhana consciousness

我们已经学了不同的禅那心

form jhana and formless jhana, or material jhana and immaterial jhana

色界禅那,无色界禅那

the form jhana consciousness are 15 the formless jhana consciousness are 12

色界禅那心15个,无色界禅那心12个

and when we add these together we get 27

将这些加起来,一共是27个

and these 27 are called sublime types of consciousness in pali they are called mahaggata

这27个被称为广大心

later you will see the chart, now

稍后,你们会看表格,现在

the rupavacara jhanas, first jhana accompanied by what, what feeling?

色界禅那,初禅,伴随什么感觉?

rupavacara first jhana accompanied by joy

色界初禅伴随的是喜悦

and second jhana? same

二禅呢,同样

third jhana? same

三禅呢?同样

fourth jhana? same

四禅呢?同样

fifth jhana, by indifference or neutral feeling

五禅呢?舍受,中性感觉

then what about formless-sphere consciousness?

无色界心呢?

these formless-sphere consciousness

这些无色界心

since they resemble the fifth jhana

因为它们类似于色界五禅

they are all accompanied by neutral feeling

所以都是舍受

there is no formless-sphere consciousness that is accompanied by joy

所以无色界心没有悦俱的

if you look at the chart now rupavacara cittas 15

现在看表,15个色界心

so they are above shown in three columns

上面有三列

and the first four are colored red and the last one blue

第一列前四个是红色,最后一个是蓝色

so the first four are accompanied by joy

前四个是悦俱

the last ones are accompanied by indifference and neutral feeling

所有的最后一个都是舍俱

but all the 12 arupavacara cittas

但是所有的无色界心

or all the 12 formless sphere cittas are accompanied by neutral feeling or upekkha

所有的12个无色界心都是舍俱

and rupavacara cittas and arupavacara cittas

色界心和无色界心

are collectively called mahaggata or sublime cittas

统称为广大心

they are jhana cittas and they are higher than the kāmavacaracittas or sense-sphere consciousness

他们是禅那心,比欲界心高级

now up till now we have studied how many types of consciousness?

到目前为止,我们学习了多少心?

12 akusala consciousness 18 ahetuka or rootless consciousness 12个不善心,18个无因心

24 kamavacarasobhana or beautiful consciousness and then 24个欲界美心

rupavacara consciousness and arupavacara consciousness altogether 81

色界心,无色界心,一共是81个

now these 81 types of consciousness are called mundane in pali they are called lokiya

这81个心,被称为世间心

lokiya cittas mundane consciousness they belong to this world

世间心,属于这个世界

so there are 81 types of consciousness that belong to the world,

所以,这81个心属于这个世界

that belong to the world means that belong to the five aggregates of clinging

属于这个世界意思是属于五取蕴

now there are two more categories of consciousness

还有两类心

and these types of consciousness are called lokuttara cittas

它们被称为出世间心

lokuttara means loka means the world the world means the five aggregates of clinging, uttara means transcending loka意思是世间,五取蕴,

uttara意思是超越

so that which transcends the world of five aggregates are called lokuttara

超越五蕴之世间的,就是出世间

so there are eight lokuttara cittas and we will study these now

有8个出世间心,我们现在学习它们

and after we study all the cittas we will go back to this chart with dots

学习了所有的心,我们会回到带点的图表

find out the different types of consciousness accompanied by joy indifference and so on

找出不同的心,悦俱的,舍俱的,等等

so now we come to the lokuttara cittas

现在我们看看出世间心

so lokuttara cittas are called supramundane consciousness

出世间心被称为远离俗世的心

and there are only two categories in the supramundane consciousness,

出世间心只有两类

wholesome and resultant and no functional consciousness in this group

善心和果报心,没有唯作心

and there are four wholesome supramundane consciousness and four resultant supramundane consciousness

有四个出世间善心,四个出世间果报心

again supramundane means those that go beyond the world that are out of the world so to say

出世间,意思是超越世间,或者说在俗世之外

and they are number one first path consciousness in pali it is called sotapatti magga of the stream entrance

第一个须陀洹道心

this consciousness can be attained only by the practice of vipassana meditation

这个心只能通过修观禅获得

suppose a person practices vipassana meditation

假设一个人修观禅

and he will go through different stages of vipassana knowledge actually 10 or 12

经过不同的观智,实际上是10或12个

so he go through these stages of vipassana knowledge one by one

他通过这些观智,一个个

and when his vipassana becomes matured

当他的观禅修的很成熟时

then a type of consciousness will arise in his mind

就会生起一种心

and that type of consciousness is the one that he has never experienced before in his life

这种心他之前从未体验过

and that consciousness takes nibbana as object

这种心将涅槃作为所缘

and at the same time it eradicates some mental defilements

同时它断尽了一些心中之漏

and that type of consciousness is called path consciousness or in pali magga consciousness

这种心被称为道心

when a person reaches this stage he is called a stream entrant or sotāpanna

当禅修者达到这个阶段,就被称为入流,或者须陀洹

the state of a sotāpanna is called sotāpatti

须陀洹的状态称为须陀洹果

that means stream entering or stream reaching

意思就是入流

and the person is called sotāpanna stream entrant

这样的人被称为须陀洹,或者入流者

now here stream means the stream of the noble eightfold path

这里的“流”指八圣道之流

the noble eightfold path means the group of eight mental factors beginning with right understanding

八圣道是指一组心所,第一个是正见

i hope you all are familiar with the eight factors of the path

希望你们都能熟悉八正道的内容

these eight factors of the path that arise simultaneously with the path consciousness are called stream here or current

八正道的道支同时与道心生起,在此称为“流”

these eight factors of path are called stream

这八个道支被称为“流”

because once a person has got into this stream he is sure to reach nibbana

因为入流者必定证得涅槃

if something gets into the stream of a river or in the current of a river.

如果一个东西进入河流

and the current will carry it surely until it reaches the ocean

河流必定会带它到大海

so once a thing is the current

所以入流者

then it is sure to reach the ocean

必定抵达大海

in the same way once a person reaches the stream here the noble eightfold path

同样,一个人进入八正道之流

he is sure to get out the round of birth and death or to get out of the samsara

必定脱离生死轮回

so such a person is called a sotapanna

这样的人被称为须陀洹

and at the first stage of enlightenment

在觉悟的第一阶段

he eradicates two mental defilements, one is the wrong view the other is doubt

他断除了两个烦恼:邪见、疑

so a person who has reached the first stage of enlightenment

所以达到觉悟第一阶段的人

who has attained the first path consciousness

获得第一个道心的人

eradicates doubt and wrong view from his mind

在心里断除了疑、邪见

so that they do not arise in his mind anymore

它们不再在他心里生起

doubt means doubt about the buddha, doubt about the enlightenment of the buddha,

疑意思是对佛、佛陀觉悟的怀疑

doubt about the teachings doubt about the sangha doubt about the practice

对佛法、僧团的怀疑对修行的怀疑

dependent origination and so on so these are called doubt.

对缘起的怀疑,等等,都是疑

so a person who has reached the first stage of enlightenment

达到觉悟第一个阶段的人

we have no doubt about the buddha and so on

不会对佛陀等起怀疑

and also he is said to eradicate the wrong view, wrong view that there is a self. there is a body

他也断除了邪见,也就是我见、身见

so he is able to discard or he is able to eradicate these two mental defliments when he reaches the first stage of enlightenment

当他达到觉悟的第一阶段他能够舍弃或断除这两个烦恼

people talk about enlightenment very freely

人们非常随性地谈论觉悟

but i wonder if they really know what enlightenment is

我想他们是否真知道什么是觉悟

[inaudible] to say enlightenment enlightenment

不断说觉悟觉悟

according to the teachings of abhidhamma

根据阿毗达摩的说法

enlightenment means the arising of this path consciousness in the mind of the meditator

觉悟指禅修者心中生起道心

and the eradication of some mental defilements

并且断除某些烦恼

so if a person has kind enlightenment he must have eradicated some or all of the mental defilements

如果一个人获得某种觉悟,必定断除某些或者全部烦恼

so if a person claims to have attained any one of these stages of enlightenment

如果一个人声称达到觉悟的某个阶段

then he must have eradicated some mental defilements

他必须断除了一些烦恼

and when a person reaches the first stage of englihtenment

抵达第一个觉悟阶段的人

it is said that he will never break the five precepts

据说就不会再犯五戒

he will keep his five precepts pure

受持五戒清净

so we can judge from his sila

我们可以通过他的戒行来判断

that whether he is a real sotapanna or not

他是不是真的初果圣人

if he is still capable of breaking any one of the five precepts

如果他还犯五戒

then we can conclude that he is not yet a sotapanna

我们可以得出结论:他并不是初果圣人

so it is mentioned in the books that a sotapanna keeps the five precepts intact

所以在经论里提到:须陀洹保持五戒具足

even at the risk of his life

甚至不惜生命

he would avoid break these rules

避免毁犯五戒

even if he is reborn he is a child he would not kill any living beings

即便他投生之后是个小孩也不会杀生

even if he is given two fishes, one alive one dead he will pick up the dead one not the alive one for eating

如果给他两条鱼,一条活的,一条死的他也只会拿死鱼去吃

so a person who has become a sotapanna

所以称为须陀洹的人

is said to keep his moral precepts pure

持戒清净

and he has eradicated the two mental defilements: doubt and wrong view

他断除了心中的两种烦恼:疑和邪见

now with regard to what are called fetters he eradicates the wrong view about rites and rituals or about the practices of some creatures

这些烦恼被称为“结”他断除了关于戒禁取的邪见

now during the time of the buddha there are people who believe if they behave like animals

在佛陀时代,有些人相信如果学习动物的行为

and they will get free from mental defilements

他们就会从烦恼中解脱出来

so they would go like a dog

所以他们就像狗一样行走

sleep like a dog eat like a dog and so on

像狗那样睡觉,吃东西等等

so there were many such people during the time of buddha

所以在佛陀时代,有很多这样的人

and some believe that if he behave like cattle

有些人相信,如果他们像牲口那样

if they behaved like an ox and so on they will get from from mental defilements

如果像牛那样,就会从烦恼中解脱

and they practice or they behave in that way

他们那样修行

eating like cattle or sleeping like cattle and so on

像牲口那样吃东西、生活

so these called in pali sīlabbata

这用巴利语叫做:戒禁取

Sīla means, you can call it habit sila意思是戒律,你可以称之为习惯

so the habit or the behavior of living style of some animals

就是一些动物的生活习惯

so if a person believes

如果一个人相信

that by behaving like a dog

像狗那样生活

he can attain enlightenment by behaving like an ox

他就可以获得觉悟,像牛那样生活

he can attain enlightenment then he has these kinds of wrong view

他就可以获得觉悟,这些都是他的邪见

a sotapanna has eradicated these kinds of wrong view

须陀洹断除了这些邪见

so a sotapanna will never take those practices

所以须陀洹就不会这样去修行

to be a way to gain enlightenment to be a way to get out of these samsara

不会将这些修行作为解脱的方法

so the abandoning of the belief and rites and rituals means

所以断除戒禁取见意思是

abandoning the notion that leads practices will lead to freedom from mental defilements and freedom from suffering

舍弃以上这些观点,即认为这些行为可以导致解脱

now what about just by practicing dana

如果认为通过布施

we can attain enlightenment, if we believe in this way what will it be?

就可以获得觉悟,如果这样认为,怎样?

say we believe just by practicing dana we can attain nibbana

我们相信,只要通过布施,就可以获得涅槃

just by practicing sila we can attain nibbana

只是通过持戒,就可以获得涅槃

it maybe that kind of wrong view

这可能也是那样的邪见

because by dana alone we can not attain nibbana

因为仅仅通过布施,是无法获得涅槃的

and by sila alone we can not alone attain nibbana

仅仅通过持戒,也是不能获得涅槃的

only by practice of vipassana meditation can we attain nibbana

只有通过观禅,才能获得涅槃

so if you think that dana alone can get you to nibbana

所以,如果你觉得仅靠布施可以让你获得涅槃

then you have this kind of wrong view

你就有这样的戒禁取见

although practice of dana is encouraged in the teachings of the buddha and practice of sila also

虽然布施和持戒都是被佛陀鼓励的

there are some practices that people think are the rites and rituals

还有一些人们认为是仪式

now when you do some meritorious deeds don’t you pour water?

当你做一些善事的时候你不难道不洒净吗?

and some people said this is also sīlabbata, so you don’t do it

有些人认为,这也是戒禁取见,不能做

but i don’t think so

但是我不这样认为

if you think that this is the real way to nibbana, this may be the wrong way for you

如果你觉得这样做可以导致涅槃这样对你可能就是邪见

but if you don’t think it’s a way to nibbana, but it just a symbolism

如果你不觉得这可以导致涅槃它不过是一种形式

that you follow when you do meritorious deeds, that’s ok

如果你做善事的时候,这样去做,就没问题

and then there are some people think that chanting parittas and so on are also sīlabbata

有些人觉得唱诵护卫经也是戒禁取

but i don’t think so, i chant everyday

但是我不这样认为,我每天都唱诵

i chant everyday for the protection and for my peace of mind

我每天唱诵,为了得到护卫并且为了我的心得到安宁

i don’t take it to be the way to nibbana

我并不将它作为到达涅槃的方法

so i think it is alright to do the chanting or to listen to the chanting

我觉得唱诵经文,听这些唱诵是没有任何问题的

ok a sotapanna

好,这是须陀洹

can or does eradicate this kind of wrong view

他断除了这些邪见

now after becoming a sotapanna he may be satisfied with just that attainment and he may not practice any more

成为须陀洹后,他可能满足于现状,不再修行

if he does not practice any more and remain a sotapanna and then

如果他不再修行,保持须陀洹

he will be reborn in this samsara for how many lives?

他会投生到轮回几次?

at the maximum of seven lives so

最多投生七次

in the seventh life he will surely become an arahant

在第七世他必定成为阿罗汉

so he has only seven more lives to go that means if he does not practice more

所以他最多只有七世意思是,如果他不再修行

if he stops with the attainment of stream entry

如果他止于入流果位

but after becoming a stream entry he practices meditation again, and he reaches the second stage

如果他成为入流之后,继续修行他就可以达到第二个阶段

so in order to reach the second stage he has to practice vipassana meditation again

要达到第二个阶段,他要继续修观禅

and he will go through the different stages of vipassana knowledge

他会经过不同的观智

and when his vipassana becomes mature then a second path consciousness will arise in his mind

当他的内观成熟,就会生起第二种心

so when that second path consciousness arises in his mind, he is said to have reached the second stage of enlightenment

当生起第二种心时他就达到了觉悟的第二阶段

and he is called a once-returner

被称为一来果

that means he will come back to this human life only once

意思是他只来人间一次

and that means if he does not practice more and reaches the third stage or fourth stage

即,如果他不再修行,不再修三果,或者四果

so if he remains as a once-returner, then he will be reborn in the world of devas once time

如果他保持一来果,他会投生为天人一次

and then he will come back to this human world

然后再来人间

that means he will be reborn again in this human world

意思是他会投生到人间

and then he will attain arahantship in that life

在此世成就阿罗汉果

so once-returner he goes to by way of rebirth

所以,一来果表示投生一次

he goes to another life or another world and then comes back here and he reaches arahantship in that life

投生到其他世界,再回来一次然后就成为阿罗汉

once-returner does not eradicate mental defilements

一来果不会断除烦恼

but he attenuate it he makes weaker the remaining mental defilements

但是他会减弱剩下的烦恼

now there are mental defilements that can lead one to rebirth in four states of misery

有些烦恼会让人投生到四恶趣

rebirth in hell, rebirth in animal kingdom and so on.

投生到地狱,投生到畜生道,等等

and there are other mental defilements

还有其他烦恼

that do not lead to rebirth in these woeful states

不会导致投生到这些恶趣

but that give results during lifetime

但是会在现世产生果报

unhappy, or displeasurable results during lifetime.

不开心的,不愉悦的现世果报

now a sotapanna the first person

初果须陀洹圣人

a sotapanna eradicates doubt and wrong view but what about other defilements?

须陀洹断除了疑、邪见那么其他烦恼呢?

he eradicates the other mental defilements that can lead him to rebirth and four states of misery

他断除了能让他投生到四恶趣的烦恼

although he does not eradicates the other mental defilements all together.

虽然他没有把其他所有烦恼都断除

he eradicates the potential of these the mental defilements that can lead to rebirth in four woeful states

他断除了这些可能导致他有投生到四恶趣可能性的烦恼

now a once-returner can further weaken these mental defilements

一来果可以进一步减弱这些烦恼

now for example, a once-returner still has dosa

例如一来果圣人仍然有嗔

but his dosa may be very mild not like our dosa

但是他的嗔,很淡,不像我们的嗔

our dosa may lead us to the rebirth in four woeful states

我们的嗔可能会导致我们投生到四恶趣

but the dosa of the once-returner or even the dosa of the stream entrant will not lead him to rebirth in four woeful states.

但是一来果,甚至是入流果的嗔心都不至于让他们投生到四恶趣

there are not strong enough to lead them to rebirth in four woeful states

这些嗔的强度不足以让他们投生到四恶趣

although once-returner does not eradicate any more mental defilements

虽然一来果没有断除更多的烦恼

he makes the remaining mental defilements weaker

但是他将这些烦恼减弱了

and he has only two more rebirths

而且他只会投生两次

once-returner means he goes to another life, another rebirth and then comes back to this rebirth

一来果,他投生到其他地方然后再回来

so actually he has two more rebirths

实际上是两次投生

and if he practices again

如果他继续修行

then he will reach the third state of enlightenment

就会达到觉悟的第三阶段

or the third path consciousness will arise in him

或者说生起第三个道心

and that third path consciousness when it arises takes nibbana as object

这第三个道心以涅槃为所缘

and eradicates some more mental defilements

断除更多的烦恼

now at the third stage

在第三个阶段

he is called a non-returner, so a non-returner eradicates sensual desire

他被称为不来果,不来果圣人断除了欲贪

and ill will or anger all together

也断除了嗔恚

he has no more desire for sense objects

他没有任何感官欲望

he has no more desire to enjoy the human pleasures or or heavenly pleasures

没有享受人天之法的欲望

and also he has no anger, so he will never get angry

他也没有嗔恚,永不生气

and since fear is included in anger he would not fear anything

因为恐惧也包括在嗔里所以他不惧怕任何东西

and he is called non-returner because he will not come back by way of rebirth to this world

他被称为不来果,因为他不会再投生到这个世界

suppose a person reaches a third stage of enlightenment

如果一个人达到觉悟的第三阶段

and when he dies he will not be reborn again in this world

当他死亡后,他就不再投生到这个世界

but he will be reborn in the world of brahmas

但是他会投生到梵天

the world of brahmas called pure abodes, that means the abode of pure beings

梵天被称为净土,因为那里都是纯洁的众生

so a non-returner eradicates some more mental defilements

所以不来果断除了更多的烦恼

now what are these? sensual desire, ill will and anger.

什么烦恼:欲贪和嗔恚

now although he has eradicated sensual desire, he still has some desires left

虽然他断除了欲贪,他还剩下一些欲望

desire for rebirth in the brahma worlds he has not eradicated that desire

他没有断除投生到梵天的欲望

that is why after death he is reborn in the world of brahmas

所以他死后,投生到梵天

and if he re-practices again

如果他继续修行

and when his vipassna becomes mature then

当他的内观成熟了

he will gain the fourth stage of enlightenment or the fourth path consciousness will remain in his mind

他就获得觉悟的第四个阶段或者说生起第四个道心

and at that time he is called an arahant

他就被称为阿罗汉

now arahant means a person who is worthy to accept offerings

阿罗汉意思是应供

or an arahant is a person who has eradicated all mental defilements

或者断除了所有烦恼的人

so when a person becomes an arahant he eradicates all the remaining mental defilements

当一个人成为阿罗汉就断除了所有剩下的烦恼

so no mental defilements remain uneradicated

没有任何烦恼没有断除

an arahant is totally free from mental defilements

阿罗汉从所有烦恼中解脱

so an arahant is incapable of being attached to anything

所以阿罗汉不可能再贪执于任何东西

incapable of desire for anything, incapable of getting angry

不可能有任何欲望,不可能生气

incapable of jealousy, envy and so on

不可能再嫉妒等等

so the mind of an arahant is totally pure from mental defilements

所以阿罗汉的心从烦恼中解脱,清净无碍

and these mental defilements will not arise in his mind anymore

这些烦恼不再在他们心里生起

now buddhas also eradicates mental defilements

佛陀也断除了烦恼

buddhas are also persons who have eradicated all mental defilements

佛陀也断除了所有烦恼

what is the difference between eradication of mental defilements of arahants and the buddha

在断除烦恼上,佛陀和阿罗汉有什么区别

there is difference, it is said that when arahants eradicate mental defilements

是有区别的,对吧?所以据说当阿罗汉断除烦恼之后

they are not able to eradicate what is called habit in pali it is called vāsanā他们还不能断除习气

so that habit it is not real mental defilements

习气不是真正的烦恼

but some effects of mental defilements

只是烦恼的某些作用

so such habits sometimes they may be bad habits

所以这些习气,有时候可能是不好的习气

the arahants are not able to eradicate, only buddhas are able to do that

阿罗汉不能断除,只有佛陀才能断除

so when a person becomes a buddha, he is able to eradicate mental defilements

所以成佛后,能断除烦恼

and also the habits and all that are all that are connected to mental defilements

也能断除习气

but an arhant although he eradicates all mental defilements

但是阿罗汉,虽能断除所有烦恼

he is unable to eradicate that habit, habitual behavior or something like that.

但是不能断除习气之类的

so that is the difference of eradication of mental defilements between arhants and the buddhas

这就是在断除烦恼上阿罗汉和佛陀的不同

but both are totally free from mental defilements

但是两者皆从烦恼中解脱出来

so these are the four types of path consciousness

这就是四种道心

and these path consciousness arise at the moment of enlightenment

这些道心在觉悟的时候生起

so enlightenment means the arising of any one of these four path consciousness and then eradication of mental defilements

所以觉悟就是指生起这四种道心,并且断除烦恼

ok, we have a break

好,现在休息

disk01track08

so corresponding to the four wholesome supramundane consciousness

对应于四个出世间善心

there are four resultant supramundane consciousness

有四个出世间果报心

they’re called fruit consciousness or fruition consciousness

它们被称为果报心

in actual occurrence

在实际情况下

fruit consciousness immediately follows the path consciousness

果心是立刻出现在道心之后

so there is no time interval between the path consciousness and its corresponding fruit consciousness

在道心和它相应的果心之间没有时间间隔

immediately

是立刻发生的

after the cessation of the first path consciousness

当第一个道心灭去时

the first fruit consciousness arises

第一个果心生起

and immediately after the second path consciousness has ceased

当第二个道心灭去,随即

then the second fruit consciousness arises and so on

生起第二个果心,等等

and the names are the same as the path consciousness and so

它们的名字,跟道心一样,所以

stream entrant once-returner non-returner and arahant

入流、一来、不来、阿罗汉

the function of the wholesome supramundane consciousness is

出世间善心的作用是

to eradicate the mental defilement

断除心中的烦恼

the function of the resultant supramundane consciousness is to further tranquilize the mental defilements

出世间果报心的作用是进一步镇服烦恼

wholesome supramundane consciousness is like putting out the fire

出世间善心的作用就像是灭火

and the resultant supramundane consciousness is like pouring water onto the already extinguished fire

出世间果报心的作用是在已经熄灭的火上浇水

so that it can not burn again

使之不能复燃

so there are only wholesome supramundane consciousness

所以只有出世间善心

and resultant supramundane consciousness

和出世间果报心

now on the first day i gave you the example of akaliko, the attribute of the dhamma

在第一天,我给你们举例akaliko

法的一个特性

that if you do not understand abhidhamma you do not understand the significance of the word akalika

说明如果你不了解阿毗达摩,就不理解akalika的意义

so akalika means no time akalika意思是:没有时间

no time in giving results

产生果报不需时间间隔

that means it does not wait for five days seven days or whatever

就是说不需要等待五天或七天等等

but it gives results immediately

它立刻产生结果

immediately means immediately after it ceases

立刻意思是当它消失后,立刻

so here is the example of that

这就是例子

first path consciousness is the wholesome or result-producing consciousness

第一个道心是善心是产生果报的心

and the first fruit consciousness is the result consciousness

第一个果心,就是它的结果

so the results follow the result-producing immediately without any intervention of time between them

所以果心紧随道心之后,没有时间间隔

that is why when we say dhamma is akalika

所以说:法没有时间性

dhamma has no delay in giving results

法立刻产生结果

we mean the four path consciousness, all the four path

我们这里指四个道心

now there are ten dhammas

法有十种

ten units of dhammas

法有四个构件

four path four fruit

四个道,四个果

nibbana and the scriptures

涅槃、经教

so when we say dhamma

所以当我们提到法的时候

for example we say dhammam saranam gacchami

例如我们说:皈依法

then we take refuge in ten kinds of dhamma

我们就是皈依这十种法

four paths four fruits nibbana and scriptures

四道四果,涅槃和经教

but when we say dhamma is akaliko

当我们说:法是没有时间性的

we mean only the paths

这里的法只是指道心

not fruits not nibbana not scriptures

不是指果心、涅槃也不是指经教

so when you recite the formula svakkhato bhagavata dhammo and so on

当你念诵:法乃世尊所善说诸如此类的课诵

and when you say svakkhato it means all ten kinds of dhamma included

这里的法,就包括所有十种法

svakkhato bhagavata dhammo sanditthiko that means

法乃世尊所善说,自见……意思是

nine supramundane dhamma without the scriptures

九种出世间法,不包括经教

that means four paths four fruits and nibbana

就是四道四果、涅槃

but when we say dhamma is akaliko you mean only the paths and not the fruits and not nibbana

当你说:法没有时间性只是指道心,不是果心,也不是涅槃

and here in the supramundane types of consciousness

在这里出世间心,

there are no functional consciousness

没有唯作心

only wholesome and resultant

只有善心和果报心

but in the sense-sphere consciousness

但是在欲界心

in the form-sphere consciousness and formless-sphere consciousness

色界、无色界心里

we have three categories

我们有三种心

wholesome resultant and functional

善心、果心、唯作心

but here there is no functional supramundane consciousness

但是在出世间心里,没有唯作心

the reason is given below the resultant consciousness

理由在果报心下面有介绍

so there is no functional consciousness in supramundane consciousness

在出世间心里,没有唯作心

because path consciousness occurs only once

因为道心只生起一次

path consciousness occurs only once for a given person

道心在一个人心里只生起一次

if arises in his mental continuum only once

在他的心相续里只生起一次

it never repeats itself, it never arise in his mind again

它不会再生起,没有第二次

so because path consciousness occurs only once

因为道心只生起一次

there is no functional consciousness in supramundane consciousness

所以在出世间心里,没有唯作心

in the sense-sphere form-sphere and formless-sphere consciousness

在欲界、色界、无色界心里

you may have noticed that

你们可能注意到

the functional consciousness is actually just a repetition of the wholesome consciousness

唯作心仅仅是善心的重复

the same wholesome consciousness when it arises again in the mind of an arahant

当善心重复在阿罗汉心里生起

it is called functional consciousness

它就被称为唯作心

but here path consciousness does not arise again it arises only once

这里道心不再生起,仅仅一次

that is why there is no functional consciousness in supramundane consciousness

所以出世间心里没有唯作心

if it were to occur more than once

如果它出现多次

if the path consciousness were to arise more than once

如果道心生起不止一次

it would be possible to say that there is functional consciousness in supramundane consciousness

在出世间心里就有可能出现唯作心

because if it arises again it arises in the mind of an arahant

因为如果它再生起,出现在阿罗汉心里

it might be called functional consciousness but it does not arise

就可能被称为唯作心但是它没有生起

but path consciousness does not occur again in those who have reached any of the four stages of enlightenment

但是道心在觉悟四个阶段的修行者心里不会重复生起

because just as a lightening can destroy a tree by hitting it only once

因为闪电一次就可以将大树劈倒

so path consciousness can accomplish its function

所以道心就完成了它的功能

which is the total eradication of mental defilements just by occurring once

一次就可以将烦恼全部断除

so that there would be nothing for it to accomplish

所以它不能再做任何事情

even if it will to occur again

即使再生起一次

now path consciousness has the power to eradicate mental defilements just by arising once

道心只需要生起一次就能将烦恼断除

even if it arises again it has no function to do

即使它再生起,也没有作用可以发挥

so that is why it does not arise again

所以道心不能重复生起

it compares to a lightening destroying a tree

以闪电劈树为例

so when a tree is struck by lightening it will never live again it is totally destroyed

当一棵树被闪电击中就不会再存活,完全被摧毁了

so in the same way path consciousness when it arises like lightening it eradicates mental defilements all together

同样,道心像闪电一样生起断除所有的烦恼

so even if it were to arise again

所以即便再生起

it will have no function to do

也没有什么用

that is why it does not arise again

所以这就是道心不会重复的原因

then for living happily in this life by letting it occur again and again

为了在此世幸福生活不断幸福

there is a fruit attainment in the form of successive moments of fruit consciousness to undertake this job

就让果心完成这个任务

now after you gain jhana

当你获得禅那之后

you can enjoy the jhana by entering into it

你可以进入禅那,享受它

when you are in jhana for a long time you are relatively free from suffering

当你长久在禅那之中你相对地,就从烦恼中解脱出来

so here also why can not a person who has gain enlightenment get into that path consciousness again

所以这也是觉悟的人不能再进入道心的原因

so as to experience or enjoy the peacefulness of path consciousness

不能再经历或享受道心的静美

it is because there is fruit consciousness

就是因为有果心

to take that undertaking to do that job

来完成这个任务

so that means after becoming enlightened persons

意思是觉悟之后

when they want to enjoy the peacefulness of enlightenment

如果他想享受觉悟之安详

then they will enter into what is called phalasamāpatti fruit consciousness again and again

他就可以一次次进入果定,或称为果心

so instead of path consciousness arise again

所以道心不会再生起

fruit consciousness arises again

果心会重复生起

and that fruit consciousness can arise for many times

果心可以生起很多次

at the first arising, fruit consciousness will arise for two times or three times only

在初次生起时,果心只生起两次或三次

but when a person who has gain enlightenment

但是当一个人获得觉悟

enters into that phalasamāpatti or attainment of fruit consciousness again

再次进入果定

there the fruit consciousness can arise for billions of times

果心可以重复几十亿次

as long as he wishes

愿意生多少次都可以

one hour two hour or one day two days and so on

一个小时、一天或两天等等

so for enjoying the peacefulness of enlightenment

享受觉悟的安详

there is fruit consciousness

因为有果心

that is why path consciousness does not arise in a person

所以道心不会再生起

since path consciousness arise only once, there is no functional consciousness in the supramundane consciousness

因为道心只生起一次,所以在出世间心里没有唯作心

so there are only 8 types of supramundane consciousness

所以只有八种出世间心

four path consciousnesses and four fruition consciousnesses

四种道心四种果心

i feel more comfortable using pali words than the english

较之英语,我比较喜欢用巴利语

saying consciousnesses consciousnesses

心,心

consciousness is an uncountable word it has no plural

心这个词在英语里是不可数,没有复数形式

so if you write consciousnesses and you spell check it and then it will say you are wrong

如果你写了一个复数在电脑上作拼写检查,就会说你写错了

but when i say consciousnesses i mean consciousness is one unit

但是当我用复数的时候,是把心作为可数名词

so i think we can use consciousnesses also

我想我也可以用它的复数形式

the same with knowledge sometimes we use knowledges

同样“知识”也是这样的,有时候也用复数形式

ok so

the supramundane consciousness consists of only two categories wholesome and resultant

出世间心只包括善心和果报心

now what feeling do they arise with

伴随这些心的是什么感受

no color there?

没有颜色?

i put both colors

我涂了两种颜色

so they can be accompanied by joy or accompanied by indifference

可以是悦受,也可以是舍受

so when we count all 89 or later 121 types of consciousness especially 89 types of consciousness

当我们数这89或121种心,特别是89种心

we can say that all 8 types of the supramundane consciousness are accompanied by joy or accompanied by indifference

所有这些出世间心都是悦受、舍受

the parentheses are meant to be not parentheses actually

那些括号并不是真正的括号

i do not know how to put color half red half blue

我不知道怎么涂一半红色一半蓝色

so i use the parentheses

所以我就使用括号表示

the left parentheses should be red and right should be blue

左边的括号应该是红色,右边的蓝色

they can be either accompanied by joy or indifference

它们可以是悦俱,或者舍俱

that will become clear when we study farther how the 8 supramundane of consciousness become 40 types of consciousness

当我们学习8个出世间心怎么成为40个时,就清楚了

but before we go there i would like you to look at the sheet

在此之前,先看资料

with the name two kinds of jhanas

题目是:两种禅那

now so far

到目前为止

we have studied the jhana consciousnesses

我们学习了禅那心

and we use the word jhana in its technical sense with just one meaning that is rupavacara jhana and arupavacara jhana or form jhana and formless jhana

我们将禅那这个词专用于色界禅那、无色界禅那

but the commentaries sometimes they want to give us more information

但是注释书有时候想给我们更多的信息

and that makes us confused

让我们感到困惑

so the use of jhana can be confusing

禅那这个词的用法可能造成困惑

because commentaries said that there are two kinds of jhanas

因为注释书说有两个类型的禅那

that which examines closely the object that is one kind of jhana

一个是密切地观照所缘,这是一种

it is in pali it is called ārammaṇupanijjhāna. it’s a long name

巴利语是个很长的词

and then there is another jhana which examines closely the characteristics

还有一个是“观照相”的禅那

that means the nature dukkha and another nature of things

即:苦相等等

so there are two kinds of jhanas

所以有两种禅那

one that examines the objects closely

一个是密切地观照所缘

that mean that dwell on the object firmly and closely

意思是牢固密切地专注于所缘

and there is another kind of jhana that examines the characteristics

另外一个禅那是观照特相

the impermanence suffering and no-soul nature the characteristics closely

无常相、苦相、无我相密切地观照

so there are two kinds of jhanas

所以有这两种禅那

but the 8 attainments, that means four rupavacara jhanas arupavacara are called ārammaṇupanijjhānas

这八种禅那,即色界4种,无色界4种,称为所缘禅那

because they examine closely the object of earth kasina and so on

因为它们密切地观照所缘,如地遍等等

this is the usual jhana we understand

这是我们通常所理解的禅那

so when we say we almost always mean rupavacara or arupavacara jhana

所以当我们说禅那时,我们通常指:色界或无色界禅那

and they are called jhana because they examine closely the object of, earth kasina water kasina and so on

之所以称为禅那,是因为它们密切地观照地遍、水遍等等

but what is confusing is

但是让人困惑的是

the statement that vipassana, magga and phala are also called jhana

有人说内观、道、果也被称为禅那

they are called lakkhaṇupanijjhāna

它们被叫做:观相禅那

lakkhaṇa means characteristics, upanijjhāna means examining closely lakkhaṇa指特相,

upanijjhana意思是密切观照

so vipassana is called lakkhaṇupanijjhāna

所以内观被称为观相禅那

or in short vipassana is also called jhana

或者将内观简称为禅那

magga is also called jhana phala is also called jhana

道也被称为禅那,果也被称为禅那

so in this extension of meaning everything can be jhana

所以从广义上来说,它们都被称为禅那

the usual 8, 4 rupavacara, 4 means actually 5

通常四个色界,实际上是五个

4, or 5 rupavacara jhanas, and 4 arupavacara jhanas are jhanas

四个或五个色界禅那,四个无色界禅那,都是禅那

and also vipassana magga and phala can be called jhana

还有内观、道、果可以被称为禅那

now vipassana is called jhana because it examines closely the characteristics of impermanence and so on

内观被称为禅那,因为它密切地观照无常相等等

and magga is called jhana because the work done by vipassana comes to be accomplished through magga

道心被称为禅那,因为内观的成果通过道心得以完成

so when one reaches the magga closely examining the characteristics

当一个人获得道心,密切地观照诸相

it’s accomplished or it comes to an end

这就是成就,就是终结

so magga is also called jhana

所以道心也被称为禅那

and phala is also called jhana because it examines closely the truth of cessation that means nibbana

果心也被称为禅那因为它密切地观照寂灭的真理(涅槃) it takes nibbana as object and so it examines closely the truth of nibbana or cessation

它将涅槃作为所缘,它密切地观照涅槃或寂灭

so phala can also be called jhana

所以果心也被称为禅那

so according to this commentary

所以根据注释书的这个说法

there are many kinds of jhanas

有很多种禅那

the usual jhanas we understand, and also vipassana magga and phala jhanas

通常意义上的禅那还有内观、道、果

now some people

所以有些人

wanted to know whether there is jhana in vipassana

想知道内观里有没有禅那

to answer this question first we must ask again: what you mean by jhana?

想回答这个问题,你必须问他:你这里的禅那是什么意思?

if you mean just examining closely as jhana

如果禅那的意思是密切地观照

then vipassana is also jhana

那么内观也是禅那

magga is also jhana, phala is also jhana

道、果都是禅那

but if you mean jhana as a technical term for rupavacara jhana and arupavacara jhana

如果你将禅那专用于色界禅那、无色界禅那

then there is no jhana in vipassana

内观里就没有禅那

because

因为

the jhana as a technical term for rupavacara and arupavacara jhana

禅那专指色界和无色界中的禅那

takes the object like kasina object as object

将遍禅中的目标作为所缘

but vipassana takes the five aggregates of clinging or nama and rupa as object

但是内观是将五取蕴和名色作为所缘

and magga and phala take nibbana as object, so they’re different

道、果也将涅槃作为所缘所以它们是不同的

now

现在

in the abhidhamma itself in the commentaries

根据阿毗达摩,或者注释书

the supramundane cittas are described as jhanas also

出世间心也被称为禅那

that means they’re not real jhanas as the rupavacara and arupavacara consciousness

意思是它们不是像色界心和无色界心那样的禅那

but they resemble the rupavacara jhana and arupavacara jhana in having the same number of jhana factors

只是在禅支数量上类似于色界和无色界禅那

now you have not studied the second chapter of this book

你们还没有学习第二章

so you do not know the mental factors that arise together with a sudden given citta

所以突然提到一个心的时候你们还不知道伴随这个心的心所

now when magga consciousness, when the path consciousness arises

当道心生起时

it is said that 36 mental factors also arise

据说36个心所也会生起

among the 36

这36个心所之中

there is vitakka vicara piti and sukha as vedana and also ekaggata

有寻伺喜乐一境性

so that path consciousness

所以道心

resembles the first jhana

类似于初禅

because it has five jhana factors arising with it

因为有五个禅支伴随它生起

so in this way the path consciousness, the first path consciousness can be divided into five jhana consciousness

这样第一个道心可以分成五个禅心

not real jhanas but resembling the jhana consciousness

不是真正的禅那,只是说类似禅心

so first path consciousness is divided into

所以第一个道心分成

first jhana first path consciousness, second jhana first path consciousness, third jhana first path consciousness,

初禅、二禅、三禅之第一道心

fourth jhana first path consciousness and fifth jhana first path consciousness

四禅、五禅之第一道心

so in this way first path consciousness can be expaned into five types of consciousness

这样第一道心可以扩展为五种心

first jhana, second jhana, third jhana, fourth jhana and fifth jhana

初禅、二禅、三禅、四禅、五禅

the second path consciousness again can be divided into five

第二道心也可以分为五个

third path consciousness five, fourth path consciousness five

第三道心五个,第四道心五个

and so, when expanded

这样扩展之后

there are twenty wholesome supramundane consciousness or there are twenty path consciousness

就有20个出世间善心即20个道心

and the resultant consciousnesses are the same

果报心也是同样的

so there is first jhana first fruit consciousness

初禅第一果心

second jhana first fruit consciousness and so on

二禅第一果心等等

fifth jhana first fruit consciousness and so on

五禅第一果心等等

so there are twenty fruit consciousnesses

所以有20个果心

and when we call them jhanas

当我们称之为禅那时

we do not mean that they are real jhanas like rupavacara jhana and arupavacara jhanas

我们不是说它们像色界、无色界禅那那样

but there are like the rupavacara and arupavacara consciousness

它们之所以像色界无色界心

because they have the same number of jhana factors as those jhanas have

因为它们的禅支数量是相同的

so in this way we get 40 supramundane types of consciousness

这样我们就得到了40个出世间心

20 wholesome or 20 magga consciousnesses and 20 fruit consciousnesses 20个善心或者道心,

20个果心

the difference between the jhanas, rupavacara jhanas and arupavacara jhanas

这些禅那:色界、无色界禅那

and the supramundane jhanas is given in manual

出世间禅那的区别在概要精解里都有介绍

so it says whereas the mundane jhanas take as their objects some concepts, such as sign of kasina

书里说,世间禅那的所缘是概念例如遍禅的禅相

the supramundane jhanas take as their object nibbana

而出世间禅那的所缘是涅槃

mundane jhanas and supramundane jhanas

世间禅那和出世间禅那

mundane jhanas take kasina objects or other concepts as objects

世间禅那将遍禅目标或其他概念作为所缘

because when you practice meditation to reach jhanas

因为当你禅修获得禅那

you take the kasina objects or some other objects as objects

你将遍禅目标或者其他目标作为所缘

but supramundane jhanas: magga and phala

但是出世间禅那:道、果

supramundane jhanas take nibbana as the object

出世间禅那将涅槃作为所缘

so as to the objects they are different

所以从所缘上看,它们不同

the mundane jhanas take most concepts as objects

世间禅那大多将概念作为所缘

and supramundane jhanas take nibbana as objects

出世间禅那将涅槃作为所缘

and second whereas the mundane jhanas merely suppress the defilements

第二:世间禅那只是暂时镇服烦恼

while leaving their underlying seeds intact

所以诸烦恼还是潜伏性地存在

the supramundane jhanas of the path eradicate defilements

而出世间禅那断尽烦恼

so that they can never arise again

使烦恼不再生起

now mundane jhanas can suppress the mental defilements

世间禅那可以镇服烦恼

suppress means they can not destroy them altogether

镇服意思是它们不能彻底消除烦恼

so these mental defilements that are suppressed by the mundane jhanas

所以这些被世间禅那镇服的烦恼

may come back

可能会卷土重来

but the supramundane jhanas especially of the paths eradicate mental defilements

但是出世间禅那,特别是道心,断尽烦恼

so they can never arise again

那些烦恼就不会重生

so the eradication is absolute

所以这种断除是彻底的

and third while the mundane jhanas lead to rebirth in the fine-material world

第三:世间禅那会导致投生到色界天

and thus sustain existence in the round of rebirth.

因此延长了生死轮回

now mundane jhanas can lead you to rebirth in the brahma world

世间禅那可以导致投生到梵天

that means it sustains the existence in the round of rebirth

意思是延长了生死轮回

but the jhanas of the path cut off the fetters binding one to the circle and thus

但是出世间禅的道则斩断把人紧缚于轮回之诸结

issue in liberation from the round of birth and death

因而导向解脱生死轮回

that means supramundane jhanas can take you out of the round of birth and death or out of the samsara

意思是出世间禅那可以让你脱离生死轮回

so mundane jhanas lead to rebirth

所以说世间禅那导致轮回

supramundane jhanas lead to no rebirth

出世间禅那导致脱离轮回

and finally whereas the role of wisdom in the mundane jhanas is subordinate to that of concentration

最后,在世间禅里,慧次要于定

in the mundane jhanas concentration is more important than knowledge or understanding

对于世间禅那,定比慧更加重要

because only when you have strong concentration can you get jhana

因为只有你获得强大的定力你才能获得禅那

but in the supramundane jhanas wisdom and concentration are well balanced

但是在出世间禅那里,慧与定很好地得到了平衡

so at the moment of enlightenment at the moment of the realization of truth

所以在觉悟那一刻

both wisdom and concentration must be balanced

慧和定需要得到平衡

so any one of them must not in excess of another

任何一个都不能超过另外一个

so in the supramundane jhanas wisdom and concentration are balanced

所以,在出世间禅那里,慧和定达到平衡

concentration fixing the mind on the unconditioned element or on nibbana

定把心专注于无为界,即涅槃

and wisdom fathoming the deep significance of the four noble truths

而慧则知见四圣谛之奥义

now concentration keeps the mind on nibbana finally

最终,定让心专注于涅槃

and wisdom or understanding goes deep into the significance of four noble truths

而慧则知见四圣谛之奥义

so this is the difference between mundane jhanas and supramundane jhanas

所以,这就是世间禅那和出世间禅那的区别

it’s given in the comprehensive manual of abhidhamma on page 73

在《阿毗达摩概要精解》第73页有解释

so now we have 40 supramundane types of consciousness

我们知道了40种出世间心

now we have 81 mundane consciousness 81种世间心

81 plus 8 supramundane consciousness 81加8种出世间心

we have 89 types of consciousness

一共是89种心

but if we expand the 8 supramundane consciousness consciousness into 40

如果将8种出世间心扩充为40种

we get 121 types of consciousness

就获得了121种心

so the chart shows 121 types of consciousness

所以表格显示了121种心

if you want to see 89 types of consciousness

如果你想看89种心

then we will take the five path consciousnesses as one path consciousness

就要将五个道心看成一个

and five fruit consciousnesses as one fruit consciousness

五个果心看成一个

so in that case, the first column is sotapatti magga the first magga

这样,第一列须陀洹道心,第一个道心

and next second magga, next third magga, and next fourth magga

第二个道心,第三个道心,第四个道心

and then the second group

然后是第二组

the first column is sotapatti phala fruit consciousness

第一列是须陀洹果心

and second sakadagami third anagami and fourth arahatta phala consciousness

第二组是斯陀含,第三阿那含第四是阿罗汉果心

so when we take the five as one

当我们将五个看成一个

we get 89 types of consciousness

就是89种心

and when we take them as 20 i mean 40

如果将它们扩展成40个

we get 121 types of consciousness

就有121种心

so these 121 types of consciousness are taught in the first book of abhidhamma

所以这121种心是在第一部论书里得到讲解

called Dhammasangaṇī即《法聚论》

it is important to remember all these types of consciousness

记住所有这些心很重要

89 and 121 89种和121种

because when you come to the second chapter and so on

因为当你学第二章或之后的章节

they will be referred to again and again

这些心会被反复提到

so if you do not remember you will lost interest in the book

如果你不记得这些心,就会对这本书丧失兴趣

so please try to remember the 89 types of consciousness

所以尽量记住这89种心

with the help of the chart or the card given to you

借助给你们的表格和卡片

so let us do some exercises

现在做一些练习

now the first column

第一列

the first column is, what?

第一列,什么心?

akusala citta

不善心

unwholesome consciousness

不善心

and how many of them there?

有多少个?

12, and the first are? 12个,第一类是?

rooted in attachment

以贪为根

and then the two green ones are rooted in ill will and the last two in delusion

然后两个绿色嗔根心,最后两个痴根心

and

然后

among these 12 how many are accompanied by joy?

这12这种,悦俱心多少个?

4 how many by indifference? 6

舍俱心多少个?6个

how many by displeasure? 2

忧俱心多少?2个

very good

很好

so go to next

下一个

now the first dot, what is that?

第一个点,是什么?

eye consciousness, right?

眼识,对吧?

so, eye consciousness and then

眼识,然后

you go down, second dot

往下,第二个点

ear consciousness

耳识

third dot, nose consciousness

第三个点,鼻识

fourth dot, tongue consciousness

第四个点,舌识

and then green cross

然后绿色十字

body consciousness

身识

and then the below, receiving consciousness

然后下面,领受心

and the last one investigating consciousness

最后一个?推度心

so they are the results of what?

这些是什么心的果报?

wholesome or unwholesome?

善心还是不善心?

unwholesome, they are the results of unwholesome consciousness or unwholesome kamma

不善心,这些是不善心的果报

and when do these types of consciousness arise?

这些心什么时候生起?

when you experience some desirable or undesirable objects?

当你体验到一些愉悦的还是不愉悦的所缘?

undesirable objects

不愉悦的所缘

so when you see something ugly and so on

当你看到一些丑陋的事物等等

now let us go to the second column

现在看第二列

the first one, again eye consciousness, ear consciousness, nose tongue

首先,也是眼识,耳识,鼻识

and then red cross, body consciousness

然后是红色十字,身识

and then the blue one, receiving

然后是蓝色,领受心

and the red one, investigating

红色,推度心

and blue one, investigating, so there are two investigating consciousnesses

蓝色,推度心,有两个推度心

and these columns is the result of what?

这些列是什么的果报?

wholesome kamma

善业

so when you experience something pleasant, when you see something beautiful and so on

所以当你体验到愉悦,看到美丽的东西等

the consciousness belongs to this group arise in arises in the mind

生起的心就属于此组

and then the last column

最后一列

the last column are called functional, functional consciousness

最后一列被称为唯作心

so the one, the first is what?

第一个是什么?

five-sense-door-adverting

五门转向心

that means at that moment the mind turns to the object presented to it

意思是此时心转向于呈现给它的所缘

and the second one is mind-door-adverting

第二个是意门转向心

so when you do not use five senses but you use your mind

当你不用五根,用你的意

when you think of something when you remember something and so on

当你思虑,或者回忆某事等等

then the second one mental adverting will turn your mind to the object

第二个,意门转向就将心转向于所缘

and the last the red one

最后一个红色的

smile producing and it arises only in the mind of arahants or buddhas

生笑心,只在阿罗汉和佛陀的心里生起

and these three columns are called ahetuka cittas

这三列被称为无因心

ahetuka means rootless

无因即是无根

so they do not arise or roots do not arise with these cittas

也就是说心生起的时候没有根伴随着它

and do you remember what roots are?

你们记得有哪些根吗?

greed, hatred, delusion, non-greed, non-hatred, non-delusion

贪嗔痴、无贪无嗔无痴

so these 18 arise with none of these hetus or none of these roots

这18个心生起,没有这些根

so they are called ahetuka, or rootless consciousness

所以它们被称为无因心

12 akusala cittas and 18 ahetuka cittas together, 30 12个不善心,18个无因心一起是30个心

these 30 are called what?

这30个心被称为什么?

non-beautiful, non-beautiful consciousness

不美心

so 30 non-beautiful consciousness 30个不美心

now among the 18 ahetuka citta, how many are accompanied by joy?

这18个无因心,悦俱多少个?

only two

只有两个

the investigating and the smile producing

推度心和生笑心

how many are accompanied by indifference?

舍俱的多少个?

14 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12,and then 1, 2, 14

一共是14个

so 14 are accompanied by indifference

所以14个是舍俱的

and one is accompanied by pain

一个是苦受

and one is accompanied by pleasure

一个是乐俱

ok, the next group the three columns

好,下一组三列

they are called kamavacara sobhana

被称为欲界美心

sense-sphere beautiful consciousness

欲界美心

and the first column is what?

第一列是什么?

wholesome, kusala

善心

and second column, resultant, so they are results

第二列是果报心

and the third column, functional, they arise in buddhas and arahants only

第三列,是唯作心,只在阿罗汉和佛陀心里生起

and among them four are accompanied by joy and

其中四个是悦俱

the first column, the four are accompanied by joy

第一列,四个悦俱

and the other four are accompanied by indifference

其他四个舍俱

the same with the eight resultant consciousnesses and with functional consciousnesses

八个果报心和唯作心是相同的

so these 24 types of consciousness are called kamavacara sobhana beautiful consciousnesses

这24个心被称为欲界美心

now look at the first column of these kamavacara sobhana

这些美心的第一列

they are kusala

它们是善心

wholesome consciousness

善心

wholesome consciousnesses are result producing, right?

善心是能产生果报的,对吧?

so wholesome consciousness produces results

所以善心产生果报

and these 8 can produce identical results as well as non-identical results

这8个可以产生相同的果报也可以产生不同的果报

so which are the identical results of these eight?

哪些是与这8个相同的果报?

the middle column, eight resultant consciousnesses

中间一列,8个果报心

and which are the non-identical results of these eight, among the ahetukas?

哪些是与这8个不同的果报?无因果报心之中

because these eight are the results of the eight wholesome beautiful consciousnesses

因为这8个是8个美心的果报

but they are not identical

但是与它们不相同

so the wholesome beautiful consciousness can produce both identical and non-identical results

所以美心可以产生相同或者不同的果报心

let’s go back to akusala

回到不善心

akusala can produce results because akusala is also result-producing

不善心可以产生果报,

and which are the results of these 12 akusalas?

哪些是这12个不善心的果报

the seven of the first column of ahetuka cittas

无因心第一列的七个

so they are also non-identical results

它们也是不一样的结果

so 12 akusala cittas, 18 ahetuka cittas and 24 kamavacara sobhana cittas

所以12个不善心,18个无因心

24个欲界美心

all together make 54 cittas

一共是54个心

they are called sense-sphere citta or kamavacara citta

它们被称为欲界心

how many are accompanied by joy?

有多少是悦俱?

1, 2, 3, 4, 6 plus 12, 18 6加12,18 18 are accompanied by joy 18个是悦俱

and how many are accompanied by indifference?

多少是舍俱?

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6 again, 6 again, and 2, 20, 20 plus 12, 32

三十二个是舍俱

so 32 are accompanied by indifference

所以32个是舍俱

and 1 is accompanied by pain again and 1 is accompanied by pleasure

一个是苦受,一个是乐受

and then we go to rupavacara

我们再看色界

form-sphere consciousness

色界心

the first column

第一列

there are five jhanas, first second third fourth and fifth

五禅,初禅、二三四五禅

so first to fourth jhanas are accompanied by joy and the fifth is accompanied by indifference

一至四禅是悦俱五禅是舍俱

the same with the resultant and the same with the functional consciousness

它们的果报心和唯作心也是如此

so among the rupavacara cittas 15 rupavacara cittas

所以色界15个心中

how many are accompanied by joy? 12

多少是悦俱?12个

and how many are accompanied by indifference? 3

多少是舍俱?3个

and we go to arupavacara

再看无色界心

there is no variety

这些没有不同

so all are accompanied by indifference

都是舍俱

now

现在

we need to put one name and rupavacara and arupavacara that is mahaggata

色界心和无色界心有一个名字这就是广大心

now

现在

if you have the chart, you may write that down

如果你们有表格,就记下来

like kamavacara cittas, 54

例如欲界心,54个

you may draw a line under rupavacara cittas and arupavacara cittas, one line

你们可以在色界心和无色界心下划一横线

and then under the line you write m-a-h-a-g-g-a-t-a

然后在线下面写下mahaggata mahaggata

广大心

and then in the parenthesis, 27

打个括号,写上27个

so 15 rupavacara cittas and 12 arupavacara cittas are collectively called mahagatta citta 15个色界心和12个无色界心统称为广大心

now please remember these names because when we want to refer to these 27 as a whole we will say 27 mahaggata cittas

请记住这些名字,当我们要作为整体提到这27个心时,我们就说27广大心

so among the 27 mahaggata cittas

这27个广大心中

12 are accompanied by joy and 15 are accompanied by indifference 12个是悦俱,15个是舍俱

now kamavacara cittas 54 plus mahaggata 27 make 81 cittas

欲界心54个,加上27个广大心一共是81个心

these 81 cittas are called lokiya cittas, mundane cittas

这81个心被称为世间心

that means belonging to the world of five aggregates, five aggregates of clinging

意思是它们属于五取蕴的世界

and the next group is called lokuttara cittas, supramundane consciousness

下一组叫做出世间心

so there can be 8 or 40

它们是8个或者说40个

so let us take 40

就算是40个吧

now the first group 20 are what cittas?

第一组20个是什么心?

path, path cittas

道心

and the second group are? fruit cittas

第二组?果心

in pali the first are called magga, the second group is called phala

第一组巴利语叫magga

第二组叫phala and the first column of the first group is citta of the stream entrant

第一组第一列是入流果心

and the second column, of once-returner, third column, of non-returner, and fourth column of arahant

第二列一来果,第三列不来果,第四列阿罗汉

the same with the fruit consciousness

果报心也是同样的

and the first four of the stream entrant are accompanied by joy

第一组四个属于入流果,悦俱

and the last one accompanied by indifference

最后一组是舍俱

so out of 20 path consciousnesses

所以这20个道心

how many are accompanied by joy? 16

多少是悦俱?16个

so 16 are accompanied by joy and 4 are accompanied by indifference 16个悦俱,4个是舍俱

the same with the fruit consciousness

果心也是一样的

so when we add up 81 mundane consciousness and 40 supramundane consciousness we get 121 types of consciousness

所以我们将81种世间心和40种出世间心相加,一共是121种心

but if we take supramundane consciousness to be 8 then we have 89 types of consciousness

如果我们将出世间心算成8个那么就有89种心

so out of these 89 types of consciousness

在这89种心中

how many can arise in our minds?

我们心中能生起多少种?

not many

并不多

the first column can arise in our minds, the second column? yes, third column? yes

第一列可以在我们心中生起第二列,可以,第三列,可以

fourth column? without the last one

第四列?最后一个除外

and then kamavacara sobhana

然后是欲界美心

the first column? yes, there is possibility

第一列?是,有可能

second column, yes but no third column

第二列,可以,但第三列不行

and then rupavacara cittas, the first column

色界心,第一列

only if we get jhanas, if we do not get jhanas they are out of reach for us

只有当我们获得禅那才可以否则,我们就不能获得这些心

the same with other types of consciousness

其他类型的心也是如此

so these are the 89 or 121 types of consciousness

所以,这89或121种心

and these are the basis for the further study of abhidhamma

是继续学习阿毗达摩的基础

and these types of consciousness are given in the first book of abhidhamma along with mental factors arise with each of these cittas

《法聚论》介绍了这些心还有伴随这些心的心所

so in the second chapter, we will study the mental factors one by one

所以,在第二章,我们将一个个学习心所

and then we will study the combination of cittas and cetasikas, ok

然后我们将学习心和心所的组合

now it’s time for questions

现在是提问时间

student: venerable sir

学生:尊者

the difference between the arahant and the buddha, you said that arahant has these habits

你说阿罗汉和佛陀的区别就是阿罗汉还有习气

if they don’t get rid of these habits, they will never become buddha or they will eventually become buddhas also?

如果阿罗汉不断习气,他们最终会不会成佛?

sayadaw: according to theravada teachings, arahants will never become buddhas

尊者:根据上座部传统,阿罗汉永远不能成佛

because there are different path different ways

因为有不同的道路,不同的方法

so an arahant has reached the highest point of his way

阿罗汉用自己的方式达到最高点

and so according to theravada teachings arahant will not become a buddha

所以根据上座部传统阿罗汉不会成佛

student: thank you

学生:谢谢

any more questions?

还有问题吗?

ok, there are no more questions we will call it a day

好,没人提问,今天到此结束

please rise put the palms together

请起立合掌

disk01track09

up till now

到目前为止

we have studied the first ultimate reality which is consciousness

我们学习了第一类究竟法:心

so now we know that consciousness is divided into 89 or 121 types

我们知道心被分成89或121种

today we will study the second ultimate truth which is the mental factors

今天我们学习第二种究竟法:心所

so i hope you remember that mental factors are called cetasika in pali

希望你们记得心所的巴利语是什么

and cetasika means those that depend on the citta to arise

心所是依靠心生起的

and cetasikas or mental factors have four characteristics

心所有四相:

and there are one: arising simultaneously with citta

一、与心同生

two: perishing or disappearing simultaneously with citta

二、与心同灭

and three: having the same object as citta

三、与心缘取同一目标

and four: having the same base as citta

四、与心拥有同一依处

since mental factors accompany or associate with consciousness

因为心所是和心相伴的

consciousness and mental must take the same object

所以心和心所缘取同一目标

so it can never happen that citta takes one object and the mental factors take another object

心缘取的目标不能和心所相异

so since they arise together they take the same object

它们同时生起,缘取同一目标

and also they depend on the same base

也有同一个依处

now base means eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body and the heart

“依处”指眼耳鼻舌身、心脏

so mental factors are those that make cittas different from one another

心所使得心彼此不同

now citta by definition is the awareness of the object

心的定义就是对目标的觉知

since it is just the awareness of the object

因为它仅仅是对目标的觉知

it is neither good nor bad

所以心非好、非坏

it is neither wholesome nor unwholesome

非善、非不善

but when citta arises together with wholesome mental factors

当心与善心所一起生起时

and that citta is called an wholesome citta

就被称为善心

and when it arises with unwholesome mental factors

当心与不善的心所生起

the citta is called unwholesome citta

就被称为不善心

so cetasikas are those that differentiate citta from one another

所以心所让心彼此能够区分

and actually these cetasikas are not easy to see for ourselves

实际上对于我们而言,并不容易看清这些心所

once king milinda asked the venerable nagasena

有一次弥兰王问那先比丘

bhante, did buddha do something that is difficult

尊者,佛陀做过很难的事吗?

and the venerable nagasena said, yes great king, buddha had done very difficult thing

那先比丘说:是的,大王佛陀做过很困难的事情

and what is the difficult thing that buddha had done? the king asked

弥兰王问:佛陀做过困难的事是什么

and venerable nagasena said

那先比丘说:

the difficult thing done by the blessed one

世尊做过的困难的事情

was the proclamation of the defining of the immaterial states of consciousness and its concomitants

就是宣讲:心、心所的定义

which arise on a single object or on the same object

心所和心缘取同一个目标

thus this is contact, this is feeling, this is perception, this is volition

例如:此是触、此是受、此是想、此是思

this is consciousness and so on

此是心等等

that means cittas and cetasikas are immaterial states

意思是心和心所是非物质的状态

so the cittas and cetasikas arise together and they take the same object

所以心、心所同生缘取同一目标

so it is very difficult to separate cittas and cetasikas

所以很难将心与心所分开

and also to understand or see the different cetasikas arising at the same time with citta

理解、观察与心同生的诸心所,也很困难

and point out that this is one cetasika that is another cetasika and so on

区分不同的心所也很困难,等等

so the venerable nagasena said it is very difficult

所以那先比丘说,这是很难的事情

difficult thing the buddha had done, the king asked

虽然困难,佛陀还是宣讲了弥兰王问了这个问题

the venerable nagasena to give him a simile

那先比丘给了他一个譬喻

and the venerable nagasena gave this simile

那先比丘举了这个例子

suppose there is a man he was going in a boat in a great ocean

假设一个人坐船出海

and he would take the water from the ocean in his hand

他将海水掬在手里

and then he would taste it with his tongue

然后用舌头尝试

and he would know this the water from the river ganga

他知道这是恒河的水

this is the water from the river yamuna and so on

那是亚穆纳河的水等等

it would be possible for a man to say, to pick up the water from the ocean and to say this is the water from this river this is the water from another water and so on

在大海里分别不同河流的水对于这个人,是可能的

but it is more difficult to say or to define the immaterial states of consciousness and its concomitants

但是分辨心、心所的各种状态却是更加困难的

which arise on the same object pointing them out

例如:缘取同一个目标的,指出来

there like this is one cetasika this another cetasika this is the consciousness and so on

指出各种心所、心等等这是非常困难的

so today we are going to follow the buddha doing this difficult thing

今天我们追随佛陀,做这件困难的事情

so in abhidhamma

在阿毗达摩里

there are taught 52 mental factors

讲了52个心所

so 52 cetasikas and 52 mental factors 52个心所

so these are mental states that arise with consciousness

这些心所伴随心生起

in practice it is very difficult to differentiate them

但是在实践中,是很难区分的

because they arise together and they seem to be not so different from one another

因为它们同时生起看起来彼此没什么不同

now the cetasikas are first divided into ethically variables unwholesome, beautiful

心所首先分为:通一切心所、不善心所、美心所

broadly the cetasikas are divided into three divisions or three categories

大体上,心所分三类

so the first is in english the first is called ethically variables

第一种是:通一切心所

now it is the loose translation of the pali word aññasamāna

是对巴利语aññasamāna

不精确的翻译

now añña means other, and samāna means common añña意思是“其他的”

samāna意思是“共有的”

so aññasamāna means common to other

所以这个词意思是:与其他共有的

common to other means common to either wholesome or beautiful

与其他共有意思是:与善、美共有

these 13 ethically variable mental factors

通一切心所有13个

can arise with wholesome cittas or beautiful cittas

可以伴随善心、美心生起

so they are ethically neutral

所以它们在品德上是中性的

and when they are arising with unwholesome citta

当它们伴随不善心生起

they are said to be common to the beautiful cittas

则美心就是“其他的”,这些心所与美心“共有”

that means they can arise with beautiful citta at another time

意思是在其他时候它们也可以伴随美心生起

so these 13 called aññasamāna in pali

所以这13个被称为通一切心所

they can arise with unwholesome cittas or beautiful cittas

它们可以伴随不善心、美心生起

and these 13 are sub-divided into two divisions

这13个可以继续分两类

and the first division is called universals

第一类叫:遍一切心心所

universals means they are common to all types of consciousness

遍一切意思是一切心皆有

so they arise with all types of consciousness

所以它们伴随所有的心

there are 89 or 121 types of consciousness

心有89或121种

and these 7 will arise with every one of these 89 or 121 types of consciousness

这7个心所在89或121之中的任何心里都存在

so every arising of consciousness

只要心生起

is associated with these 7 mental factors

就必定与这7个心所相关

and the next sub-division is called occasionals

另外一类是杂心所

that means they do not arise with all 89 or 121 types of consciousness

意思是,它们并非伴随所有89或121种心

they will arise with some of them

它们伴随其中的某些

so they are called occasionals in english

所以被称为杂心所

now the universals

现在讲遍一切心心所

the first one mentioned under the head universals is contact

“遍一切心心所”标题下面第一个是:触

and in pali it is phassa

巴利语是phassa now ph in pali should be pronounced pa ph在巴利语里念p and not as f in english 不要按照英语发音f now phassa means touching phassa意思是触碰

so here contact means touching

这里“触”意思是“触碰”

and contact does not mean physical contact it is mental contact

触碰不是指身体上的触碰是指心理上的接触

suppose there is something to see and it comes into the avenue of your eye, and then there is the seeing consciousness

如果色所缘进入眼根,就生起眼识

so when there is seeing consciousness

如果有眼识

the eye and the object to be seen

眼、色所缘

then contact also arises

触也会生起

so when these three comes together, these three means

但这三者一起出现,这三者意思是

the eye, the visible object and seeing consciousness come together

眼、色所缘,眼识

then contact also arises

触也生起

so contact it is not just contact it is a mental state

所以触是一种心理状态

that connects the mind with the object

将心和目标联系起来

and this contact is as i said mental contact not physical

这里的触指心理上的触不是身体上的触

that can be contact with the mind

就是心的接触

sometimes we see something very fearful

有时候我们看到恐怖的东西

then we have fear

很害怕

sometimes we fear something in our heart

有时候我们心里害怕某事

when we see a man walking on a tight rope

例如我们看到一个人走钢丝

so such feelings actually caused by this contact

这种感觉就是“触”产生的

so this one mental factor arises when an object comes into the avenue of the senses

这个心所就是当目标出现于诸根时产生的

and there arises corresponding consciousness like seeing consciousness and hearing consciousness and so on

对应于心,就产生触例如眼识、耳识等等

and the second one is feeling

第二个是:受

now these are all mental states

这些都是心理状态

not the act of feeling, but something that feels

不是指感情,而是感受

and feeling means experience of the object

“受”意思是对目标的体验

when we come across an object we experience it

当我们遇到所缘,我们体验它

and that experience is called experiencing the taste of the object

这种体验就是体会目标的“滋味”

actually the taste and the object are the same

实际上“滋味”和目标是一样的

so experience of the object is called feeling here

对目标的体验被称为“受”

so feeling is one mental state, one mental state among the universals

所以“受”是遍一切心心所之一

and there are different kinds of feelings

有不同形式的“受”

and you will study about the feelings at the third chapter also

在第三章你们也会学到“受”

so pleasurable feeling, displeasurable feeling and neutral feeling

乐受、苦受、舍受

so whatever the feeling is, feeling means the experience of the object

不管受是哪种,都是对目标的体验

experience of the taste of the object

体验目标的“滋味”

now it is compared to a king who enjoys the taste of the food fully

它被比成一个国王完全享受食物的味道

now the cook who cooks for the king also has the taste of the food

而御厨也能尝到食物的滋味

but his taste is very small very little

但是御厨只是尝到一点点

but when he put the food in front of the king, the king enjoys the food fully

当御厨将食物放在国王面前国王就可以完全享用

so in the same way other mental states also experience the object

同样,其他心所也能体验到目标

but their experience is not as intense

但是它们的体验没有这么强烈

as the experience of these mental states which is called feeling

没有“受”这个心所这么强烈

so feeling is one mental state that experience the taste of the object

所以“受”是体验到目标“滋味”的心所

number three is called perception

第三个是:想

the pali word for perception is saññā巴利语是:saññā

so i want you to be familiar with pali word also not just english translation

我希望你们不仅要熟悉英语也要熟悉巴利语名称

because sometimes we may have to go back to the pali words

因为有时我们还是要回到巴利语

so feeling is called vedanā, and perception is in pali saññā受、想的巴利语分别vedanā、saññā

actually perception here means making a mark

实际上“想”这里指做记号

so whenever we see a object we experience an object

当我们看到一个目标我们就体验到目标

our mind makes a mark of it

我们的心就给它做一个记号

making mark is for recognizing it later

以便下次能够认出它

so when we see somebody

当我们看到某人

then our mind makes a mark of that person

我们的心给他做个记号

say, he is tall, or he is short, or he is fat or thin and so on

例如,是高是矮,是胖是瘦等等

so that when we see this person again we recognize it

当我们再次看到这个人,就能认出他

so saññā is like that

所以这就是“想”

saññā makes a mark of every object we experience

“想”对我们经历的任何目标标记

it is a mental state

“想”这个心所

and it is compared to carpenters making marks on the wood

可以比成木匠在木材上作记号

so when making something they may make mark on the wood

在制造之前,他们先在木材上作记号

so that he knows where to put the wood, when they put together make a table or build a house

这样他就知道怎么组合这些木材,制作桌子或房子

so these marks help them to recognize later

这些记号让他们以后能认出这些木材

and so they know where to put that piece of wood

这样就知道它们的位置应该在哪里

so in the same way perception makes marks of objects in our minds

同样,“想”也在心里给目标作记号

and so when we experience it later at another time we recognize it

当我们以后体验到它,就能认出它

and perception can be right or wrong

“想”可能对,也可能错

so it is very important that we have right perception of things

所以对事物有正确的“想”很重要

once we have wrong perception of things

如果我们对事物的“想”是错误的

it is very difficult to remedy it

就很难修正

it is very difficult to get rid of that wrong perception

改正那个错误的“想”很困难

now when you go to other places and when you reach the place at night

当你晚上去某地的时候

you may not know which direction you’re going

你可能不知道方向

not only may you not know, but you may have a wrong perception of the directions

不仅可能不知道方向你还可能搞错方向

although you are going north, you may think you are going south

虽然你朝北走,但你可能认为是朝南走

or although you are going west, you may think you are going east

虽然你朝西走,但你可能觉得是朝东走

that happens very often to those who travel a lot

经常旅行的人常常碰到这种事

and especially when you reach the place at night in an airplane

特别是乘飞机在晚上抵达

recently i went to Canada

最近我去了加拿大

to Montreal for a retreat

去蒙特利尔指导禅修

and they took me to a retreat place about 100 kms

他们带我去100公里外的禅修地

and i thought we are going north

我以为是朝北走

but they said no, we are going east, something like that

但是他们说不是,我们是朝东走,等等

although i later know that it is east, i cannot get rid of the notion that i’m going to the north

虽然我后来知道真是朝东走但是向北的想法仍然挥之不去

because i have a wrong saññā wrong perception of the direction

因为我有一个错误的“想“对方向有错误的认知

so it is very difficult to get rid of this

所以修正非常难

sometimes you may think that the direction you are going is east or west

有时候你可能觉得是东方或者西方

suppose you think that you are going west but in the morning you see the sun rising from the other direction

假设你觉得你是向西走,但是早晨你发现太阳从另外一个方向升起

so you know that you are wrong, but still you cannot get rid of the knowing that it is west or it is east

那你就知道你是错的,但是你还是分不清东西

so i have a friend, who never can make out what direction he was going when he was in Yangon

我有一个仰光的朋友,总是分不清方向

so he said

所以他说

he lost sense of direction so much that

他没有任何方向感

at one time, he was on the side of one road

有一次,他在路边

so on the, let us say, on the west side of the road

就先假设他在路西边吧

he had the correct perception of the directions

这时候他还是知道正确方向

but once he crossed the road and reached the other side of the road

当他穿过公路,到达另一侧

it was the opposite of what the true direction

就是之前方向的对面

so he was upset with himself

他就很沮丧

and so he said next time he cross the road slowly looking at the direction and saying: south, south, south

他说,下次他要很慢地过马路,看好方向,嘴里一直念:南方,南方

but the moment he reached the other side it was north for him and not south

但是当他到达另一边的时候,就是北方,不是南方了

so the wrong perception can persist

所以错误的“想”很顽固

and it may not be serious

这件事可能不重要

but if we have wrong perception about the dhamma

如果我们对佛法有错误的“想”

it will be very serious

那就严重了

so perception is very important

所以“想”很重要

you need to get a good perception of things you need to make correct mark on the things

你需要对事物有好的“想”对事物进行正确的标记

so that you do not misunderstand

这样就不会产生误解

so perception when we say perception we mean that mental state or that mental factor that makes marks of the objects

所以,我们提到“想”时,意思是这个心所,它对目标进行标记

so making marks

做记号

and number four is cetanā in pali and it is volition in english

第四个是:思,巴利语是cetanā

now cetanā is something that urges the concomitant to do their work or to do their function

“思”促使各相应法去行动并发挥功能

so cetanā is compared to a chief pupil in a class

所以“思”有如课堂上的班长

so the chief student does his work and also he encourages other students to do their own work

班长不但自己完成功课也鼓励其他同学完成功课

this is what we call cetanā, volition

这就是“思”

and this cetanā is an important mental factor, because what we call kamma is this cetanā这个“思”是个重要的心所因为我们称之为业的就是“思”

now buddha expressly said that monks cetanā is what i call kamma

佛陀明确地说:诸比丘,我称业为思

as a student of abhidhamma

学习阿毗达摩

you should understand this

你要理解这点

because sometimes when we ask people what is kamma

因为有时候,我们问大家:什么是业

so they may say kamma is good or bad deed, good or bad action

他们可能说:业是善恶的行为

but strictly according to abhidhamma

但是严格按照阿毗达摩

kamma is not good or bad action

业不是善恶行为

but the volition or cetanā that accompanies consciousness when we do good or bad action

而是做善恶行为时,伴随心的“思”

but that cetanā arises always in connection with good or bad deeds

但是“思”的生起总是与善恶行为相关联

so that we transfer the name to good or bad deed and we say

所以我们将善恶行为的名称让渡了

kamma is good or bad deed or good or bad action

把业等同于善恶的行为

so if we are not serious, we may say kamma is good or bad action

在不严谨的情况下我们可以说业就是善恶的行为

but if we want to be precise

如果我们要想准确

then we should say kamma is the volition or cetanā我们就应该说业是“思”

that accompanies the consciousness when we do something good or bad when we do some good action or bad action

是当我们做善事恶事时伴随心产生的心所

and this cetanā is different from other mental states

“思”与其他心所不同

now as mental states they arise and they disappear

心所生起,然后灭去

immediately after they arise they disappear

速度很快

so mental states last for only one thought moment which is shorter than a nine nine billion of a second

心所持续的时间只是一个心识刹那比90亿分之一秒还短

but cetanā is different

但是思心所不同

as a mental state it arises it disappears

思心所生起,灭去

but when it disappears it leaves the potential to give results in the mental continuum of beings

但是当它灭去的时候,它在心相续里留下造业的能力

that is why when the circumstances are favorable for it to bring out results the results are produced

所以当条件成熟时,就会产生果报

so that is why cetanā or volition is important

这就是“思”之所以重要的原因

and when we say kamma we mean this mental factor which is called cetanā我们说的业就是指“思”心所

and this cetanā urges other concomitants to do their own function

这个“思”促使其他相应法发挥功能

and at the same time it does its own function like a chief student in the class

同时履行自己的功能就像班长

and number five is one-pointedness of mind

第五:一境性

or in pali ekaggatā巴利语是ekaggatā

one-pointedness of mind really means mind having one object only

心一境性实际指心只有一个所缘

so when we practice meditation

当我们禅修时

we try to keep our mind on the meditation object

我们尽量将心放在禅修所缘上

on our breathing, or on rising and falling of the abdomen or on other objects

关注呼吸、腹部起伏或其他目标

so when mind stays on the object

当心专注于所缘

and it does not go to other objects

就不会跑到其他目标上

we say that is concentration

我们就说这是:定

so one-pointedness of mind is another name for concentration

所以心一境性就是“定”的另一个说法

and this concentration is common to all types of consciousness

这种“定”为所有种类的心共有

so whatever consciousness arises

当心生起的时候

there is a kind of concentration or one-pointedness of mind

就会有某种形式的“定”,即心一境性

although it may not be strong

虽然可能并不强烈

even if it is not strong still there is a kind of one-pointedness of mind with every type of consciousness

虽然不是很强烈心一境性仍然伴随每个心而生起

and this one-pointedness of mind or concentration

这种心一境性(定) when it becomes strong it can develop into what are called jhanas

当变得强烈时,就发展成禅那

and number six is life faculty

第六:名命根

or in pali jīvitindriya the faculty of life

名命根的巴利语是:jīvitindriya faculty of life means making the concomitants alive supports the concomitants

名命根意思是维持相应名法之命

and life faculty is the life or mental life faculty

这里的命,指:名法之命

now among the 28 material properties there is another life faculty and that is material life faculty 28色法里面有一个命根色那是色法

so this is mental life faculty

但是这个名法命根

and it keeps other mental concomitants alive

它维持相应名法的存在

it is because of this that other mental concomitants stay alive

因为有这个心所,其他心所得以存在

and it is asked if it keeps other mental concomitants alive

有人就问:如果这个心所维持其他心所存在?

what keeps it alive?

是什么维持它自己存在?

the answer is it keeps itself alive

答案是,它自己维持自己的存在

at the same time it keeps others also alive

同时它维持其他心所存在

and the simile is given here to understand this, a boatman

为了理解,这里举了一个船夫的例子

so a boatman will take other people to the other shore

船夫渡人过河

when taking the other people to the other shore he takes himself also to the other shore

当船夫渡人过河时他自己也过了河

so in the same way the life faculty keeps itself alive and also keeps other mental concomitants alive

同样,名命根,维持自身也维持其他心所的存在

that is also one mental factor or mental state

这也是一个心所

and number seven is called manasikāra in pali

第七个:作意

and it is translated as attention

作意

now manasikāra means doing in the mind

这个词意思是:心里的作为

it is paying attention to the object

将注意力投向所缘

so whenever an object comes into the avenue of the senses

当目标出现于诸根门

then we pay attention to the mind

我们就作意

that means we direct the mind to the object

意思是我们将心转向目标

so this is the direction to the object and

这种对目标的导向

it is compared to the rudder of a ship

比喻成船里的舵手

so when there is a rudder of a ship then the ship goes to the destination straight forwardly

当船里有一个舵手船就能直接向着目标航行

so attention is like that

作意就是这样

directing the mind to the object

将心导向目标

that is why when we have no attention

所以如果我们不作意

we are not aware of the object

就不会觉知到目标

even though the big object may pass in front of our eyes

即便是很大的目标经过眼前

if we do not pay attention and we will not see it

如果不作意,我们就看不到

so attention is also important mental factor

所以作意也是个重要的心所

and it is one of the universal mental factors

也是遍一切心心所之一

so that every mental activity has some kind of attention with it

所以每个心的活动都有某种程度的“作意”

so these seven are called universals

这七个被称为遍一切心心所

or in pali sabbacittasādhārana, common to all cittas

意思是:与所有心共有

and they arise with every one of the 89 or 121 types of consciousness

这些心所与89或121个心的任何一个相伴随

now we come to the occasionals

现在讲杂心所

so these six do not arise with every type of consciousness

这六个不是伴随每一种心

they will arise with some types of consciousness only

只是伴随其中某些心

for example, the first one, vitakka in pali, initial application in english

例如,第一个,“寻”

will arise with 55 types of consciousnesses

伴随55种心

now the first one vitakka is translated as initial application

“寻”翻译成英语是:第一个应用

that means initial application of the mind to the object

意思是第一次将心应用到目标

the pali word vitakka means simply thinking vitakka这个词意思就是:想

but here thinking means actually putting the mind on the object

这里的“想”实际上就是将心投向目标

it takes the mind and it puts the mind onto the object, that is the function of the initial application or function of vitakka

将心导向目标,这就是“寻”的作用

so because there is this vitakka our mind reaches the object or our mind is put on the object

因为有这个“寻”我们的心就能抵达目标

it is compared to a man who is taken to the king by another man

被比喻成一个人被另外一个人带到国王那里

suppose there is a man who comes from the districts he has not been to this city

假设有一个人从乡下来从未来过这个城市

i think it is different here

我想这里情况有所不同

Singapore is a city country ok

新加坡是个城市国家

suppose a person has not been here before

假设一个人从未来过这里

so he doesn’t know how to reach the common place

他不知道怎么去某个地方

then his friend who is the native of this place

他的朋友是本地人

takes him to that place

将他带到那个地方

and so he reaches that place

所以他就去了那个地方

so in the same way the initial application takes the mind to the object, puts the mind onto the object

所以同样地,“寻”将心导向目标

that is the function of the initial application of vitakka

这就是寻心所的功能

although vitakka means literally thinking, it is not deliberate thinking

虽然vitakka字面意思是思考但是它不是有意的思考

its function is to put the mind on the object

它的作用就是将心导向目标

but there are some types of consciousness that are not accompanied by initial application

但是有些心并没有“寻”的伴随

as i just said, initial application arises with only 55 cittas

我刚说过,“寻”伴随55个心

so there are other cittas

所以还有其他心

how do the objects without initial application to put them onto the objects

如果没有“寻”这些心怎么被导向目标

for example seeing consciousness does not need vitakka, or vitatkka does not arise with seeing consciousness

例如,眼识不需要“寻”也就是“寻”不伴随眼识

there are the object and the senses come

目标和诸根出现

the impact is great so that the consciousness does not need vitakka for it to go to the object or to be on the object

作用很强烈,所以心不需要“寻”来导向目标

and also there are jhana consciousnesses that are not accompanied by initial application

同样有些禅心也不需要“寻”

and they can be onto the object by experience

它们可以通过经验专注目标

the consciousnesses have experience in going to the object when there is initial application with it

通过“寻“的导向之后心就有投向目标的经验

and so by experience of that even though there is no initial application the jhana consciousness can reach the object

有了这样的经验,即便后来没有“寻”禅心也可以抵达目标

but for other types of consciousness initial application is necessary for these types of consciousness to be on the object

但是对有些心来说,要投向目标,“寻”是必要的

and the second one is called sustained application and in pali it is vicāra

第二个是:伺

sustained application of mind on the object

将心维持在目标上

first the initial application put the mind on the object

寻将心投向目标

and sustained application keeps the mind on the objected, engaged

伺将心维持在目标上

so these two are different

这两个是不同的

the first one takes the mind and put it on the object

第一个将心投向目标

and the second one keeps it there

第二个将心维持在那里

there are many similes to explain the difference between the vitakka and vicara

有很多比喻解释寻、伺的区别

actually you met vitakka and vicara yesterday, or the day before yesterday

实际上,昨天还是前天,我们碰到过寻、伺

when we studied the jhana cittas

就是学习禅那的时候

now the first jhana is accompanied by five jhana factors

初禅有五个禅支

among them there are vitakka and vicara, right

里面就有寻、伺,对吧

it is explained that vitakka is the first impact of mind

根据解释,寻是心的第一个作用

in the sense that it is gross, and it runs in front of vitakka, it foreruns vitakka

开始心是粗的,是寻的先驱

it is like a striking of a bell

就像敲钟

so when you strike a bell there is a sound

敲钟的时候,就有声音

so that striking of the bell is like vitakka

所以敲钟就像是“寻”

and vicara is subtle more subtle than vitakka

而“伺”比“寻”更细微

and it keeps the mind anchored to the object

让心固定在目标上

and it is explained as similar to the sound of the bell after its first strike

钟敲响之后,发出的声音就被比喻成“伺”

so you strike a bell, then there is a first sound there is vitakka

当你敲钟,第一声就是“寻”

and then the how do you call that

然后,那个,怎么说呢

the sound follows so that following sound is compared to vicara

随后的声音,就被比喻成“伺”

and also they are compared to a bird

它们也被比喻成鸟

spreading out its wings when it is about to soar into the air

要飞向天空时,鸟展开翅膀

so that is vitakka is compared to that

这个就被比喻成“寻”

and the

然后

vicara is compared to that bird when it reaches a certain altitude it will spread out its wings and soar into air

“伺”就是当鸟达到一定的高度展开翅膀翱翔于天空

so we may say that taking off of the airplanes and then reaching the cruise altitude

还可以说飞机起飞,达到巡航高度

so the airplane soar into the air with force is like vitakka

在动力带动下飞机起飞,这是“寻”

and then when it reaches the cruising altitude it flies smoothly so that is like vicara

达到巡航高度,顺利航行这就像是“伺”

and it is also compared to a bee

也可以比喻成蜜蜂

diving toward the flower or lotus vitakka is like that

奔向花朵或者荷花,这就是”寻“,

and vicara is like the bee buzzing above the flower

而”伺“就是在花丛嗡嗡飞舞

and also vitakka is compared to the hand

寻也被比喻成一只手

which firmly grips the tarnished metal dish

牢牢地抓取一只脏铁盆

and vicara is like the other hand that rubs with powder or oil or with the woolen pad to clean it

伺就像另外一只手,用洗涤剂和擦布来清洗它

so vitakka is the gripping hand vicara is the rubbing hand, something like that

寻是握盆的手,伺是擦洗的手差不多就是这样

or again

还有

vitakka is compared to the supporting hand of a potter when he spins its wheel with the stroke on the stick

寻被比喻成陶匠固定陶器的手另外一只手转动轮盘

now when they make pot they use a wheel they turn the wheel

当制作陶器的时候,他用轮盘,转动轮盘

so the supporting hand of the potter is like the vitakka

陶匠固定陶器的手就像是寻

and vicara is like the hand that moves back and forth

伺就是另外那只前后移动的手

and also it is compared to two pins when you draw a circle

它们也被比喻成画圆时使用的两根针

so when you draw a circle you have one pin in the center

当你画圆时,在中心放一根针

and the other pin revolving around it

另外一根针绕着它转

so the center pin is like vitakka

中心的针就像是寻

and the outer pin is like vicara

外面的针就像是伺

so vitakka and vicara are different mental states arising at the same time

所以寻、伺是不同的心所它们同时生起

doing their respective functions

但是发挥不同的作用

so vitakka is putting the mind on the object

所以寻就是将心导向目标

and vicara is keeping the mind there

伺就是维持心在目标上

that is why venerable nagasena said buddha did a difficult job when he described different mental states that arise at the same time taking the same object

所以那先比丘说佛做了甚难之事,因为他讲了同时生起同一所缘的心、心所

now number…among the six number three

六个中的第三个

from the beginning number ten

从最开始数就是第十个

is called decision or adhimokkha

胜解

it is a firm decision of some objects

对目标的决意

adhimokkha literally means releasing mind on to the object

胜解字面意思是:把心放开,让它进入目标

so there is some kind of decision when we experience any object

当我们体验目标时,就有某种决定

so that is called adhimokkha or decision

就被称为胜解

and next one is energy or vīriya, effort

下一个是精进

here effort means mental effort because it is a mental state here

这里的精进指心理上的精进,因为它是一个心所

there is physical effort also but here mental effort is meant

也有身体上精进,但是这里指心理上的

so in the mental activities there is involved this effort

所以在心理活动里,涉及到这种精进

now to be mindful we must make mental effort

要保持正念,我们要做这种心理上的努力(精进) if we do not make mental effort we can not be mindful we can not practice meditation

如果我们在心理上不努力,我们就不能有正念,不能禅修

and when we read a book

当我们读书时

then we need to concentrate on the book and so there is energy that helps concentration

我们需要专注于书本这也是精进,帮我们专注

so the energy or effort is a valuable or beneficial mental state even for everyday life

所以即使在日常生活中努力、精进也是很有价值、很有益处的心所,

and this energy is compared to heat in the books

在书里,这种精进被比喻成热量

now

现在

heat can heat up things

热量可以加热事物

and burn them

可以让它们燃烧

in the same way energy can heat up and burn the mental defilements

同样,精进可以烧毁烦恼

if we do not make effort we will not be able to get rid of mental defilements

如果我们不精进,就不能断除烦恼

so the effort or energy is compared to heat, or heat of the sun or heat of the fire

所以,精进被比喻成热量,太阳的热量,或者火的热量

and number 12 is pali pīti

第十二个:喜

and it is translated as zest

被翻译成:热情

it is also translated as joy, happiness, rapture and pleasurable interest

也被翻译成:愉悦、幸福、狂喜、愉悦的兴趣

pīti is defined as something that refreshes piti的定义是:清新

so when we experience pīti we are refreshed

所以当我们经历“喜”时我们感到清新

so pīti is defined as something that refreshes

所以“喜”就是令人清新

and this characteristic is endearing

这个特征是讨人喜欢的

or to refresh both body and mind

让身心感到清新

or it pervades the body and the mind

遍布身心

so it is a kind of pleasurable

所以它是一种愉悦的

it is not feeling, it is difficult to translate

它不是感受,很难翻译

a mental state which is refreshing which is endearing

这种心所清新,让人喜欢

when you practice meditation you will experience this pīti

当你禅修时,你就会体验到这个“喜”

you feel good about this you feel good about the practice

你感觉很好,喜欢修行

and you may have goose bumps on your skin and like that

你身上可能起鸡皮疙瘩等等

so piti is said to be of five kinds

喜分为五种:

now the first one is called minor piti

第一种称为小喜

and this small piti can cause the hair stand on end like goose bumps or gooseflesh

这种小喜能使身上的毛发竖立就像起鸡皮疙瘩一样

and the second is called momentary piti

第二种是剎那喜

it is like lightning, once it strikes you and then it’s gone

如同电光刹那生起,灭去

and the third one is called showering piti

第三种是继起喜

it is like the waves breaking on the shore

犹如海岸激荡的波浪,

and the fourth one is called uplifting piti

第四个是踊跃喜

through that piti the body may be uplifted

这种喜可踊跃其身

it may be elevated sometimes as the result of this uplifting piti

可能到达跃入空中的程度。

your body may move, even if you are sitting your body may move to another place

你的身体会移动,即使你坐着你的身体也会移动到别处

and then the last one is called pervading piti

最后一个是遍满喜

and that means when you experience that piti you are like a cotton ball soaked in water or oil

意思是当你体验到这种喜时你就像棉花团浸入水中或油中

so the whole of your body is pervaded by this kind of piti

你的整个身体都被这种喜所遍布

although it is a kind of good feeling it is not included in feeling

虽然喜是愉悦的感受,但是不包括在“受”里

now it is included in the aggregate of mental formation the fourth aggregate

喜为行蕴所摄

now among the five jhana factors

在五禅支里

we have piti and sukha put together

有喜、乐在一起

vitakka, vicara, piti and sukha

寻伺喜乐

now sukha is a feeling, pleasurable feeling

乐为受蕴所摄,愉悦的感受

so sukha is pleasurable feeling

乐是愉悦的感受

and it is pleasing

让人愉悦

and it is called sukha because it devours the affliction of the body

被称为乐,是因为它吞没了身体之苦

that means it consumes or it removes affliction of body and so on

意思是乐移除了身体的苦恼

these two are very similar

这两种很类似

piti and sukha, it is very difficult to differentiate between the two

喜和乐,很难区别这两者

so the commentaries give similes to understand the difference between piti and sukha

注释书给了比喻来理解区分喜、乐

and piti is described as contendedness as getting a desirable object

喜被描述为获得可喜目标时的满足

and sukha is explained as actual experiencing of it when you get it

乐被描述为对这个可喜目标的实际体验

now suppose you are going on a journey in a desert

假设你在沙漠旅行

and you are exhausted, you are weary

十分疲惫

then somebody may come the opposite way and tell you that

有人迎面而来告诉你

about a mile from here there is a pond

一里之外有一个水池

and there are fruit trees and so on

还有果树等等

so when you hear this and also when you approach the pond and see the pond and fruit trees

当你听到之后,当你靠近水池,看到水池和果树时

you have a kind of piti there

这就是“喜”

you have not experienced the pond, the water in the pond you have not experienced the fruit

你还没有体验到池水,也没吃到水果

but you have seen them so you have some kind of mental state

但是你已经看到它们了,你就生起了某种心所

and that kind of mental state is called piti

这种心所就是:喜

but when you get to the pond and you make use of the water

当你使用池水的时候

and you bathe in the water and you eat the fruit and you sit there comfortably

你用水洗澡,吃水果很舒服地坐在那里

then you are experiencing what is called sukha

你就体验到:乐

so piti is something that precedes the actual experiencing of the object

所以喜是体验之前的东西

so when we hear about something when we see something

当你听到或者看到

something desirable

非常美好的东西

and there is a kind of mental state

就有某种心所生起

we are pleased with the object and so that being pleased with the object is what we called piti

你对目标感到愉悦,这种愉悦就是喜

and when we really experience or enjoy the object then there is sukha

当你真正体验到目标,享受它这就是乐

so piti and sukha are different mental states

所以喜、乐是不同的心理状态

now sukha is one of the feelings, so it is included in the feeling

乐是为受所摄,是种感受

and wherever there is piti there is sukha

当出现喜时,必定有乐

but wherever there is sukha there is not necessarily piti

当出现乐时,不一定有喜

if you remember the jhana cittas

如果你记得禅那心

now the first jhana cittas

初禅心

is accompanied by how many jhana factors? five

有几个禅支?五个

vitakka, vicara, piti, sukha, ekaggata

寻伺喜乐一境性

so the first jhana has both piti and sukha

初禅有喜、乐

and the second jhana also, both piti and sukha

二禅也有喜、乐

third jhana also both piti and sukha

三禅也有喜、乐

fourth jhana no piti but sukha

四禅没有喜,但有乐

and fifth jhana no piti and no sukha

五禅无喜、无乐

so

所以

whenever there is piti there is sukha

只要有喜,必定有乐

but whenever there is sukha there may or may not be piti

但是如果乐存在,喜可有可无

so it is one difference between them

这就是它们的一个区别

and piti is included in saṅkhāra aggregate

喜为行蕴所摄

aggregate of mental formations

被包括在行蕴里面

and sukha is included in feeling aggregate

乐为受蕴所摄

so they are different mental states, belonging to different aggregates

它们是不同的心理状态,属于不同的蕴

now the next one is chanda, desire

下一个欲

it is also translated as conation

被翻译成:意欲

it is the desire for the object

就是对目标的意欲

but it is not desire which is lobha

但不是贪嗔痴的“贪”

although we may use the word desire for it

虽然也是欲望

chanda is not lobha

但是这个欲与lobha不同

chanda can be unwholesome or wholesome

这个欲可善可不善

according to what type of other mental states arise with it

它的善不善根据其他相伴的心所而定

so although we may translate it as desire it is not desire like attachment or craving

虽然也被翻译成欲,但是不是贪欲的意思

it is mere desire for the object, mere desire to do

这是对目标的意欲,欲行动

so sometimes it is translated as the will to do

所以有时候被翻译成:行动的意欲

just the will to do without attachment

行动的欲望,没有贪执

and it is compared to an archer picking the arrows

它被比喻成弓箭手拾取箭支

so when an archer wants to shoot the arrow, he would pick up the arrow

当弓箭手要射击时,就要拾取箭支

when he picks up the arrows, he has no attachment to arrows, he just wants to pick them up and to shoot something

当他拾取箭支的时候,只是想拾取箭支射击没有贪执于箭支

so chanda is like that, just the will to do, just the desire to take the object

所以“欲”就是这样,只是意欲,获取目标的意欲

and not necessarily attached to the object

并不必然贪执于目标

so these six are called occasionals

这六个被称为杂心所

because later on we will study with how many cittas each of these cetasikas arise

因为今后我们要学习这些心所和心的搭配

so when you study these you will understand why they are called occasionals

当你们学习的时候,就知道为什么这些被称为杂心所了

each one of them is not common to all 89 or 121 types of consciousness

这些杂心所并不与所有89或121心共有

and they arise with just say 55, 66 and so on of the types of consciousness

它们与其中的

55、66个等等相随

now the universal 7 and occasional 6 are called ethically variables 7个遍一切心心所和6个杂心所统称为通一切心所

they can arise with unwholesome mental states and beautiful mental states

它们可以与不善心所和美心所一起生起

sometimes they may arise with unwholesome mental states sometimes they may arise with wholesome mental states

有时候它们可能与不善心所生起有时候可能与善心所生起

and so they are called ethically variables or in pali they are called aññasamāna

所以它们被称为通一切心所

so they are 13 aññasamāna mental factors

这就是13个通一切心所

and 7 of them are universals or sabbacitta-sādhāraṇa and 6 of them are called occasionals or pakiṇṇaka in pali 7个遍一切心心所,6个杂心所

and the next group is in pali akusala and in english unwholesome

另外一组是不善心所

now you are familiar with the word unwholesome

你们对不善这个词很熟悉

you have already studied the unwholesome types of consciousness

你们学习了不善心

and all these unwholesome types of consciousness have some of these mental factors arising with them

这些不善心,就有这些不善心所伴随它们

and so

所以

now we will study these 14 unwholesome types of mental factors

我们现在学习14不善心所

ok, i think we will have a break now

好,我们先休息一下

disk01track10

ok, we will continue our study of mental factors

好,我们继续学习心所

so second group of mental factors is called unwholesome or akusala

第二组心所是不善心所

you’re familiar with the word akusala or unwholesome

你们熟悉不善这个词

and so there are bad mental factors

它们是不好的心所

and these are to facilitate referring to these mental factors later

这些涉及到的心所

they are grouped like unwholesome universals, greed triad and so on

被分为通一切不善、三贪因等等

the groups are not given these names in the manual

概要精解里给的名字有所不同

but our teachers especially in Myanmar gave these names to these mental factors three or two or four

但是我们的老师,特别在缅甸按照三、二、四这样起名

because when we make ourselves familiar with the details of the mental factors

因为当我们熟悉这些心所的详情

and their combination with different types of consciousness

它们与不同心的组合

then we have to use some short terms

我们就需要用简称

instead of of saying, greed, wrong view and conceit we will just say greed triad, something like that

我们不说贪、邪见、慢,我们称之为:三贪因,等等

now the first group is unwholesome universals

现在第一组是通一切不善

that means these four will arise with every type of akusala consciousness

意思是这四个伴随一切不善心

every one of twelve unwholesome consciousness

伴随所有12不善心

and the first of them is moha or delusion

第一个是:痴

now this moha is synonym of avijjā这个“痴”是“无明”的同义词

you may be familiar with the word avijjā if you have read the dependent origination

你们可能熟悉无明这个词如果你们知道十二缘起的话

so avijjā means not knowing

无明意思是:不知道

and moha means delusion and so on

痴就是迷惑,等等

so they mean the same thing

所以说它们的意思是一样的

and sometimes moha is translated as ignorance

有时候“痴”被翻译成“无明”

so ignorance of the four noble truths, ignorance of the dependent origination and so on

对四圣谛无明,对缘起无明,等等

and this is actually not knowing

这就是:不知道

so it is a mental blindness

所以是心之盲

not knowing things correctly

不能正确认识事物

and maybe knowing things incorrectly also

或许错误地认知事物

and this is one of three unwholesome roots you have met when you study the unwholesome types of consciousness

当你学习不善心时,痴就是三不善根之一

now among the twelve unwholesome types of conscious

在12种不善心之中

the first 8 are accompanied by or rooted in let’s say lobha, attachment

前八个以贪为因

and the 2 are rooted in dosa and the last 2 are rooted in moha

有两个以嗔为因,最后两个以痴为因

now i did not tell you at that time that moha is common to all 12 types of unwholesome consciousness

我当时没有告诉你们,痴通一切不善心

although the first 8 are called rooted in attachment

虽然前八个心被称为贪根心

actually they are rooted in delusion also

实际上它们也是以痴为根

and the two that are called rooted in ill will are also rooted in delusion

两个嗔根心,实际上也是痴根心

only the last two are rooted in delusion only

只有最后两个是单纯以痴为根的

so now you see that moha or delusion is the unwholesome universal mental factor

所以现在你们知道痴是通一切不善心的心所

that means moha arises with every type of unwholesome consciousness

意思是“痴”伴随每一种不善心

the next one is ahirika or shamelessness

下一个是无惭

and the next one anottappa fearlessness of wrong doing

下一个是对错误的行为无愧

now shamelessness means shamelessness in doing misconduct

无惭意思是:不为自己的恶行感到羞耻

bodily misconduct or verbal misconduct or mental misconduct

身语意的恶行

so this is

所以

when you do something wrong you are not ashamed to do it

当你做了恶行,你并不为此感到羞耻

so that shamelessness is one mental factor when you do something wrong or when you have unwholesome consciousness

所以无惭是当你做了坏事时的一种心理状态

and fearlessness of wrong doing means you’re not afraid of doing wrong things, you’re not afraid of doing misconduct, so that is fearlessness

所以无惭就是你不害怕做错事,不害怕恶行

shamelessness is compared to a village pig

无惭被比喻成一头猪

that is not disgust of excrement

对脏东西不感到恶心

and fearlessness is compared to a firefly

无愧被比喻成一只飞蛾

that runs into the fire

扑向火苗

now you may have seen the fireflies that just run into the flame

你们可能看到飞蛾扑火

they’re not afraid of the flame

它们根本不怕火

so in the same way, shamelessness or ahirika is not ashamed of doing misconduct

所以同样,无惭就是不对恶行感到羞耻

and anottappa or fearlessness is not afraid of doing misconduct

无愧就是不害怕恶行

and the last one of the four is in pali uddhacca

最后一个是:掉举

and it is translated as restlessness

被翻译成:不稳定

or sometimes it is translated as agitation

有时候也被翻译成:扰动

so it is disquietness

是一种不安宁的状态

like water whipped up by the wind

如同水面被风吹皱

so when there is wind water is quiet

如果没有风,水面就是平静的

but there is wind, the water becomes shaky

风吹来了,水面也就动荡起来

so that is compared to uddhacca or restlessness or agitation

这就被比喻成掉举

and it is also compared to a banner that flutters in the wind

掉举也被比喻成风中飘动的旗帜

now you have met restlessness when you studied the unwholesome types of consciousness

当你们学习不善心时,也遇到过掉举

i think it is the last of the twelve

应该是12不善心的最后一个

so uddhacca is shaking above the object

掉举就是在目标上晃动

i told you this when i talked about akusala cittas

讲不善心的时候,我告诉过你们

so it is mind shaking above the object and so it is not stuck to the object

心在目标上晃动,没有专注于目标

you do not see the object clearly when there is uddhacca in the mind

如果心中有掉举,就不能清晰地观照目标

so that is called restlessness or agitation

这就被称为掉举

and these four accompany every type of unwholesome consciousness

这四个心所伴随所有不善心

the next sub-group is called greed triad or in pali lobhatika

接下来一组被称为三贪因

so greed triad are greed, wrong view and conceit or in pali lobha, iṭṭhi and māna

三贪因指:贪、邪见、慢

now greed here covers desire, longing, attachment and clinging and craving and so on

贪在这里包括:欲望、渴求、执着等等

and this lobha is actually attachment to the object

贪实际上就是对目标的执着

now you come cross some object especially a desirable object

当你遇到目标,特别是如意的目标

and you are attached to it

你执着于它

now that is lobha arising in your mind

这时候心里就生起贪

and this lobha is compared to a kind of what do you call it? sticky substance

这种贪被比喻成粘性物质

that comes out of a tree

从树身上渗出来的

now there are some trees there is sticky substance come out the tree like gum

有某种树会产生这种粘性物质如同胶水

and when you touch that sticky substance

如果你摸这种粘性物质

then your hand is stuck to it, it’s difficult to take the hand from that sticky substance

你的手就被粘住了,很难脱落

now it is described in the texts there is a monkey

在经典里有记载,一只猴子

and he sees this sticky substance in the sun and so it is shinning

它看到这种粘性的东西在阳光下闪闪放光

so he put his one hand on the sticky substance and it is stuck and he couldn’t remove it

所以它将它的一只手放上去,结果被粘住了

then he put the other hand and then both hands are stuck

然后他又将另一只手放上去结果两只手都被粘住

then he put his one foot and the other foot his all four stuck to the substance

然后他依次将双脚放上去所有四肢都被粘住了

and then he tried to free himself

然后它尽力想挣脱

putting his face to the substance and so he stuck to it with all his limbs

将脸也凑上去,结果整个肢体都被粘住了

so lobha is like that so when we have lobha we are stuck to this object

所以贪也是如此,如果我们有贪我们就会被目标粘住

if i like this then my mind is stuck to this object

如果我喜欢这个,那么我们的心就被这个目标粘住

i can not take my mind away from it

我们不能将心移开

that is why lobha is compared to that sticky substance that come out of trees

所以贪就被比喻成这种树上的粘性物质

so in this modern times, you may say what do you call that?

在现代社会,你们怎么称呼那个?

glue stick, right?

胶棒,对吗?

in the united states there is glue stick

在美国,有这种胶棒

you can use it as a glue or gum

可以当做胶水使用

so this is lobha

这就是贪

so lobha includes all shades of greed

贪包括各种形式的贪婪

like longing, attachment, clinging, craving

期望、执着、贪执、欲望

and the next one is diṭṭhi, wrong view

下一个是:邪见

now the pali word diṭṭhi means just view

这个词的巴利语意思就是:见解

but if it used alone, it almost always means wrong view

如果单独使用,总是指:邪见

if you want to say right view we use sammā-diṭṭhi

如果你想说:正见,前面要加个“正”

we use the word sammā in front of it, and so sammā-diṭṭhi means right view

前面加个“正”才是正见

and if you want to be sure that we may use micchā-diṭṭhi for wrong view

如果你想特地强调,也可以在前面加一个“邪”,特指邪见

so when there is a word micchā in front of it then it is wrong view

所以,前面加个“邪”特指:邪见

and there is no other word but just diṭṭhi wrong view is also meant

如果单纯只是ditthi,也是指邪见

so diṭṭhi is wrong view, wrong view is seeing things wrongly

邪见就是对事物有错误的认知

seeing things wrongly means taking wrong things to be true

错误的认知就是说认错为真

now buddha taught that things are impermanent

佛陀教导:事物是无常的

but if we think things are permanent then this is one wrong view

如果我们认为事物是恒常那么这就是邪见

buddha said there is no soul no self

佛陀说:无我

and if we think that there is a self or soul this is also a wrong view

如果我们认为有我,也是邪见

and if we think that there is no kamma, or results of kamma

如果我们认为无业亦无报

whatever you do is just doing and things happen without any cause and so on

不管做什么,仅仅是行为万事的发生没有原因,等等

so these shades of views are called wrong views

这些观点,都是邪见

and the third one is māna, conceit or pride or haughtiness

第三个是:慢

so we often take pride in ourselves in our nation in our country and so on

我们经常骄慢于自身、种族、国家等等

so when there is māna in our mind we think I, I, this is I

当我们心中有慢,我们总是:我我

so māna is compared to a banner

慢就比成旗帜

it is always on top so

总是高高在上

it wants to be on top always

它总是想在高高在上

and it is like flying in the air

例如在空中飘舞

so that is called māna or conceit

这就被称为:慢

so these three arise with the 8 types of unwholesome consciousness accompanied by greed or lobha

这三个与八个不善的贪根心同生

so we will come to the details later

稍后我们讨论细节

next is the group of four

接下来一组是四个

so we say hatred quartet

所以我们说四嗔因

[dosaggi dukkha??]

嗔火之苦

now these four arise with two types of consciousness accompanied by dosa

这四个与两个嗔根心同生

the green ones

绿色的

now the first one is hatred or dosa

第一个是嗔

here also dosa means aversion, ill will, anger, irritation, annoyance

这里的嗔意思是:反感、恶意愤怒、激怒、烦恼

all these things are included in dosa or hatred here

所有这些都被包括在嗔里面

and also fear is included in dosa

同样,恐惧也属于嗔

so anger is aggressive anger and fear is passive anger

愤怒是激进的愤怒,恐惧是被动的愤怒

not getting angry but your mind is not as it was before

不是愤怒,但是你的心已经不像之前那样

and so the fear is also included in dosa

所以恐惧也被包括在嗔里面

so when you’re afraid of something when you fear something

当你害怕或者恐惧的时候

then one of the two types of consciousness accompanied by ill will arises in your mind

两种嗔根心的一种就生起了

the next one is envy or issā接下来是嫉妒

it is jealous of other people’s success

就是嫉妒别人的成功

if other people are rich then we don’t like it

如果别人富裕,我们就不高兴

if other people are more educated than ourselves we don’t like it something like that

如果别人更有教养,我们也不高兴,诸如此类

so that’s called issā it’s translated as envy

这就成为嫉妒

so envy takes other people’s success as object

嫉妒以别人的成功为所缘

so we see other people success and then we are jealous of them, that’s issā我们看到别人成功,就嫉妒

the next one is macchariya, avarice

下一个是悭

now macchariya is a little difficult to understand

悭有一点难理解

mostly we think that macchariya is stinginess

大多数时候,我们觉得“悭”是吝啬

but stinginess is attachment to one’s own property

但是吝啬是执着于自己的财产

say, I’m stingy i don’t want to part with it

例如,我很吝啬,我不想失去那个东西

I don’t want to give anything to anybody because I’m stingy, that’s stinginess

我不想给任何人任何东西因为我很吝啬,这是吝啬

but macchariya is not stinginess

但是悭不是吝啬

macchariya is intolerance of one’s possessions being common with others

悭是不想让自己的东西与别人共有

for example this is my watch

例如这是我的手表

if somebody makes use of this, I don’t like it

如果别人拿去用,我就不高兴

i can not bear sharing this with other people

我不能忍受与别人分享

that is what is called macchariya and it is translated as avarice

这就是悭

that is why it is included in these four that are common to two types of consciousness accompanied by ill will

所以悭也被包括在四嗔因里四嗔因伴随两种嗔根心

macchariya is not concomitant with eight types of consciousness rooted in lobha

悭不伴随八贪根心

so

所以

macchariya arises only with two types of consciousness rooted in dosa or ill will

悭只伴随两种嗔根心

so macchariya has this characteristic

所以悭就有这种特相

that is intolerant of one’s possessions being common with others

不能忍受别人分享自己的东西

and the last one is called kukkucca or remorse

最后一个被称为恶作

here remorse means two things

这里恶作有两个意思:

we regret because we did something wrong in the first

我们后悔,因为我们起初做了错事

we did something wrong and then we are remorseful for having done wrong

我们做了错事,所以我们为此感到后悔

sometimes we did not do something good and then we regret for not having done the good thing

有时候,我们没做某件好事然后我们就为此后悔

that is also called remorse

这也称为恶作

so remorse has two objects

所以恶作有两种所缘

something wrong that we did in the first and something good that we did not do in the past

过去做的错事,过去没做的好事

so we can have the remorseful feeling regarding both of these actions

对于这两种行为,我们都有恶作的感受

these four arise with the two types of consciousness accompanied by ill will

这四种伴随着两种嗔根心

and then we will the dyad, sloth dyad, that means sloth and torpor

接下来是二有行:昏沉和睡眠

sloth is defined as sluggishness or dullness of mind, that means dullness of consciousness

昏沉是心的沉重、呆滞

and torpor is the sluggishness of cetasikas or mental states

睡眠是指心所的沉重

so sloth is the dullness of consciousness and torpor is the dullness of mental factors

所以昏沉是心的呆滞睡眠是心所的呆滞

and these two arise always together

这两者总是一起出现

because consciousness and mental states always arise together

因为心和心所总是一起生起

and so these two also arise always together

所以这两者总是一起出现

and when we are sleepy we say we say I am

当我们很困的时候,我们说

inflicted by sloth and torpor or sloth and torpor has come to me and say i’m under their influence

我们被昏沉和睡眠所影响

so when we feel sleepy just we say sloth and torpor or in pali thina and middha

当我们困的时候,就是昏沉和睡眠

now

现在

in some schools of thought in buddhist schools of thought

有些佛教思想门派

middha is taken to be matter

认为睡眠是色法

they said, there are two kinds of middha, one mental and one material

他们说,有两种睡眠一种是名法,一种是色法

but that is rejected in theravda buddhism

上座部反对这种说法

so in theravada buddhism middha is always mental and not material

所以上座部佛教认为睡眠永远是名法,不是色法

I will not going to teach you about this

所以我不会这样教你们

now the last one is doubt vicikicchā最后一个是疑

here doubt means indecision

疑意思是不能抉择

now doubt and wrong view are different

疑和邪见不同

with regard to wrong view, you have to make some decision

对于邪见而言,你得作抉择

say this is permanent, this is self or soul, you have to make a decision and that is wrong

此是常,此是我你得作抉择,错误的抉择

but doubt is not like that, doubt is indecision you can not decide between these two

但是疑不是这样,疑是无法抉择

you do not know whether one is right or the other is right

你不知道哪个正确

you are at the cross road and do not know which road to take

你站在十字路口,无所适从

that is a kind of doubt

这就是疑

doubt is the translation of the pali word vicikicchā疑的巴利语是:vicikiccha and vicikicchā is explained as vi and cikicchā这个词由vi 和 cikiccha组成

cikicchā means cure, cure of knowledge, and vi means difficult or devoid of cikiccha意思是解决方案

vi的意思是缺乏

say devoid of cure of knowledge, devoid of cure of wisdom

缺乏解决方案,缺乏智慧的方法

that means when, so long as you are in doubt

意思是当你疑的时候

you can not come to understanding, you can not come to acknowledge the true knowledge of the thing

你就无法理解,不能了知事物的实相

so it is called vicikicchā or doubt

这就被称为疑

and here doubt means doubt about the buddha, the dhamma, the sangha

这里疑指对佛法僧怀疑

doubt about the dependent origination doubt about four noble truths and so on

对缘起和四圣谛有疑心

and when you practice meditation, doubt is a great hindrance

当你禅修时,疑是一个很大的障碍

because when doubt comes, you cannot carry on meditating

因为当疑升起时,你就无法继续禅修

so you have eliminate it you have to deal with it efficiently

所以你要断除它,有效地处理它

when you are in the real practice you just be mindful of it or you make mental notes of it to get rid of it

在实际修行中,你要对其保持正念在心里对它做标记,来处理它

so now we finish the 14 unwholesome mental factors

我们完成了14个不善心所的学习

beginning with moha and so on

以痴为首的不善心所

now how many of them have you met

我们之前碰到过多少?

you have met with lobha you have met with ditthi you have met with mana

贪,见过,邪见,见过慢,见过

not yet

慢,之前没见过

and you have met with dosa, issa, macchariya

见过:嗔、嫉妒、悭

kukkucca? no?

恶作?没见过?

and thina middha?

昏沉和睡眠?

maybe not

可能没见过

and doubt? yes

疑呢?见过

so there are five hindrances

还有五盖

regarding the meditation

与禅修有关

and all five hindrances are from among these unwholesome mental factors

所有五盖都从不善心所而来

now the first of the mental hindrances is

第一个盖是

sensual desire so that is lobha

and the second ill will now dosa

第二个嗔

and then sloth and torpor

然后是昏沉和睡眠

and then

然后

uddhacca and kukkucca so that means restlessness and remorse

掉举和恶作

and the last is doubt vicikiccha

最后一个是疑

so the mental hindrances that we have to overcome

所以这些盖都是我们要克服的

in order to get concentration and see the truth, nature of things

这样就能专注,看到实相

are all included in these unwholesome mental states

这五盖都包含在不善心所里

that is why so long as we are not able to subdue the mental hindrances

所以只要我们不能降服五盖

we cannot get concentration

就不能专注

because unwholesome mental states and wholesome mental states cannot co-exist

因为不善心所、善心所不能共存

when there are unwholesome mental factors in our mind

当心里有不善心所时

there can be no wholesome mental factors

就不能有善心所

and samadhi or concentration is regarding the meditation a wholesome mental state

禅修中的定就是善心所

so wholesome mental states will arise and stay only when there are no unwholesome mental states in our mind

只有心里没有不善心所善心所才会生起

but if we have mental hindrances in our mind

如果心里有诸盖

then the concentration which is here a wholesome mental state cannot arise

作为善心所的“定”就不能生起

that is why the subduing of mental hindrances is very important in the practice of meditation

所以镇服五盖对于禅修非常重要

so now we have these 14 mental factors that are called akusala or unwholesome

我们学习了14个不善心所

so as the name implies

不善心所这个名字就表明

they will associate themselves only with the unwholesome types of consciousness

它们只会伴随不善心生起

now the next group is called beautiful mental factors

下一组是美心所

sobhana cetasikas and there are 25 of them 25美心所

so we have more beautiful mental factors than unwholesome mental factors

所以美心所比不善心所多

and the first one of them is faith or saddhā第一个是:信

now saddhā or faith is not blind faith it is faith founded upon understanding

信是基于理解基础上产生的,不是迷信

this is having faith after coming to firm decision

坚固的抉择之后就有信

so faith in the buddha, faith in the dhamma and so on

对佛法僧等等的信

now the second one is mindfulness, you’re all familiar with mindfulness, sati

第二个是:念,你们对正念都很熟悉

now pali word sati comes from a root called sar that means to remember

巴利语念的字根意思是:忆念

but sati is not just remembering, sati is actually the full awareness of the object

但是“念”不仅是忆念,还是对所缘的完全觉知

sometimes we use sati for remembering

有时候我们用sati这个词表示忆念

but in the practice of satipatthana meditation sati does not mean remembering

但是在念处禅修中,“念”意思不是:忆念

sati means full awareness of the object that we call mindfulness

念指对所缘的完全觉知,我们称之为正念

and mindfulness if it is to be mindfulness must be thorough-going

正念,必须是彻底的

the characteristics of mindfulness is described as not floating on the surface

正念的特点是:不漂浮在表面

so when you practice mindfulness mindfulness must go deep into the object

当你修习正念的时候,正念需要贯彻到所缘深处

the commentaries say that

注释书说

it is not floating on the surface like the dry fruit that floats on the surface

不是像干果子一样飘在水面

we may say a ball on the surface of the water will go with the waves

我们可能会说飘在水面的球会随波逐流

but mindfulness must not be like that

但是正念不是那样的

it must be like a rock that sinks into the water

正念就像一块石头沉入水底

so when you practice mindfulness, your mind must as it will sink into the object

当你修习正念时,你的心必须沉入所缘

your mind should be fully engaged with the object

你的心必须完全沉浸到所缘里

so that is what is mindful means

这就是正念的意思

so there can be no superficiality regarding mindfulness

所以对正念而言,没有任何浅薄

and next is shame and the next is fear of wrong

下一个是惭,然后是愧

these two are the opposite of the ones among the 14 unwholesome mental factors

这两个是与14个不善心所里的无惭无愧对立面

and these two are described by the buddha as the guardians of the world

世尊称此二者为世间的守护者

now so long as these two qualities are in the minds of people

只要人们心中有这两个品质

the world will be a good place to live in

这个世界就是个值得生活的好地方

so they protect the world from falling into wide-spread immorality

惭愧守卫这个世界,免于邪恶盛行

when you have shame, that means shame in doing unwholesome deeds shame in doing misconduct then you’re not doing

当你对恶行感到羞耻,就会停止作恶

if you have fear of the consequences of doing misconduct then you will not do it

当你对恶行的后果感到恐惧你就不会去作恶

so shame and fear are two good qualities

所以惭、愧是两种美好的品质

that protect the world from becoming immoral

守卫这个世界,避免它堕落

that is why buddha described them as guardians of the world

所以佛陀说它们是这个世界的守护者

and the next one is non-greed alobha

接下来是:无贪

sometimes this is translated as absence of greed

有时候它被翻译成贪的缺乏

but that is not good

这种翻译不是很好

because it is a positive state actually

因为无贪实际上是个积极的状态

and not absence of greed

不等于是贪的缺乏

it is a positive state or a mental factor that is not attached to any thing

是积极的状态,没有任何执着

so it is translated as non-greed here

所以,被翻译成无贪

now when a drop of water falls on a lotus leaf

当一滴水掉在荷叶上

it will not stick to the leaf it will fall off the leaf

它不会执着于荷叶,会掉下去

so in the same same when there is alobha the person is not attached to anything

同样,无贪的人没有任何执着

so it is not just absence of greed, it is non-greed

所以它不仅仅是贪的缺乏,它是无贪

and the next one is non-hatred, again it’s not the absence of hatred

下一个是无嗔,不等于嗔的缺乏

but it is a positive state which is non-hatred

这也是积极的状态:无嗔

it can be developed taking the all beings as object

可以发展到将所有众生作为所缘

and then it is called metta or loving-kindness

所以就被称为:慈

so adosa or non-hatred and loving-kindness can be synonyms

所以无嗔和慈可以被看成同义词

but not all non-hatred is loving-kindness

但并非所有无嗔都是慈

only when we take all beings as object and wish for the welfare can it become loving-kindness

只有将所有众生当成所缘希望他们幸福,才是慈

at other times when we pay homage to the buddha, when we offer things to the sangha or to the buddha

当我们礼敬佛、供养僧或者佛

there is non-hatred in our mind

心里生起无嗔

but that non-hatred it not loving-kindness

但是这种无嗔不是慈

so loving-kindness is only when we take all beings as object and wish for their welfare wish for their happiness

只有我们将所有众生作为所缘,希望他们幸福,才是慈

so non-greed, non-hatred

无贪、无嗔

now the next one is the neutrality of mind

接下来是:中舍性

now the pali name for this is tatramajjhattatā巴利语是:tatramajjhattatā

majjha means middle majjha 意思是:中

majjhattatā means to be in the middle

这个巴利词意思是:位于中间

and tatra means in those mental concomitants tatra 就是位于这些心所之中

so

所以

to be in the middle among those mental concomitants

在这些心所之中,保持中舍

and it is translated as neutrality of mind

翻译成:心的中舍性

now this is one mental state

这是个心所

that keeps other mental states do their own function

让其他心所发挥各自的作用

it is compared to a charioteer

被比喻成车夫

driving a chariot drown by say four horses or six horses

驾着马车,马车由四或六匹马牵引

when the horses are running properly the charioteer has not to worry about the running of the carriage

当这些马行走正常,车夫就不需要担心

and so the charioteer just looks on when the horses are running properly

所以车夫只需要照看这些马使之正确行进

so in the same way when the other mental states are functioning, doing their function properly

同样,当其他心所正常发挥作用

this neutrality of mind just looks on

心的中舍性只是观看

this neutrality of mind is often called upekkhā这种中舍性经常被称为upekkha whenever you see the word upekkhā please be careful

不管什么时候你看到upekkha这个词,得小心

it can mean indifference feeling

它可以指:舍受

or it can mean this mental factor, neutrality of mind or tatramajjhattata

也可以指这个心所:中舍性

you are familiar with the four brahmaviharas

你们熟悉四梵住

the noble abidings, metta, karuna, mudita, and the last one upekkha, right

四梵住:慈、悲、喜、舍

so that upekkha is not feeling upekkha

这种舍不是:舍受

that upekkha is this tatramajjhattata upekkha

是心的中舍性

so when you develop upekkha which is one of divine abidings

当你开发四梵住中的“舍”

you try to be impartial toward all beings

你尽力对所有众生不偏不倚

you do not try to wish happiness for beings

你不去试图希望众生幸福

you do not try to sympathize with them

你不去同情他们

you do not try to be happy with them

不去随喜他们

but you just look on without being affected by the condition of beings

你只是观照,不被众生的境遇所影响

either they are prospering or they’re suffering

不管他们是幸福还是受苦

that is what we call upekkha among the four divine abidings

这就是四梵住里的“舍”

and it is also translated as equanimity

它也被翻译成:平和镇定

next come the pairs, tranquility of mental body, tranquility of consciousness

接下来是六对:身轻安与心轻安

in the pali the word kāya, kāya-passaddhi

巴利语是:kāya-passaddhi kāya normally means the physical body kāya 一般指肉体

but actually kāya means just a group, a body

但是实际上kāya指“聚集”、“体”

and here it means not the physical body but mental body

这里不是指肉体,而是指:名身

mental body really means these mental factors

名身实际就指这些心所

so the kāya-passaddhi means tranquility of cetasikas mental factors

所以身轻安,就是指心所轻安

and citta-passaddhi means tranquility of consciousness citta-passaddhi意思就是心轻安

when there are defilements such as restlessness, and remorse or worry

当出现掉举、恶作、忧愁等烦恼

there is stress in the mind so the mind is tranquil at that time

心就有压迫,这样心就不轻安了

so when the mind is free from restlessness and worry, and mind is said to be tranquil or peaceful

当心没有掉举、忧愁心就是轻安的

so the tranquility of the cetasikas is called tranquility of mental body

所以心所的轻安被称为:身轻安

and tranquility of consciousness is called citta-passaddhi in pali, tranquility of consciousness

心的轻安被称为心轻安

and the next group is lightness of mental body and lightness of consciousness

下一个是:身轻快性与心轻快性

when you have sloth and torpor

当你昏沉和睡眠

your mental states your mental factors are not light, they’re kind of heavy

你的心所就不是轻快的,它们很沉重

and your mind your consciousness is also not light

你的心同样也不是轻快的

but when the consciousness is free sloth and torpor

当你的心没有昏沉和睡眠

and there is heaviness in the consciousness or in the mental factors

心、心所就不沉重

and so these two are called lightness of mental body and lightness of consciousness

所以这两个就被称为:身轻快性与心轻快性

and it is also explained that when there is lightness of mental body and lightness of consciousness

也可以解释说:当你的心所和心具有轻快性

then you don’t have many moments of bhavaṅga between active thought moments

在活跃的心识刹那之间就没有很多有分心

now there are type of consciousness called bhavaṅga

有一种心被称为有分心

bhavaṅga is translated as life-continuum

被翻译成:生命的持续

they are the inactive thought moments

有分心在心路中是不活跃的

now all through our lives

我们一生之中

inactive thought moments and active thought moments arise one after another

不活跃的和活跃的心识刹那此起彼伏

so there are inactive thought moments and then there are active thought moments

心路中,有不活跃的心,也有活跃的心

and then again inactive thought moments and so on

然后又是不活跃的心等等

inactive thought moments always intervene between two sets of active thought moments

不活跃的心,总是在彼此活跃的两组心之间

and those inactive moment can be many

这种不活跃的心可以很多

or they can be just a few

也可以很少

so when the active thought moments are intervened by just a few inactive thought moments

当活跃的心之间只有很少不活跃的心

and mind is said to be light

心里就很轻快

consciousness and mental factors are said to be light

心和心所就很轻快

then that happens when mind is free from sleepiness or sloth or torpor

这样心里就没有昏沉和睡眠

and also at other times

同样有时候

now the next group is malleability of mental body and of consciousness

接下来一组:身柔软性和心柔软性

this is a difficult word

这个词很难

the pali word, what is pali word for malleability?

对应的巴利语是什么?

mudutā, now the meaning of the word mudu means soft

是mudutā,

mudu的意思是:柔软

so we may translate softness of mental body and softness of consciousness

我们也可以用英语“柔软”来翻译

now softness here means it is not rigid

柔软就是不僵硬

so you can manage it

你可以调配它

when it is rigid, it is difficult to manage

当它僵硬的时候,就难调配

so it is manageability

所以说是:可调配性

when there is wrong view and when there is conceit

如果有邪见、慢

mind is said to be rigid

心就僵硬

but these types of mental factors do not arise together with wrong view or conceit

但是这些心所不会与邪见、慢一起生起

and so they are free wrong view and conceit which create rigidity

所以它们就不会有邪见、慢就不会制造出僵硬

since they are free from rigidity they are said to be soft

因为它们不是僵硬的,所以就被称为:柔软性

so softness of mental body softness of consciousness

所以是身柔软性和心柔软性 the next one is wieldiness of mental body wieldiness of consciousness

下一个是:身适业性与心适业性

now wieldiness means you can do anything you like with that thing

适业性,就是适于作业

when the clay is wet and soft

当泥巴是湿的,又是软的

then you can make this clay into any shape you like

你可以将其捏成任何形状

so that is what is called wieldiness of mental body and wieldiness of consciousness

这就是身适业性与心适业性

there are hindrances like sensual desire, hate and so on

五盖如贪、嗔等等

so when these mental hindrances are in the mind

当心里有这些盖

mind is difficult to manage

心就很难被调控

so there are said to be unwieldy

这样就不适业

so when mind is free from these mental hindrances

如果心里没有这些盖

the mind is said to be wieldy

心就适业

so that means you can manage the mind in the way you like

所以这样你就可以随心所欲调控心

and so these are the two mental factors

所以这两个心所

wieldiness of mental body and wieldiness of consciousness

身适业性与心适业性

and the next pair is proficiency of mental body and proficiency of consciousness

下一对是:身练达性与心练达性

in pali word pāguññatā means proficiency

巴利语pāguññatā意思是练达性

it is oppose to unhealthiness of mental body and unhealthiness of consciousness

它破除心所、心的疾病

now when there is lack of faith and so on

如果缺乏信等等

mind can not take what it likes to take

心不能缘取喜欢缘取的

and so the proficiency is missing there

这就没有练达性

so when there is no lack of faith in the mind

当心里有信

mind is proficient, taking the things that are beneficial to it

心就练达,可以缘取有益的目标

and the last is rectitude or straightness of mental body and rectitude of consciousness

最后一个:身正直性与心正直性

now it oppose to hypocrisy and fraudulence

对治伪善与狡诈

when there is hypocrisy or fraudulence mind is said to be crooked

如果有伪善和狡诈,心就是扭曲的

but these mental factors are free from hypocrisy and fraudulence

但是这些心所没有伪善和狡诈

and so there are said to be straight

所以称为正直性

so straightness of mental body and straightness of consciousness

所以是身正直性与心正直性

these 19 types of consciousness are called beautiful, universals

这19种被称为通一切美心心所

now you remember the beautiful types of consciousness

你们都记得美心

how many beautiful types of consciousness are there? you remember?

有多少美心?记得吗?

except the non-beautiful, the rest are beautiful

除了不美心,剩下的是美心

so 89 minus 30, 59 89减去30,59 so 59 types of consciousness are called beautiful, you take out of the chart 59种心被称为美心,你们把表拿出来

and you see the first 30 are non-beautiful, right?

首先的30个是不美心,对吧

and the rest are beautiful

剩下的都是美心

the first 30 means 12 unwholesome and 18 rootless consciousness

首先的30包括

12个不善心和18个无因心

so these 30 are collectively called non-beautiful

这30个统称为不美心

so since these are non-beautiful the others are beautiful

因为这些是不美心,剩下的就是美心

now these 19 mental factors are common to all these types of consciousness

这19个美心所通一切美心

so that means the first consciousness from among the sense-sphere wholesome consciousness, the first one

欲界善心第一个

so when that first one arises

如果它生起

all these 19 mental factors will arise with it

所有这19个美心所也会随之生起

the same with all other beautiful types of consciousness

其他美心也是同样的

therefore these 19 are called beautiful universals or in pali sobhana-sādhāraṇa

所以这19个心所被称为通一切美心

now the next three

接下来三个

the next three are called abstinences

接下来三个被称为:离

and in pali they are called virati abstaining from something

“离”巴利语是virati,远离

or refraining from something, so they are called abstinences, they are three of them

或者是:避免有三种离

and they’re right speech, right action and right livelihood

正语、正业、正命

if you’re familiar with the 8 factors of path you may notice these three among those 8

如果你们熟悉八正道就会发现这三个就在其中

right understanding, right thoughts, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration

正见、正思维、正语、正业、正命、正精进、正念、正定

so these three are among the 8 factors of path

这三个就在其中

but here since they are called abstinences

但是这里,因为它们被称为离

you must understand that

你们要知道

right speech means actually abstention from wrong speech

正语实际就是离开错误的语言

not just talking right, it is actually abstention from wrong speech

不只是讲正确的语言,也要离开错误的语言

the same with right action, right action here means abstention from wrong action, action means bodily action

同样,正业也指远离错误的行为行为,指身体行为

and right livelihood means abstention from wrong livelihood

正命意思是远离邪命

so these three

所以这三个

although the names are right speech, right action, right livelihood

虽然它们被称为:正语、正业、正命

they really mean not just speaking right, not just acting right

它们不只是语言正确,行为正确

but abstention from wrong speech, wrong action and wrong livelihood

还指远离:错误的言语、行为和错误的职业

and the abstention is

explained in the commentary as of three kinds, there are three kinds of abstentions

根据注释书,有三种

the first one is called abstention on occasion

第一种是:自然离

that means when you meet with an occasion to do something wrong

意思是:当你遇到某种做坏事的机遇

you refrain from doing that

你远离它,不去造恶

and that is called abstention on occasion

这被称为:自然离

and the second one is abstention by precepts

第二种是:持戒离

that means you have taken the precepts and so

意思是当你持戒后

when the occasion for doing wrong arises you refrain from it

有作恶的机会,你不去作恶

and the third one is absolute abstention

第三种是:正断离

and that absolute abstention arises with path consciousness

这种离与出世间道心一起生起

so when path consciousness arises, there is this absolute abstention

当道心生起时,就有这种正断离

that means it destroys the propensity to do wrong speech, or wrong action or wrong livelihood

意思就是摧毁了错误言语、错误行为、邪命的倾向

now

现在

the first one abstention on occasion

第一个:自然离

the commentary gives us a story for that

注释书给我们讲了个故事

there is a family in a village

村里有一户人家

and the mother is sick with some disease

一位母亲生病了

and the physician told them that in order to cure the disease

医生说如果要治好她的病

the fresh flesh of a rabbit is needed

需要新鲜的兔肉

a raw flesh of a rabbit is needed

需要新鲜的兔肉

now there were two brothers

这位母亲有两个儿子

so the older brother asked the younger brother to go to the forest and catch a rabbit

哥哥让弟弟去森林里捉兔子

so he went out to the forest

弟弟就去了森林

and he saw a rabbit eating grass

他看到兔子在吃草

but when the rabbit saw the man the rabbit went away

当兔子看到他的时候,就逃走了

but as the rabbit went away, it was caught in a creeper and so it could not run away and it was making like grrr, grrr, grrr and so on

兔子逃跑的时候,被藤条缠住了不能动弹,发出吱吱的叫声

so he picked it up

所以他就捉住了兔子

and then thought to himself: now i have got medicine for my mother

他想:这可以给我妈妈治病了

i will make medicine with the flesh of this rabbit

这只兔子可以入药

but then he thought

然后他想:

it would not be proper for me to kill a being simply because i want to cure the disease of my mother

为了治疗妈妈的病,而去杀生这应该是不对的

so thinking this way, he just let it go

这样想后,他就放了兔子

and he went back

他就回家了

then his brother asked him whether he had got the rabbit and he told the story

然后他的哥哥问他有没有捉到兔子他就告诉他哥哥情况

so when the elder brother heard this he scolded his younger brother

他的哥哥听了之后,把他骂了一顿

but the younger brother went to the mother

但是弟弟去到母亲那里

and then made the utterance of truth

然后宣说真实语

he made utterance of truth in this way

他这样宣说真实语:

ever since i came of age i know of what is right and wrong

自从成人以来,我知善知恶

i have never taken the life of a living being

未曾杀害任何生命

by this utterance of truth may my mother be cured

以此真实语,愿我母亲得愈痊

and it is said that the disease of his mother is cured

他母亲因此愈痊了

so here this man refrained from killing the rabbit on occasion

这个人避免杀生的境遇

now the occasion for or the chance for killing the rabbit has come to him

在他面前有一个杀兔子的机会

but he refrains from it

但是他远离了

so refraining or abstaining from doing wrong when some opportunity arises

当某种境遇出现时,避免作恶

is called abstention on occasion

这就被称为:自然离

he has an occasion to kill a rabbit but he did not

有杀兔子的机会,但是他没有杀

and abstention on precepts

接下来:持戒离

for this there is another story

这里也有一个故事

again there is a village and

也是一个村庄

one day a farmer took precepts from a well-known monk in the village

一天有个农夫从一个著名法师那里受戒了

so after taking the precepts he went to the fields to plow

受戒之后,他就去田里耕种

and then his oxen ran away

然后他的牛跑走了

and so he went in search of the oxen and he got into a forest

所以他就去森林里寻牛

so in the forest he was caught by a python a snake

在森林里他遇到了一条蟒蛇

so the snake coiled around him

这条蛇缠住了他

but he had in his hand a axe

他手里有一把斧头

so the first thing he thought was i will kill the snake with this axe

他的第一个念头就是要用斧头杀死蛇

so three times he thought that way

起了三次这样的念头

but later he thought it will not be proper for me to break the precepts

但是后来他想:我犯戒杀生恐怕不好

that i have taken from such a holy person

因为给我授戒的是个圣人

so i will give up my life

我要放弃生命

and he threw the axe away

所以他扔掉了斧头

by the power of his moral precepts his moral sila

凭借戒行的力量

the python released him and went away

蟒蛇松开了他,逃走了

so in this story

这个故事里

he abstained from killing the snake

这个农夫放弃杀蛇

because he has taken the precepts

因为他受戒了

so this another kind of abstention, abstention by or through taking precepts

这就是持戒离

the last one is absolute abstention, that means abstention achieved at the moment of enlightenment

最后一个是正断离,是在觉悟的时候获得的

now at the moment of enlightenment you all know the path consciousness arises

觉悟的时候,你们都知道,道心生起

and that path consciousness eradicate all mental defilements

道心断除了所有的烦恼

so when it eradicate mental defilements

它断除了烦恼

it eradicates all disposition for doing what is wrong

断除了作恶的倾向

so that is the abstention that last forever

这就是永远的离

so that is called absolute abstention

叫做:正断离

so there are three kinds of abstentions or abstinences

这三种离

each one of them can be of three

每一个都包含三个

so here we have sammā-vācā, right speech

我们在这里有:正语

sammā-kammanta, right action

正业

and sammā-ājīva right livelihood

正命

since there are abstentions

what is meant here is abstention from wrong speech

就是离开错误的言语

abstention from wrong action

离开错误的行为

and abstention from wrong livelihood

离开邪命

now in the discourses suttas

在经文里

buddha mentioned five trades

佛陀提到五种贸易

that disciples should not follow

佛弟子不当为

and it is

分别是

trading in or dealing in poisons, dealing in intoxicants, dealing in weapons

贩卖毒药、贩卖酒、贩卖武器

dealing in human beings that means slaves and so on

贩卖人口,就是贩卖奴隶等

and dealing in animals for slaughter

贩卖动物,卖它们去屠杀

so these five are called wrong livelihood

这五种被称为邪命

so a disciple of the buddha should abstain from dealing in these five things

佛弟子必须远离这五种贸易

so when he abstains from dealing in these five things

当一个人远离这五种事

and make his livelihood correctly

就是正命自活

then he is said to be practicing right livelihood

这就是正命

but here also right livelihood means abstention from these five kinds of wrong livelihood

正命就是远离这五种邪命

now the next group is limitless ones

下一组是无量

and they are compassion, karuna, and appreciative joy, mudita

就是悲、喜

now they are called limitless because

它们被称为无量

they must take the object that is limitless

是因为它们的所缘是无量的

when you practice compassion

当你修悲心的时候

you have to take all beings as object, no limits

所缘必须是所有众生,无量的

that is why they are called limitless

所以就被称为无量

so limitless means limitless in the range of object

无量,指所缘的无量

and when you practice appreciative joy also, you have to take all beings as object

当你修“喜”的时候也必须将所有众生作为所缘

now what is compassion

什么是悲?

compassion is desire to remove suffering from those who are suffering

悲就是拔除受苦者之苦的愿望

now when you see someone suffering, you want to remove that suffering from that being

当你看到某人受苦你想移除他的苦

and that desire to remove suffering from those who are suffering is called compassion

这种拔除受苦者之苦的愿望就被称为悲

so it has the characteristic of promoting the removal of suffering in others

所以它的特相就是促成他人苦难的拔除

when you practice compassion first you may practice compassion to one person one being, two beings and so on

当你修悲的时候,首先你对一个人、两个人修悲

but ultimately you must reach all beings

但是最终,你的悲心要达到所有众生

so may all beings be free from affliction or something like that

诸如:愿所有的众生远离烦恼等

may all beings be free from suffering

愿所有的众生脱离苦难

so when you repeat this, really meaning this and you are practicing compassion

当你重复这些,真的这样想你就是在修悲心

and it is important when you practice compassion

当你修悲的时候,重要的是

you just stop there with compassion and don’t go into sorrow or anger

仅仅停在悲心上,不要生起忧伤和愤怒

now that is very important

这是非常重要的

now sometimes people transcend or people pass compassion and go into violence

有时候人们跨越悲心,走向暴力

there are people who have compassion for animals being used as tests in medical laboratories

有人对医学实验室的动物有悲心

and then they would attack the people who are working there or they might even throw a bomb at them

他们去攻击在那里工作的人甚至向那里扔炸弹

and so their compassion turns to anger

所以他们的悲心变成了愤怒

so that is not compassion now they have come into anger

所以那不是悲心,它变成了愤怒

so when you practice compassion you have to see to it that it does not change into anger

当你修悲心的时候,你得知道不要让它变为愤怒

or sometimes you’re sorry with the person who is suffering

有时候你对受苦的人感到难过

and when you’re sorry with him then you have dommanasa you have a kind of ill will

你难过的时候,是忧受你的心里就出现嗔,

and so you step over into akusala

所以你跳过悲心,生起了不善心

so it is very important that we must be careful when we practice compassion

所以,修悲的时候,要非常小心,这很重要

we must not get into anger or sorrow

我们必须不要愤怒和忧伤

we must just stop just at compassion wish that they be free from suffering

我们必须只是停在悲心上愿他们脱离苦难

the second is appreciative joy that means

第二个是喜

when other people are prosperous

当别人有成就时

when other people are in success you are happy

当别人成功时,你很开心

you do not feel jealousy

你不会感到嫉妒

so that is appreciative joy or mudita

这就是随喜

and mudita also should be practiced to all beings without exception

喜的所缘也是所有众生,没有例外

and so it is also called limitless

所以也是无量

there must be no limit in the objects of mudita or appreciative joy

随喜的所缘必须无量

so when you practice mudita you say may they not fall away from this prosperity or some thing like that

当你修喜时,你说:愿所有的众生成就等等

now there are four divine abidings, for brahmaviharas

有四梵住

but here only two are mentioned

在这里只是提到两个

that is because metta is included in non-hatred

因为慈被包含在无嗔里

and upekkha is included in neutrality of mind

舍被包含在中舍性里

so actually there are four brahmaviharas

所以实际上有四个梵住

but the other two are included in the mental factors non-hatred and neutrality of mind

但是其他两个被无嗔、中舍性含摄

so these four can be practiced to become brahmaviharas or divine abidings

所以可以修习这四个,成为梵住

and also they can be not brahma abidings

也可以不成为梵住

so when you’re paying homage to the buddha, there is no hatred in your mind

所以当你礼敬佛陀,心里就没有嗔

but you’re not practicing loving-kindness

但是你不是在修慈

and when you’re paying homage to the buddha there is neutrality of mind

当你礼敬佛陀时,心里生起中舍性

but that is not upekkha as the brahmavihara

但是这不是梵住里面的“舍”

so in order to practice brahmavihara or noble abiding

如果要修习梵住里面的“舍”

you have to take the beings as object

你要将众生作为所缘

beings, limitless beings as object

将无量的众生作为所缘

and then thought of loving-kindness and so on to all living beings

然后对所有众生修慈

so here the two are called limitless

在这里,这两个被称为无量

but in other books, the four are called limitless ones

在其他书里,有四无量

now we come to the last one, that is wisdom faculty, paññindriya

最后一个是:慧根

actually paññindriya is amoha, non-delusion

实际上慧根是:无痴

opposite of moha, moha is not knowing

与痴相对,痴就是无明

and so paññindriya is knowing

所以paññindriya指智慧

understanding the true nature of things

了解诸法实相

and since it exercises its authority in its own field

因为在如实知见方面占主导

it is called indriya or faculty

所以被称为“根”

and this paññindriya or wisdom faculty has the characteristic of penetrating things according to their intrinsic nature

慧根的特相就是穿透诸法的本质

that means penetrating the true nature of things understanding that things are impermanent and so on

意思就是穿透实相,知道诸法无常等等

and it is compared to a light

它被比喻成一盏灯

so when there is wisdom then we see things as they really are

有智慧,就能如实知见实相

when there is no wisdom we are like in the dark

没有智慧,就如同在黑暗里

so it is the opposite of moha

它的对立面是:痴

so altogether we get 52 cetasikas

一起就是52心所

some common to both unwholesome and beautiful

有些心所可以伴随不善心,也可以伴随美心

some common to akusala only or beautiful only

有些只伴随不善心,或者只伴随美心

and these cetasikas will come into combination with the types of consciousness we have studied

这些心所将和我们学过的各种心组合

now we will have to find out

我们将要找出

which cetasikas go with which types of consciousness

哪些心所与哪些心同生

and also which types of consciousness go with which types of cetasikas

同样,哪些心与哪些心所同生

that means suppose we will take say vitakka

意思是,假如我们拿出:寻

and we will find out how many types of consciousness arise with vitakka

我们要找出有多少心可以与它同生

and then we will take the first unwholesome citta

假如我们拿出:不善心

and then we will find out how many cetasikas arise with that type of consciousness

我们要找出有多少心所伴随这些心生起

so there are two modes of combination

所以有两种组合模式

so we will study them tomorrow

我们明天学习它们

now we have come to the end of the 52 cetasikas

我们结束了52心所的学习

and these are mental states and these are interesting things

这些心所很有趣

and there is a way of understanding them

可以通过一种方式了解它们

by four aspects

通过四个方面

our teachers of old

我们古代的老师

taught us that each one of these should be understood according to the four aspects

教导我们每个心所都要通过四个方面了解

that means the characteristic of each one function of each one manifestation of each one and proximate cause of each one

即:特相、作用、现起、近因

they are given in the manual

在概要精解里都给出了

so you make check those from the manual

所以你们可以从里面查到

and they will be very interesting

这些非常有趣

ok, we will continue….

好,我们下次继续……

disk01track11

yesterday we studies the 52 mental factors

昨天我们学习了52心所

today we will study the combination of consciousness with mental factors

今天我们要学习心和心所的组合

now on other days i talked and you listened to me

以前是我讲,你们听

so i sweat and you didn’t

所以我流汗,你们很轻松

today i will make you sweat

今天我要让你们流汗

i will make you work

让你们做练习

now the chart on the screen shows the two kinds of combination

屏幕上的图表显示了两种组合

this chart shows the combination two ways

这张表显示了组合的两种方式

if you read from top to bottom

如果你从上往下读

it is one method of combination

这是一种组合方式

in order to differentiate the two methods

为了区分这两种方法

i will call this down going method cetasika-citta combination

我将自上而下的方法称为:心所-心组合

that means we will pick up a cetasika

意思就是我拿出一个心所

and then we will find out how many cittas that particular cetasika arises with

然后我们找出与这个心所同生的有哪些心

and if you read across it is another kind of combination

如果横着看那是另外一种组合

we pick up a type of consciousness

我们拿出一种心

and then we try to find out how many cetasikas arise with that particular type of consciousness

找出有多少心所可以伴随这种心

so we will call it citta-cetasika combination

这种组合就是心-心所组合

so there are two kinds of combination: cetasika-citta combination and citta-cetasika combination

所以有两种组合方式:心所-心组合方式,心-心所组合方式

so

所以

the in the column of cetasikas

在心所的纵列里

there are grouped together

是分组的

52 cetasikas are grouped together 52种心所分组排列

that is to make the chart fit in the page of the book

这样图表才能适应页面大小

if we can expand this chart

如果我们扩展这个表格

so that each column each line represent just one citta, one cetasika

每列每行只代表一种心或心所

it would be very good

这样就非常好

but it maybe bigger than the wall of this hall

但是这样就要一张很大的纸可能比这个墙壁还大

ok, now the first is universal 7, you know the universal 7

好,第一个是遍一切心心所,七个

the 7 universal cetasikas

七个遍一切心心所

if you look back the list of cetasikas,

如果你往前翻心所的列表

the universal 7 are contact, feeling, perception, volition, one-pointedness of mind, life faculty and attention

遍一切心心所是:触、受、想、思、一境性、名命根、作意

the universal 7 represent these 7 cetasikas

遍一切心心所就代表这七个心所

and then next line is initial application or vitakka

下一行是寻心所

and then sustained application, vicara

然后是伺心所

decision, adhimokkha

胜解

energy, viriya

精进

zest, piti

and desire, chanda

and then next column is unwholesome universals 4

下一列是遍一切不善心心所4个

so they are delusion, shamelessness, fearlessness, and restlessness

它们是:痴、无惭、无愧、掉举

and next is greed or lobha

下一个是:贪

and then wrong view, ditthi and conceit mana

然后是:邪见、慢

a group of 3

这是三贪因心所

and next a group of 4

下面是四嗔因心所

hate dosa, envy issa

嗔、嫉、

avarice macchariya and worry or remorse kukkucca

悭、恶作

and then two sloth and torpor, thina and middha

然后是两有行:昏沉和睡眠

and then the last of the akusala cetasikas, doubt vicikiccha

最后一个不善心所:疑

and then beautiful universals 19

然后是:遍一切美心心所19个

since they arise together with the beautiful cittas

它们伴随美心生起

the 19 are put in just column

所以这19个被放在一列里

and then abstinences 3

然后是三离心所

right speech, right action, right livelihood

正语、正业、正命

and then illimitables or limitless ones 2

然后是二无量心所

compassion and sympathetic joy

悲、喜

and then the last wisdom or the wisdom faculty

最后一个是慧或慧根

so these are the 52 cetasikas here

这就是52个心所

if we read these chart down

如果我们从上往下看表

now we will find out how many cittas arise with universal cetasikas

我们会发现有多少心与遍一切心心所相应

since they are universal, they arise with all cittas

因为它们是遍一切心心所,所以与所有心同生

this chart is in the book

书里的这张表

page 102, 103

在第102、103页

if you read down the column universal 7

如果你向下看这列遍一切心心所

you see all cittas there

你看到所有心都与它相应

so 89 or 121 types of consciousness

所有89或121种心

so contact arises with 89 or 121 types of consciousness

所以“触心所”与89

或121种心相应

feeling, perception and so on

然后是受、想等等

all these 7 cetasikas arise with all types of consciousness, so there is no difficulty here

这七种遍一切心心所与所有心相应,这个没什么困难

and then we come to initial application or vitakka

我们现在看寻心所

if you look down at the bottom you see the number 55

如果你看这一列的底下,可以看到数字55 so that means vitakka arises with 55 types of consciousness

意思就说寻心所与55种心相应

and they are, what?

是哪些心呢?

all akusala cittas

所有的不善心

oh, wait, i’d like to explain the left hand column with the head cittas

等一等,我想解释一下左边的“心”

now greed rooted

先看贪根心

there are 8 types of consciousness that are rooted in greed lobha mula

有八种贪根心

so there are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

一二三四五六七八

and then hate rooted, 1 and 2, dosa mula

然后是嗔根心两种

and delusion rooted again 1 and 2 moha mula

然后是痴根心也是两种

now the next sense consciousness 10

接下来是根识10种

now that means, seeing consciousness, hearing consciousness, smelling, tasting and touching consciousness

根识就是:眼耳鼻舌身诸识

5 are the result of unwholesome kamma

五个不善果报心

and the other 5 result of wholesome kamma

五个善果报心

so these 10 are collectively called sense consciousness

所以这十个被称为根识

actually not just sense consciousness

实际上不仅称为根识

two sets of five types of consciousness

还被称为双五识

in pali they’re called dvipañcaviññāṇa

巴利语是:dvipañcaviññāṇa so when we want to refer to all ten of these consciousnesses, we say in pali dvipañcaviññāṇa

如果我们要提到所有这十个心,我们就会说:双五识

so two sets of five types of consciousness

双五识

but here for simplicity sake we will call sense consciousness

在这里,为了简便,直接称为根识

so when we say sense consciousness we mean those ten types of consciousness from the rootless consciousness

所以当我们说根识的时候,就是指无因心里面的这十个心

so two eye consciousnesses, two ear consciousnesses and so on up to two body consciousnesses

双眼识、双耳识、一直到双身识

and then receiving consciousness there are two receiving consciousnesses

然后是领受心,有两个

one belonging to the result of unwholesome and the other belonging to the result of wholesome

有一个是不善果报心,另外一个是善果报心

and then investigating consciousness

然后是推度心

accompanied by equanimity that means accompanied by neutral feeling

是伴随着舍受

and another investigating consciousness

还有一个推度心

there are two of the investigating consciousnesses accompanied by neutral feeling

有两个舍俱推度心

and then investigating joy, that means investigating consciousness accompanied by joy there is only one

然后是悦俱推度心,一个

and it belongs to the result of wholesome kamma

这个是善果报心

and then five-door-adverting

然后是五门转向心

in the dot chart that is the first of the third column in rootless consciousness

在带点的图表里,第三列第一个,是无因心

five-sense-door-adverting

五门转向心

and then the next is mind-door-adverting

然后是意门转向心

and then next one smile producing

然后是生笑心

and then you have SS wholesome

然后是SS善心

sense-sphere wholesome or kamavacara kusala

也就是欲界善心

there are 8, and 1 and 2 are put together there, 3, and 4, 5 and 6, 7 and 8

有八个,一二、三四、五六、七八

because they have the same number of mental factors arise with them

在一起的两个都具有相同数目的心所

and then SS result, sense-sphere resultant

然后是欲界果报心

there are also grouped together as 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 5 and 6, 7 and 8

也是按一二、三四、五六、七八,两个一组

and then SS functional, sense-sphere functional

然后是欲界唯作心

they are also grouped together as 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 5 and 6, 7 and 8

也是按照一二、三四、五六、七八,两个一组

and then FMS what is that?

然后是FMS,这是什么?

fine-material sphere, rupavacara

色界心

so fine-material sphere, first jhana three

色界心,初禅三心

fine-material sphere second jhana three, third, fourth, fifth jhana three

色界二禅,三心,三禅、四禅、五禅,三心

three means one wholesome, one resultant and one functional

三心指:善心、果报心、唯作心

so there are three first jhana, second, third, fourth, fifth jhana cittas

所以初禅、二三四五禅,每一个都有这三心

and then IS

然后是IS immaterial sphere, arupavacara

无色界心

arupavacara is included in the fifth jhana

无色界心被第五禅所摄

so there fifth there

所以第五禅

and there are 12 of them

有十二个心

and then four path cittas

然后是四个道心

expanding into 20 cittas

扩展为二十个心

so here what do they mean is first jhana, first path

在这里就是:初禅,第一道心

second jhana first path

二禅、第一道心

third jhana, fourth jhana, fifth jhana first path

三四五禅,第一道心

and then first jhana second path

然后是初禅,第二道心

second jhana second path

二禅,第二道心

third jhana second path, fourth jhana second path

三四禅,第二道心

and fifth jhana and second path and so on

五禅,第二道心等等

so there are all together 20 path consciousnesses

一起就是二十个道心

and fruit consciousnesses are also in brief there are four

果心,略数是四个

and when expanded there are twenty

如果扩展就是二十个

so first jhana first fruit consciousness

初禅,第一果心

second jhana first fruit consciousness and so on

二禅,第一果心等等

fifth jhana first fruit consciousness

五禅,第一果心

and then first jhana second fruit consciousness and so on

初禅,第二果心等等

so

所以

all 121 types of consciousness are arranged in this diagram

所有121种心都被包括在这张表里

grouping together the types of consciousness that have the same number of mental factors arising with them

根据相同的心所数量,按组分类

that is to abbreviate or to make the chart fit in the page

这样做是为了让图表适应页面

here also if we can put just one citta in one line

我们同样也可以把一个心作为一行

we will have 121 lines so to go down

排列下去就有121行

that will be very good because

这样就很好,因为

in that case you don’t have to find for yourself what sense consciousness means and so on

这样的话,像碰到根识,你就不用再查了

but in order to make it manageable we have to group some types of consciousness together

但是为了让图表适应页面,我们只能给它们分组

so now we will go back to the cetasika-citta combination

我们现在再回到心所-心组合

so the seven univsersals, they arise with all 89 or 121 types of consciousness

所以七个遍一切心心所,它们与所有89或121种心相应

so that is no difficulty here

这个不难

now initial application it arises with all 12 akusala cittas

寻心所,与所有12个不善心相应

and then it does not arise with ten sense consciousness

但是它与双五识不相应

that means eye consciousness and so on

就是指眼识等等

so the eye consciousness so on arise without vitakka without initial application

眼识等的生起没有寻心所的伴随

so initial application does not arise with these ten types of consciousness

寻心所不与这十个心相应

and then two receiving consciousness it arises with and so on so on until we come to the second jhana

然后是与两个领受心相应,一直到二禅心

so the fine-material second jhana three

色界二禅的三个心

there is no vitakka

没有寻心所

and third jhana, fourth jhana, fifth jhana no vitakka and

三四五禅,都没有寻心所

immaterial jhanas no vitakka

无色界禅那,没有寻心所

and then path consciousnesses with first jhana forth, there is vitakkha

然后是道心,初禅系列,有寻心所

but with second, third, fourth, fifth no vitakka

但是二三四五禅,没有寻心所

and with fruit consciousness also first jhana forth there is vitakka

果心也是同样,初禅系列,有寻心所

but with second, third, fourth and fifth there is no vitakka

二三四五禅,没有寻心所

so when we add these all up, we get 55 types of consciousness with which initial application or vitakka arises

所以把所有这些加起来,我们得到55种心,与寻心所相应

actually vitakka does not arise with ten sense consciousnesses

实际上寻心所与十个根识不相应

and it does not arise with second, third, fourth and fifth jhana that’s all

与二三四五禅不相应,如此

if you can remember this, you can find out the 55

如果你记住这些,就能找出55个心

then sustained application

接下来是伺心所

now sustained application arises with 66 types of consciousness

伺心所与66种心相应

the 55 that vitakka arises with plus 11 more

寻心所的55再加11 vicara is with second jhana, right?

伺心所与二禅相应,对吧?

how many jhana factors are with second jhana?

二禅有几个禅支?

vicara, piti, sukha, ekaggata

伺、喜、乐、一境性

so vicara arises 11 more cittas than vitakka

所以伺心所比寻心所多11个相应的心

so you just add the 11 second jhana consciousness to the 55

用11个二禅心加上55 and you get 66

就得到66 you have the small card with you?

那张小卡你们有吗?

please try to find out the fisrt jhana cittas and so on

请找出初禅心等等

how many first jhana cittas are there?

有多少初禅心

3 from rupavacara

色界三个

and 8 from lokuttara or supramundane

出世间八个

so all together 11

一起就是11个

so 11 first jhana cittas, 11 second jhana cittas, 11 third jhana cittas, 11 fourth jhana cittas 11个初禅心,11个二禅心

11个三禅心,11个四禅心

and how many fifth jhana cittas

五禅心多少个?

3 from rupavacara

色界三个

and all 12 arupavacara or immaterial 12个无色界禅心

and then 8 from supramundane

八个来自出世间心

you use the chart?

你们用那个表吗?

so first jhana three

初禅三个

now you see them?

现在你们看到了吧?

first jhana three

初禅三个

there are rupavacara or material consciousness

色界心

and the second jhana three

二禅三个

third jhana three

三禅三个

fourth jhana three

四禅三个

and then fifth jhana three

五禅三个

it’s from rupavacara

这是色界心

and arupavacara all 12 belong to fifth jhana

还有无色界所有12个都属于五禅

and then you go to the supramundane

然后看出世间心

so

所以

path consciousness, look at the path consciousnesses

道心,看道心

how many first jhana cittas are there? four

有多少初禅心?四个

second jhana citta, four

二禅心,四个

third jhana, fourth jhana citta, four

三禅四禅心,四个

fifth jhana citta also four

五禅心,也是四个

and among the fruit consciousness

果心

there are four first jhana cittas

有四个初禅心

four second, third, fourth, fifth, four fifth jhana cittas

二三四五禅心,也都是四个

so if you read these across there are only 11 first jhana cittas

如果你们横着看,有11个初禅心

so three from rupavacara

三个来自色界

and eight from supramundane

八个来自出世间心

so next 11 second jhana cittas

然后11个二禅心

11 third jhana cittas 11个三禅心

11 fourth jhana cittas 11个四禅心

but fifth jhana cittas are more than 11

但是五禅心不止11个

three plus twelve plus four plus four

三加十二加四加四

how many?

多少?

three plus twelve fifteen, fifteen plus four seventeen

三加十二十五,十五加四十七(此处尊者算错了) seventeen plus four, twenty one

十七加四二十一

no

错了

there must be twenty three

应该是二十三

well

那么

three twelve, right?

三加十二,对吧?

or yeah, fifteen plus eight, twenty three

哦,是的,十五加八,二十三

so there are twenty three fifth jhana cittas

所以有23个五禅心

ok now

好,现在

we can go back to the chart

回到图表

so now you can see in your mind

现在你们可以知道

the 11 first jhana cittas 11个初禅心

11 second, third, fourth jhana cittas

二三四禅心,各11个

and 23 fifth jhana cittas

五禅心,23个

now vitakkha arises with 11 first jhana cittas

寻心所与11个初禅心相应

but vicara arises with 11 first jhana cittas and 11 second jhana cittas

但是伺心所与11个初禅心和11个二禅心相应

so that is why vicara or sustained application arises with 66 types of consciousness

所以伺心所与66种心相应

the third one, decision

第三个:胜解

decision does not arise with doubt

胜解不与疑在一起

decision and doubt are opposite to each other

胜解与疑彼此相对

when there is doubt you can not get your decision

如果有疑,你就不能做决定

so when there is decision there is no doubt

做决定的时候,就没有疑

so decision does not arise with the consciousness which is accompanied by doubt

所以胜解不包括在与疑相应的心里

so 11 types of unwholesome consciousness

所以11个不善心

and then it does not arise with the ten sense consciousnesses and that’s all

然后它不与十个根识相应,就这样

so all together 78 or 110

所以一共是78个,或者110个

and then energy

接下来是:精进

energy arises with all twelve akusala unwholesome cittas

精进与所有12个不善心相应

but it does not arise with sense consciousness ten

但是不与十个根识相应

receiving consciousness two

不与两个领受心相应

investigating consciousness three let us say

不与三个推度心相应

and five-sense-door-adverting

不与五门转向心相应

so it arises with only two from the rootless consciousness

它只与无因心里的两个相应

and there are mind-door adverting and smile producing

也就是:意门转向心、生笑心

and then with all the rest of cittas

然后与剩下的所有心相应

and so it arises with 73 or 105 types of consciousness

精进与73或105种心相应

next is what? zest

接下来是什么?喜心所

now zest or joy piti

喜心所

piti cannot arise with those types of consciousness that are accompanied by indifferent feeling or neutral feeling

喜心所不能与舍受心在一起

so piti arises with only four from the lobha mula or four from the types of consciousness rooted in lobha

所以喜心所只与贪根心里的四个相应

and no other from the akusala

不与其他不善心相应

and then it does not arise with sense consciousness because sense consciousness are accompanied by what feeling?

喜心所不与根识相应,因为根识伴随的感受是什么?

all ten sense consciousness are accompanied by upekkha, neutral feeling

所有十个根识都是舍受

so it does not go with upekkha so it does not arise with this

所以喜心所不与舍在一起也就与根识不相应

and two receiving consciousness also

也不与两个领受心相应

are accompanied by upekkha

因为它们也是舍受

so it does not arise with them

所以就不与它们相应

and investigating consciousness accompanied by equanimity two it does not arise with

两个舍俱推度心,不与之相应

but the investigating consciousness accompanied by joy it arises with

但是与悦俱推度心相应

and with smile producing also it arises

也与生笑心相应

and then

然后

we go to kamavacara or sense-sphere wholesome

看欲界善心

now the first four of the sense-sphere wholesome

前四个欲界善心

are accompanied by joy, right? somanassa

它们是悦俱的,对吧?

so with these four piti arises

所以喜心所与这四个相应

but with the other four, piti does not

喜心所与另外四个则不相应

that means with sense-sphere wholesome one two and three four piti arises

即欲界善心1、2、3、4个,喜心所与之相应

but with five six and seven eight piti does not arise

但是第5、6、7、8个,喜心所不与之相应

and then sense-sphere resultant

接下来是欲界果报心

one two three four it arises 1、2、3、4,与之相应

with and, five six seven eight it does not arise with 5、6、7、8,喜心所不与之相应

and sense-sphere functional, one two three four it arises with

欲界唯作心,1、2、3、4,喜心所与之相应

and with five six seven eight it does not arise 5、6、7、8,喜心所不与之相应

and then with first jhana

然后是初禅心

actually 11 11个

with rupavacara first jhana it arises

色界初禅心,与之相应

second jhana yes, third jhana yes

二禅,是,三禅,是

fourth jhana it does not arise

四禅,不与之相应

because there is no piti in fourth jhana

因为四禅没有喜禅支

and then fifth jhana there is no piti so it does not arise

五禅,也没有喜禅支,不与之相应

and with the twelve arupavacara cittas with twelve immaterial sphere cittas it does not arise 12个无色界心,不与之相应

because the twelve immaterial cittas are accompanied by neutral feeling

因为12个无色界心都是舍受

and then with the supramundane it arise with first jhana second jhana and third jhana not with fourth and fifth jhana

然后是出世间心,与初禅、二三禅相应不与四五禅相应

so all together, piti arises with 51 types of consciousness

所以,所有加起来,喜心所与51种心相应

that means with those that are accompanied by joy

即与悦俱的心相应

except the fourth jhana cittas

但四禅禅心除外

and desire chanda

欲心所

desire arises with eight rooted in greed

欲心所与八个贪根心相应

and two rooted in hate

也与两个嗔根心相应

but it does not arise with two accompanied by delusion

但是与两个痴根心不相应

so only ten from akusala

所有与不善心中的10个相应

and then it does not arise with all rootless consciousness

它与所有无因心都不相应

but with others it arises

与剩下的所有心,都相应

so all together it arises, desire arises with 69 or 101 types of consciousness

所以所有加起来,欲心所与69或101种心相应

so now you know how to read this chart

现在你们知道如何看这个表

if you want to know with how many types of consciousness a certain mental factor arises

如果你想知道某个心所与哪些心相应

then you read this chart from top to bottom

你就从上往下看

now let us go further

接下来继续

unwholesome universals four

遍一切不善心心所

that means delusion shamelessness fearlessness and restlessness

即:痴、无惭、无愧、掉举

these four arise all unwholesome cittas

这四个与一切不善心相应

that’s all

就这样

the others are not unwholesome cittas, so they will not arise with any of the remaining types of consciousness

其他的都不是不善心,所以不与其他心相应

and so there are only twelve for them

所以只有十二个心与之相应

that means delusion arises with twelve unwholesome types of consciousness

即:痴与12个不善心相应

shamelessness fearlessness with twelve unwholesome types of consciousness and so on

无惭、无愧也是与12个不善心相应,等等

and then greed or lobha

接下来是:贪心所

it arises with only 8 types of consciousness accompanied by greed lobha mula

它只与八种贪根心相应

no other so only eight

没有其他的,所以只有八种

and wrong view

邪见

wrong view arises with first and second unwholesome consciousness rooted in greed

邪见与贪根心中第一二两种心相应

and then fifth and sixth

也与第五六两种贪根心相应

if you go back to the list of types of consciousness you will see

如果翻回到心的列表,可以看到

say with joy with wrong view unprompted

悦俱邪见相应无行

with joy with wrong view prompted

悦俱邪见相应有行

with joy without wrong view unprompted

悦俱邪见不相应无行

with joy without wrong view prompted and so on

悦俱邪见不相应有行等等

so if you look at the chart you easily see that

如果你看那个表,就容易看到

wrong arises with first and second and fifth and sixth of the eight types of consciousness accompanied by lobha or attachment or greed

邪见与八个贪根心中的第一第二、第五第六相应

and then conceit

然后是:慢心所

conceit arises with third and fourth seventh and eighth consciousness from the unwholesome types of consciousness

慢与不善心中的第三四、七八相应

now it is said in the books that wrong view and conceit do not arise together

书中说邪见和慢不能同时生起

because their way of looking at the five aggregates are different

因为它们观察五蕴的方式不同

wrong view takes things to be permanent, it takes things to be self or soul or so on

邪见认为诸法是常、有我等等

and so its way of looking at the five aggregates is like permanent or soul

所以它看待五蕴的方式是恒常、有我

but conceit is “I”, “I”

但是慢心所是:“我怎样”、“我怎样”

so conceit looks at the five aggregates in another way

所以慢以另外的方式看待五蕴

and so they can not arise together with the same type of consciousness

所以这两个不能同时存在于一个心中

so when wrong view is there there can be no conceit

所以有邪见,就不能有慢

and when there is conceit there can be no wrong view

有慢,就不能有邪见

although they are based on the five aggregates

虽然它们都是基于五蕴

and although both of them are associated with lobha or greed or attachment

虽然两个都与贪有关

because wrong view also comes from attachment to the five aggregates

因为邪见也是起源于对五蕴之贪执

conceit also comes from attachment

慢也是来自贪执

if you are not attached to yourself you will not feel conceit at all

如果你不贪执于自己,你就决不会有慢

so it is said that just as two lions can not live in one and the same cave

所以说,二狮不容于一穴

so wrong view and conceit can not arise with one and the same type of consciousness

所以邪见、慢不能同生于一心

so when there is wrong view there is no conceit, when there is conceit there is no wrong view

所以有邪见就没有慢,有慢就没有邪见

so conceit arises with only third, fourth, and seventh eighth of the consciousness accompanied by greed so only four

所以慢心所与贪根心中的第三第四第七第八相应,四种

now the next group is hate, envy, avarice, worry

下一组是:嗔、嫉、悭、恶作

thsese four are put together because they arise with the two cittas accompanied by hate

这四个放在一起,因为它们与两个嗔根心相应

so if you read down you see

如果往下,你就看到

hate, envy, avarice, worry

嗔、嫉、悭、恶作

hate rooted one and hate rooted two

嗔根心第一、第二

so there are only two types of consciousenss that they arise with

所以它们只与两种心相应

and next is sloth and torpor

下一个是:昏沉与睡眠

now sloth and torpor means you are dull

昏沉与睡眠意思是:呆滞

so sloth and torpor can not arise with those types of consciousenss that are unprompted

所以昏沉与睡眠不能与无行心在一起

so those that are unprompted are not said to be dull

无行心不呆滞

they are keen

因为无行心很敏锐

and so sloth and torpor can not arise with the types of consciousenss that are unprompted

所以昏沉与睡眠不能与无行心相应

so they arise with prompted only

它们只与有行心相应

and they are one two three four five

有1、2、3、4、5 five types of consciousness that are prompted among the twelve unwholesome cittas

与12个不善心中的五个有行心相应

so only five

所以只有五个

and then doubt

然后是疑

doubt arises with only one type of consciousness

疑心所只与一种心相应

and that is the first of the two types of consciousness accompanied by delusion

就是与两个痴根心中的第一个相应

and now we come to beautiful cetasikas

现在看美心所

now the first group is beautiful universal 19

第一组19个遍一切美心心所

now if you look at the list you will find that there are 19 beautiful cetasikas

如果你们看表,就可以看到19个美心所

that is from faith to rectitude of consciousness

从信到心正直性

from number 28 to 46

从第28到第46 so these 19 types of consciousness [cetasikas]

所以这19种心所

arise with all beautiful consciousness

与所有美心相应

that is why they are called beautiful universals

所以被称为遍一切美心心所

so beautiful universals means they arise with every type of beautiful consciousness

所以遍一切美心心所意思是它们与所有美心都相应

that means every type of wholesome consciousness

即:每一种善心

every type of kamavacara resultant consciousness and so on

每一种欲界果报心等等

so they arise with 59 or 91 types of beautiful consciousness

所以它与59或91种美心相应

and then they are three abstinences

然后是三离

right speech, right action, right livelihood

正语、正业、正命

so three abstinences arise with how many?

这三离心所与多少种心相应?

eight sense-sphere wholesome consciousness

八个欲界善心

all, one to eight, one two three four five six seven eight

所有八个,从一到八

and then you go down you get the all supramundane cittas

然后往下,找到所有的出世间心

if you take supramundane cittas to be eight

如果把出世间心算作八个

then the number of cittas they arise with is sixteen

那么与它相应的心有16个

if you take supramundane cittas to be forty, then the number of cittas they arise with is forty eight

如果将出世间心算作40,那么与它相应的心有48个

and then two limitless ones

然后是两个无量

now two limitless ones arise with eight sense-sphere wholesome consciousness

这两个无量心所与八个欲界善心相应

and then

然后

eight sense-sphere functional

八个欲界唯作心

and then first jhana, rupavacara

然后色界初禅

fine-material sphere first jhana three

色界初禅,三个

second jhana, three third jhana, three and fourth jhana, three

二禅三个,三禅三个,四禅三个

they do not arise with fifth jhana

它们不与五禅相应

because illimitables mean karuna and mudita, compassion and sympathetic joy

因为无量心所是悲、喜

and they are accompanied by joy

它们的感受是喜悦

and so they do not arise with fifth jhana

所以与五禅不相应

and they do not arise with all supramundane cittas

与所有出世间心都不相应

so they arise with only 28 types of consciousness

所以只与28种心相应

and then the last one is wisdom, or non-delusion

最后一个是慧或无痴

now if you look at the list you will see

如果看列表,你们就看到

in the sense-sphere wholesome cittas the first two are with joy with knowledge unprompted

欲界善心,前两个是悦俱智相应无行

with joy with knowledge prompted and so on

悦俱智相应有行

so the first and second

所以,第一第二

with first and second wisdom arises

慧心所与第一第二相应

and with fifth and sixth wisdom arises

与第五第六也相应

so four from wholesome four from resultant

所以四个来自善心,四个来自果报心

and four from the functional

四个来自唯作心

and then it arises with all rupavacara cittas arupavacara cittas and lokuttara cittas

然后它与所有色界心、无色界心、出世间心相应

it arises with all fine-material sphere cittas

所以它相应于所有色界心

immaterial sphere cittas and supramundane cittas

无色界心和出世间心

so the wisdom arises with 47 types of consciousness or 79 types of consciousness

所以慧心所与47或79种心相应

so

所以

if you have this chart you can easily find out which cetasikas arise with which cittas

如果你有这张表,就很容易找出哪个心所与那种心相应

if you want to simplify this

如果想方便

you have to draw the diagram for just one line for one citta

你需要画表,每行表示一个心

so you have 121 lines going down

你需要画121行

it may be a big chart

这就会是一张大表

but that will be much easier because you don’t have to think of anything, you just look at it and you get the result

那样就更简单,因为你不需要动脑筋,只要看一下就知道结果

now when i taught abhidhamma in Malaysia

我在马来西亚教阿毗达摩的时候

i had them made a big chart

我让他们画了一张大表格

and they did

他们照做了

and they had about three or four versions of it

他们画了三四个版本

because i divided them into groups and each group made the chart of its own

因为我把学生分组,每组做自己的表

now there were many students there

因为学生很多

too many so that it’s difficult so we divided into groups

人数太多了,比较麻烦所以我们就分组

so if you can do like that a big chart it will be much easier

如果你们能那样画大表格那样就会更简单

but if you know how to read this small chart it may be the same to you

如果你们知道如何读这个小表格效果也是一样的

so this is the method of association

所以,这就是心所相应理

or cetasika-citta combination

或者说:心所-心组合

so this is one method

这是一种方法

now you have this chart

你们有这张表

do you remember the colors of this?

你们记得这张表上的各种颜色吗

colors are not put in this chart

这张表格没有涂颜色

because i left them blank for you to fill in the colors

我留白让你们去涂颜色

so i will give you homework

我会给你们留作业

so

所以

let us do the first one with vitakka

让我们做第一个:寻心所

so with vitakka there are 55 types of consciousness

与寻心所相应的有55种心

transparencies have not been made

透明纸还没做好

so you can not look at this green today

所以蓝颜色你们今天还看不到

so with vitakka there are 55 types of consciousness

与寻心所相应的有55种心

what i want you to do is

我要求你们做的是

filling the colors, correct colors in those types of consciousness that arise with vitakka

就是在与寻心所相应的心上涂上正确的颜色

i hope you can do that

我希望你们能做到

right?

好不好?

so it is important that you do not make mistake

重要的是:不要写错了哦,

because you have only this sheet

你们只有这一张表格

before putting in colors i think you make extra copies

我觉得在涂颜色之前,你们多复印几张

ok, let us try for vitakka

好,现在试试寻心所

you look at the first column right?

看第一列,对吧?

vitakka arises with all twelve akusala cittas right?

寻心所与所有

12个不善心相应,对吧

so you put red color in four

所以在前四个上涂红色

blue color in the next four

接着四个蓝色

green color in the two

接下来两个是绿色

and blue color in the two, ok

然后两个是蓝色,好

and then it does not arise with sense-sphere consciousness

寻心所不与欲界心某些心相应

so you keep blank the ones in the rootless consciousness

所以在无因心里面的某些不用涂颜色

so one two three four five six seven eight nine ten

一二三四五六七八九十

so these ten you leave blank

这十个心不用涂颜色

because vitakka does not arise with these ten

因为寻心所不与这些心相应

with others it arises

但是与余下的相应

so with two receiving consciousness you put in color

所以两个领受心,你涂上颜色

and then three investigating consciousness you put in correct colors

然后是三个推度心,要涂上正确的颜色

one red and two blue

一个红色,两个蓝色

and then with the third column

然后第三列

the first one is five sense door adverting

第一个五门转向心

now vitakka arises with it so you put in color there

寻心所与之相应,所以涂颜色

and mind door adverting also yes

意门转向心,涂颜色

and smile producing also yes

生笑心,涂颜色

so you put in correct colors in these three

这三个涂上正确的颜色

now let us go to sense sphere beautiful consciousness

看欲界美心

so three columns

三列

vitakka arises with all 24

寻心所与所有24个相应

so you have to fill in the colors red colors and blue colors here in all 24

所以你要给24个涂上红色、蓝色

and then vitakka arises with first jhana

然后寻心所与初禅心相应

eleven first jhana cittas 11个初禅心

so that means in topmost line

所以最上面的一行

three rupavacaras and eight lokuttaras

三个色界禅心,八个出世间禅心

and if you count them you will get 55

你们数一下,有55个

so now you know how to fill in the other charts, they’re all together, how many?

你们知道如何涂其他表,看看多少张

only eighteen

只有十八张

not too many

并不多

so i want you to fill in the colors in these charts

我希望你们将这些表都涂上颜色

and tomorrow you will see the transparencies and you will check with the transparencies

明天,你们就会看到透明纸可以用它对答案

how many you get right or you get all right or you may get some one wrong

看看你们对了多少,错了多少

so it is a good exercise to make yourself familiar with the combination of cittas and cetasikas

这是个很好的练习,让你熟悉心和心所的组合

so this is the method of association it is called method of association

这个方法就是心所相应理

but it doesn’t mean much

但是这个意思并不明确

so i prefer to call it cetasika-citta combination

所以我喜欢叫:心所-心组合

that is easier to understand

这个更好理解

so in cetasika-citta combination we can use these charts

所以心所-心的组合,我们可以用这些表

i want you to really do the charts and bring them tomorrow so you can check with the transparencies

我希望你们涂好这些表格,明天带过来用透明纸对答案

so first you have to make yourself familiar with the original basic chart

首先你们要让自己熟悉最基本的表格

because there are colors red blue and green

因为上面有红、蓝、绿的颜色

so you put in correct colors there

你们涂上正确的颜色

so after you have done the charts

你们涂好颜色之后

then you have this chart with you, you can find out easily how many cittas arise with vitakka

然后根据这个表,你们就很容易找出有多少心与寻心所相应

how many cittas arise with vicara

有多少与伺心所相应

i mean with how many types of consciousness vitakka arises

我的意思是寻心所与哪些心一起生起

with how many types of consciousness with vicara arises and so on

伺心所与哪些心一起生起,等等

you want to do the next one

想做做下一个么?

you may try now

你们可以试试

with vicara, 66

伺心所,66个

oh, you may not have red and blue colors with you

哦,你们没有红色和绿色

[laughs] ok

vicara arises with the 55 that arise with vitakka

伺心所与寻心所的

55个相应心一致

plus 11 second jhana consciousness

在加上11个二禅心

so you just put 11 more second jhana consciousness

所以你只需要再涂上

11个二禅心

you put in the colors there and you get the chart for with vicara 66 and so on

你涂上颜色,在表上写上伺心所66,等等

so this is the method of association or cetasika-citta combination

这种方法就是:心所相应理或心所-心组合

now the other combination is called method of combination

另外一种方法是:心所摄理

so i prefer to call it citta-cetasika combination

我喜欢称它为:心-心所组合

we take citta as a basis

是以心为基础

and then we find out how many cetasikas arise with a given citta

然后找出有多少心所被此心所摄

for this method you read across

这种方法,你要横着看

so first there is greed rooted consciousness number one

第一个是贪根心第一个

that is with joy with wrong view unprompted

悦俱邪见相应无行心

so how many cetasikas go with it? 19

有多少心所被其所摄?19 and there are seven universals

七个遍一切心心所

vitakka, initial application, sustained application, decision

寻、伺、胜解

energy, zest, desire

精进、喜、欲

that means all thirteen ethically variables

即所有十三个通一切心所

and then unwholesome universal four, yes

然后4个遍一切不善心心所,是的

and then greed, yes, wrong view, yes

然后贪, 是的,邪见,是的

when there is wrong view there can be no conceit, so only wrong view

如果有邪见,就没有慢,所以只有邪见

so you get all together 19 mental factors arising with first type of consciousness accompanied by greed

所以一起就是19个心所被第一个贪根心所摄

now 19 means universals are seven 19即七个遍一切心心所

and then initial application eight

寻心所,八

sustained application nine

伺心所,九

decision ten energy eleven zest twelve

胜解,十,精进、喜,十二

desire thirteen

欲,十三

and then unwholesome universal four that means seventeen

然后遍一切不善心心所四个,一起十七个

greed eighteen wrong view nineteen

贪,十八,邪见,十九

so the first type of consciousness among those rooted in greed has nineteen mental factors arising together with it

所以贪根心第一个心有十九个心所来聚合

and the second has two more

第二个心再加两个

because when it is prompted

因为当是有行时

when you have to push when you have to encourage that means

当被怂恿,意思是

this type of consciousness is dull

这个心很呆滞

so when it is dull it is accompanied by sloth and torpor

当心很呆滞,就有昏沉和睡眠

so you add just two to nineteen you get twenty one

所以十九加二,二十一

now please notice sloth and torpor are two not one

请注意:昏沉和睡眠是两个心所,不是一个心所

so you get twenty one mental factors arising with the second consciousness rooted in greed

所以第二个贪根心摄二十一个心所

and then the third type of consciousness has nineteen

第三个心摄十九个心所

but although the number is the same

虽然数目与第一个一样

the cetasikas are different

心所是不同的

here instead of wrong view, there is conceit

就是把邪见换成了慢

because it is without wrong view

因为是邪见不相应心

so the third one has nineteen cetasikas the fourth one has twenty four [21?]cetasikas

所以第三个心摄十九心所第四个心摄二十四[21?]个心所

then number five

然后是第五个

number five is accompanied by what? joy or indifference

第五个心是悦俱还是舍俱?

indifference

舍俱

since it is accompanied by indifference

因为是舍俱

zest can not go with it, piti can not go with it

所以没有喜

so

所以

twelve from among the thirteen ethically variables 13个通一切心所里面的12个

and then the rest four unwholesome universals

然后四个遍一切不善心心所

greed, wrong view

贪、邪见

so here eighteen not nineteen

所以这里是18个,不是19个

nineteen minus piti or zest 19个减去1个喜心所

so the fifth consciousness arises with eighteen mental factors

所以第五个心摄18个心所

and the sixth

第六个

the sixth is prompted it is accompanied by sloth and torpor

第六个是有行心,所以有昏沉与睡眠

so it is accompanied by twenty mental factors

所以摄20个心所

number seven, now number seven is without wrong view

第七个,第七个邪见不相应

since it is without wrong view it has conceit

没有邪见,就有慢

so instead of wrong view there is conceit

把邪见换成慢

again we get eighteen

所以又是18个

and number eight we add sloth and torpor so we get twenty

第八个,加上昏沉与睡眠,所以是20个

and next rooted in hate

接下来嗔根心

the first one is accompanied by

伴随第一个心的有

universal seven, initial application, sustained application

七个遍一切心心所,寻、伺

decision, energy, but not by zest or piti

胜解、精进、但没有喜心所

so piti does not go with dosa or domanassa

所以喜不能与忧俱的心同存

so there is no piti

所以这里没有喜心所

and then there is desire and then four unwholesome universals

有欲心所,四个遍一切不善心心所

and no greed

没有贪心所

no wrong view no conceit because it is accompanied by hate

没有邪见,没有慢因为是嗔根心

then it is accompanied by hate envy avarice worry

然后有嗔、嫉、悭、恶作

these four arise with two types of consciousness rooted in hate

这四个与两个嗔根心同生

so we get all together twenty

所以一起有二十个

now seven eight nine ten eleven twelve and twelve plus four sixteen

十二加四,十六

sixteen plus four we get twenty

十六加四,二十个

so the first type of consciousness rooted in hate

所以第一个嗔根心

is accompanied by twenty mental factors

摄二十个心所

and the second is accompanied by twenty two mental factors

第二个嗔根心摄二十二个心所

because it is prompted so we have to add sloth and torpor

因为是有行心,所以加上昏沉和睡眠

and then

接下来

two types of consciousness rooted in delusion

两个痴根心

now decision does not arise with consciousness accompanied by doubt

胜解不能与疑并存

we have to leave out decision here

所以这里没有胜解

and also it does not arise with piti and also with desire

同样,没有喜、欲两个心所

so from among the thirteen ethically variables we get only seven eight nine ten

所以13个通一切心所里,只有10个

and then four unwholesome universals

四个遍一切不善心心所

and no greed no wrong view no conceit because it is accompanied by moha here

没有贪、邪见、慢因为这里是与痴相应

and no hate and so on

也没有嗔等

no sloth and torpor

没有昏沉和睡眠

but there is what? doubt

但是还有什么?有疑

so there are fifteen cetasikas that arise with the first type of consciousness that are rooted in delusion

所以第一个痴根心摄15个心所

and the second one is with restlessness

第二个是掉举相应

so the second one that is no doubt

所以没有疑心所

but there is decision

但是有胜解

so from among the thirteen ethically variables we get how many? seven eight nine ten eleven

所以13个通一切心所,有几个?七八九十十一

and then four unwholesome universals, fifteen

四个遍一切不善心心所,一共15个

so fifteen cetasikas arise with the second unwholesome type of consciousness rooted in delusion or moha mula

所以第二个痴根心摄15个心所

so this way when you read across you get the number of cetasikas arising together with a particular citta

这样,你横着看,就能找到特定心所摄的心所数目

so when we first study this we have to be able to say without looking at the chart we have no chart at the time

我们当初学这些,不能看表当时我们也根本没表格

we had to study the hard way by memorizing

我们要用最苦难的方式,也就是死记硬背

so we tried to exercise among ourselves first before we go to our teacher

我们先在同学们之间训练好然后才去找老师背诵

because if we can not answer the questions then we will be scolded

因为如果我们不能回答正确就会被老师训斥

so

所以

how we memorize, we memorize 19, 21, 19, 21, 18, 20, 18, 20, 20, 22

我们怎么背呢?我们就是硬背

so and then we ask each other what are the 19 what are the 21 and so on

我们互相问答,这个数是什么,那个是什么等等

so that way we get very familiar with the number of cetasikas as well as cetasikas themselves

这样我们就很熟悉这些心所的数目、心所的名称

but nowadays there are many devices we can use like this chart

但是,现在我们有各种手段可以利用,例如这个表格

and if there are computer programmers among the students

如果你们中间有程序员

you can do something you can make a computer program

你们可以有所作为,开发一个程序

to find out which citta arises with which cetasika

找出何种心与何种心所同生

i had a student and he tried it but it was long ago during the time of DOS

我有一个学生,他试过就在很久之前,DOS时代

[laughs] so he made some program and it works

他开发了一个程序,还真管用

so you point out at the first citta and you press a button

你找第一个心,你按一个键

and then you press a key and then you get the answer

按键之后,你就看到了答案

not just 19 or 21 but cetasikas also, so

不仅是19或21这个数目,还显示出心所的名称

if any of you can write the program like that it would be very useful

如果你们之中有人能开发这样的程序那就非常有用,

for all not just here for all people who want to study abhidhamma

不仅让这里的人获益,还能让所有想学阿毗达摩的人获益

so i hope there are some computer programmers with us in the audience

所以,我希望你们之中有程序员

and so if you have time and if you have desire to do it, it would be very useful

如果有时间,想开发,那是非常有用的

and i would be very grateful to you if you can do that because i can use it in my classes

如果你能开发,我就非常感谢因为我可以在课堂上使用

so that way you can just press a key and then you get the answer

那样,你只需要按一下键,就获得答案

and that is why i always say to people nowadays to study a subject of whatever

所以我经常说,如今无论学什么

much easier than it was before

都比以前容易得多了

the computers are great help for studying different subjects

计算机对我们学习不同的学科有很大的帮助

and so the only thing is there will be no commercial value in this

但是这里面没什么商业价值

but it will be a great service to the teachings of the buddha to to the sasana

但是对于佛法的弘扬,就有很大的帮助

ok i think we have a break now

好,我们休息一下

disk01track12

ok, now we will continue

好,我们现在继续

the method of combination or citta-cetasika combination

组合方式,心-心所组合方式

now i want you to be familiar with the pali name also

我希望你们也要熟悉巴利语名称

the citta-cetasika combination is called sangaha method

心-心所组合被称为心所摄理

and cetasika-citta combination is called sampayoga method

心所-心组合被称为心相应理

you find these words in the manual and also on this chart

你们在概要精解和这张表上都可以看到这些词

now this chart and the one on the screen are actually the same

这张表和屏幕上的实际上是一样的

but these i made with pali names

但是屏幕上的我加了巴利语

and

但是

bhikkhu bodhi turned it into english

菩提比丘都翻译成了英语

so you have two versions, this is pali, what is in the book is english

所以,你们有两个版本,屏幕上的是巴利,书上的是英语

so i prefer to use pali so i made chart with pali

我喜欢用巴利语,所以我的表格用巴利语

but the same

但实际上都是一样的

so now we go to the sense consciousness

现在我们看根识

those sense consciousnesses are called dvi-pañca-viññāṇa in pali

这些根识被称为双五识

you may look at this chart: dvi-pañca-viññāṇa

你们可以看这张表:双五识

dvi means two dvi意思是二

pañca means five panca意思是五

viññāṇa means consciousness vinnana意思是“识”

so two five consciousness that means two sets of five consciousness

所以两组五个识,意思就是:双五识

now they are: two eye consciousnesses, two ear consciousnesses and so on

它们是:两个眼识,两个耳识,等等

and there two body consciousnesses

还有两个身识

they are collectively called sense consciousness or in pali dvi-pañca-viññāṇa

它们统称为:双五识

so seeing consciousness is accompanied by how many cetasikas?

所以眼识摄多少心所?

so where is seeing consciousness included?

眼识在哪里?

in the ten sense consciousnesses

被包括在双五识里

so when i ask you how many cetasikas arise with seeing consciousness or eye consciousness

当我问你们眼识摄多少心所时

then you look at the line sense consciousnesses ten

你们就找双五识那一行

and then you find that

你就会发现

there are only seven cetasikas that arise with these ten types of consciousness

双五识只摄七个心所

so that arise with eye consciousness or seeing consciousness

也就是眼识摄七个心所

so they are the types of consciousness that have the smallest number of cetasikas arise with them

它们是所摄心所数目最少的心

only seven universals

只有七个遍一切心心所

then we come to two receiving consciousnesses

然后是两个领受心

receiving consciousness one among the result of unwholesome

领受心,一个是不善果报心

and one in the result of wholesome

一个是善果报心

and both are accompanied by indifferent feeling

两个都是舍俱领受心

so receiving consciousness arises with seven universals

所以领受心与七个遍一切心同生

and then initial application

接下来是寻心所

sustained application

伺心所

and decision

胜解

only ten

只有十个

seven plus three, ten

七加三,十

so either of the two receiving consciousnesses arises with these ten cetasikas

所以这两个领受心任一个都与这十个心所同生

now investigating equanimity or in pali santīraṇa-upekkha

接下来是舍俱推度心

there are two santīraṇa-upekkha

有两个舍俱推度心

upekkha means accompanied by neutral feeling

舍就是upekkha so they are accompanied by or they arise together with how many cetasikas again?

所以它们摄多少心所?

ten cetasikas

十个心所

universal seven, then initial application, sustained application and decision

遍一切心心所七个,寻、伺、胜解

but investigating joy or santīraṇa accompanied by somanassa

但是悦俱推度心

is accompanied by the ten plus piti or zest

所摄为十个心所加喜心所

because it is accompanied by joy it is accompanied by zest also

因为它是悦俱,所以也摄喜心所

so there are eleven cetasikas arising with investigating consciousness accompanied by joy

所以悦俱推度心摄11个心所

and then we come to five sense door adverting

接下来是五门转向心

now five sense door adverting arises with ten mental factors

五门转向心摄10个心所

and they are: universal seven, and then initial application, sustained application and decision

它们是:七个遍一切心心所寻、伺、胜解

and mind door adverting

然后是意门转向心

arises with eleven cetasikas

摄11个心所

just one more that is energy or viriya

加一个精进心所

and then the last one: smile producing

最后一个:生笑心

since it is smile producing, it will be accompanied by piti

因为是生笑心,所以有喜心所

so all together there are twelve cetasikas arising with smile producing consciousness

所以生笑心一共摄12个心所

universal seven, initial application, sustained application, decision, energy and zest or piti

七个遍一切心心所,寻、伺、胜解、精进、喜

now we come to sense-sphere wholesome consciousness

现在我们看欲界善心

now number one and number two are put together because they have the same number of mental factors arising with them

第一个第二个放在一起,因为它们的心所数目是一样的

now they arise with all thirteen ethically viariables

它们摄所有的通一切心所

seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen

七八九十十一十二十三

then they do not arise with unwholesome cetasikas

它们不会与不善心所同生

so we skip unwholesome cetasikas

所以忽略不善心所

then we come to beautiful cetasikas

看美心所

now nineteen beautiful cetasikas arise with all beautiful consciousness

十九个美心所与所有美心相应

so they are nineteen

所以十九

and then three abstinences

然后是三离心所 two limitless ones

二个无量心所

and one wisdom

然后是慧心所

so all together we get thirty eight mental factors arising together with the first and the second sense-sphere wholesome consciousness

所以欲界第一二善心一共摄38个心所

with the third and fourth one less

第三、四个心,少一个心所

because the first and second are with knowledge

因为第一、二是智相应的心

the third and fourth are without knowledge

第三、四心,智不相应

so when it is without knowledge, the last one wisdom can not arise with it

如果是智不相应,最后的慧心所就不与之同生

so the third and fourth arise with 37 cetasikas

所以第三第四摄37个心所

that is thirty eight less wisdom

也就是38减去一个慧心所

and the fifth and the sixth are accompanied with knowledge

第五第六,智相应

but since they are accompanied by indifferent feeling

因为是舍俱的

piti does not arise with them

所以喜心所不会跟它们同生

so the thirty seven is the universal seven

所以37是:遍一切心心所7个

initial application, sustained application, decision, energy

寻、伺、胜解、精进

and no zest or piti

没有喜心所

but desire or chanda

但是有欲心所

and then we go to the nineteen beautiful universals

接下来看19个遍一切美心心所

and three abstinences two limitless ones and one wisdom

三离心所 ,两个无量心还有一个慧心所

seventh and eighth they are without knowledge

第七,第八,智不相应

and since they are accompanied by neutral feeling, piti does not arise with them

因为它们是舍俱心,所以没有喜心所

so seventh and eighth types of consciousness arise with thirty six cetasikas

所以,第七第八个心摄36个心所

now we come to sense-sphere resultant

现在看欲界果报心

so the first and second

第一第二个心

arise with thirty three cetasikas

摄33个心所

now

现在

what are the thirty three?

这33个心所是哪些呢?

thirteen ethically variables 13个通一切心所

and the nineteen beautiful common 19个遍一切美心心所

and then wisdom only

然后只有慧心所

now abstinences arise only with wholesome

三离心所只与善心相应

because abstinences have the nature of kusala

因为三离心所的性质是善的

so when you abstain from something, you get kusala, wholesome kamma

当你具有三离时,你就有善业

so

所以

the abstinences arise only with wholesome

三离心所只与善心相应

so they do not arise with the resultant consciousness

不与果报心相应

so we leave out

所以我们跳过它们

and also the two illimitables or limitless ones do not arise with resultant consciousness

同样,两个无量心所,也不与果报心相应

because karuna and mudita

因为悲心所、喜心所

when you practice karuna and mudita you get kusala

当你修悲、修喜的时候,就获得善业

so when we leave these out, we get only thirty three

当我们跳过这两个,就剩下33个心所

that is for number one and number two that is with knowledge

第一第二个心,这是智相应的

for number three and four we have to leave out knowledge because they are without knowledge

第三第四个,就要忽略慧心所,因为它们是智不相应的心

so they arise with thirty two cetasikas

所以它们摄32个心所

and then the fifth and sixth

然后是第五第六

they are with knowledge

是智相应的心

but since they are accompanied by neutral feeling

因为它们是舍受的

piti does not arise with them

所以喜心所不与它们相应

so the number is the same, thirty two

所以同样的心所数目,32个

although the individual cetasikas are different

心所数目相同,但是对应的心所有所不同

and then the seventh and eighth

然后是第七第八个心

no piti no wisdom so thirty one

没有喜心所,没有慧心所,所以摄31个心所

now we come to functional cetasikas

现在看唯作心

all the thirteen the ethically variables arise with the first and second

所有13个通一切心所与第一第二个心相应

and then nineteen beautiful universal

然后是19个遍一切美心心所

and abstinences do not arise with the functional consciousness

三离心所不与唯作心相应

because they have the nature of kusala

因为它们具有善的性质

and illimitables or limitless ones that is karuna and mudita arise

无量心所,即悲心所、喜心所

and also wisdom arise with the first two

还有慧心所,与前两个心相应

and so we have thirty five cetasikas with the first and second sense-sphere functional consciousness

所以前两个欲界唯作心摄35个心所

and with the third and fourth

第三第四个心

we subtract wisdom

我们减去慧心所

and with the fifth and sixth

第五第六个心

we put in wisdom but we subtract zest or piti

加上慧心所,但是减去喜心所

and with seventh and eighth we subtract both

第七第八个心,两个都减掉

the piti and wisdom

就是减去喜心所、慧心所

so there are only thirty three cetasikas arising with seventh and eighth sense-sphere functional consciousness

所以第七第八欲界唯作心只摄33心所

now we come to rupavacara cittas

现在看色界心

so rupavacara cittas are grouped as first jhana three, second jhana three and so on

色界心分为:初禅三心、二禅三心、三禅三心,诸如此类

so please understand that in the first jhana three

要知道,初禅的三心

there are wholesome resultant and functional

就是善心、果报心、唯作心

so first jhana three are accompanied by all thirteen ethically variables

初禅三心所摄心所:所有13个通一切心所

and then nineteen beautiful universals

然后是19个遍一切美心心所

and two limitless ones

然后是两个无量心所

and one wisdom

还有慧心所

so there are thirty five cetasikas for the three first jhana cittas of rupavacara

所以色界初禅三个心一共摄35个心所

and for the second jhana

现在看二禅

you know, vitakka must be missing

二禅没有寻心所

so you subtract vitakka and you get thirty four

所以减掉寻心所,就是34个心所

for the third jhana

看三禅

you have to subtract vicara

你要减掉伺心所

so without vitakka and vicara there are only thirty three

去掉寻、伺,只有33个心所

and with the fourth jhana, piti is also missing

四禅,喜心所也没有

so without vitakka without vicara without piti only thirty two

没有寻伺喜,只有32个心所

and with the fifth jhana only thirty

五禅,只有30个心所

fifth jhana is accompanied by upekkha, right?

五禅心是舍俱的,对吧?

so two limitless ones can not arise with upekkha

所以两个无量心所不能与舍俱心同生

because they have the nature of joy

因为它们具有喜悦的性质

so we must leave out these two with the fifth jhana consciousness

所以,对于五禅心我们要去掉这两个心所

so there are only thirty mental factors arising with three fifth jhana form-sphere consciousness

所以色界第五禅心只摄30个心所

with the formless sphere consciousnesses

对于无色界心

twelve formless sphere consciousnesses 12个无色界心

they belong to the fifth jhana

它们属于第五禅

and so they are accompanied by indifferent feeling or upekkha

所以它们是舍受的心

so they have the same number of cetasikas as the fifth jhana of the material sphere consciousness

所以它们与色界第五禅心具有相同数量的心所

so only thirty

所以只有30个心所

and for the lokuttra or supramundane consciousness

对于出世间心

now please understand that first jhana four means first jhana first path, second path, third path, fourth path

要知道初禅四心意思是初禅第一道心,第二道心第三道心,第四道心

and fifth jhana four means fifth jhana first path, second path, third path, fourth path

五禅四心意思是:五禅第一道心,第二道心第三道心,第四道心

and the same with the fruit consciousnesses

果心也是如此

so with the first jhana consciousness of the supramundane sphere

所以出世间的初禅心

there are thirty six cetasikas arising with them

摄有36个心所

thirteen ethically variables 13个通一切心所

and nineteen beautiful universal 19个遍一切美心心所

and three abstinences

三离心所

the illimitables do not arise with supramundane consciousness

无量心所不与出世间心相应

and there is wisdom

慧心所与之相应

and so we get thirty six mental factors arising with first jhana consciousness in supramundane cittas

所以出世间初禅心摄36个心所

with the second jhana you know you subtract vitakka

二禅,大家知道要减去寻心所

and with the third jhana, vitakka and vicara

三禅,减掉寻、伺

and with the fourth jhana, vitakka, vicara and piti

四禅,减掉寻、伺、喜

and fifth jhana again vitakka, vicara and piti

五禅,减掉寻、伺、喜

and so you have only thirty three

所以只有33心所

with the fruit consciousness also the same number of cetasikas

对于果心而言,是相同的心所数目

so with the first jhana fruit consciousness there are thirty six cetasikas

所以初禅果心,36个心所

and with the second thirty five

二禅,35个

with the third, thirty four

三禅,34个

with the fourth, thirty three

四禅,33个

and with the fifth thirty three

五禅,33个

so this is how we find out the combination of cittas and cetasikas

所以,这就是心-心所的组合方式

so if you have this chart

所以,如果你们有这张表

you can easily find out how many cetasikas go with a given citta

你们就可以很容易找出某个心摄多少心所

now when we study something we have to find out ways of memorizing or ways of making ourselves familiar with the subject

当我们学习某个科目的时候就要找出记忆方法熟悉它

so you may use this chart also

所以你们也可以用这张表

and also you may use this chart for easy reference

可以参照这张表

but this you have to put in the colors first

但是这张你要先涂上颜色

and it is good to do it yourselves

你们最好自己完成任务

so that you get more familiar with the chart

这样就能更熟悉这个表

and also that is a kind of ego

这也是种“自我”

I made it

“我完成了这张表”

[laughs] so it is my, my doing and so you have more and more respect for the chart

这是“我做的……”所以你就会越来越看重这张表

the handout

资料

i hope you have this handout also?

我想你们也有这份资料吧?

the sampayoga method, cetasika-citta combination

心所相应理:心所-心组合

you may refer to this sheet also

你们也可以参照这张资料

at the bottom of that sheet there is some information

在页面底部有一些信息

so the sheet is called sampayoga method

所以这张被称为:心所相应理

cetasika-citta combination

心所-心组合

generally, we say that dosa, issa, macchariya, kukkucca

一般地,我们说:嗔、嫉、悭、恶作

they arise with two types of consciousness accompanied by ill will or dosa

它们与两种嗔根心相应

but actually

但是实际上

the envy, avarice and remorse do not arise together

嫉、悭、恶作并不同时生起

so the number given is the maximum possible number of cetasikas arising with a given citta

所以上面的数字只是特定心的最大可能心所数量

but actually at one time they do not arise together

但是,实际上它们不能同时生起

envy

envy means jealousy

嫉就是嫉妒

so jealousy takes other person’s success, or other person’s property, other person’s position as object

嫉妒的所缘是:别人的成功、别人的财产、别人的地位

and macchariya or avarice takes one’s own property, one’s own success, one’s own position as object

悭的所缘是:自己的财产、自己的成功、地位

so they take different objects

它们的所缘不同

that is why they can not arise together

所以它们不能同时生起

so

所以

when you’re jealous of another person’s success

当你嫉妒别人的成功

there is issa or jealousy in your mind

你心里就有嫉心所

but not macchariya or avarice

但是没有悭心所

when you can not tolerant your positions being common to others.

如果你不能忍受别人分享自己的地位

then macchariya arises in your mind

你心里就生起悭心所

and not issa or jealousy

就没有嫉心所

so they arise occasionally

所以它们只是偶尔个别地生起

only when you feel jealous jealousy will arise

只有当你感到嫉妒的时候,才会生起嫉心所

only when you feel intolerance the macchariya will arise

只有当你感到不能包容时,悭心所才生起

so they arise occasionally or sometimes only

所以它们只是个别单独生起

and then kukkucca, remorse

然后是恶作

remorse takes something you did in the past

恶作的所缘是过去所做的坏事

and something good you did not do in the past

过去没有做的好事

so remorse also arises occasionally

所以恶作也是偶尔地生起

only when you have regret the remorse will arise

只有你后悔的时候才生起恶作

if you do not feel that remorse, then it will not arise in your mind

如果你不后悔,心里就不会生起恶作

for example, you kill an animal

例如,你杀了一只动物

so when you kill an animal let us say you have no remorse

当你杀死动物不后悔的时候

remorseful feeling what you did in the past or what you did not do in the past

后悔的所缘是过去做的错事,过去没有做的好事

and in that case, kukkucca will not arise with your consciousness

不后悔的话,心里就不会生起恶作

so these are said to be arising sometimes only occasionally

所以它们只是偶尔地生起

and these three when they arise they arise separately

这三个,生起的时候,是单独生起

that means only one of them can arise at one time

意思就是一次只能生起一个

when there is issa in the consciousness

心里有嫉心所的时候

then macchariya will not arise

就没有悭心所

kukkucca or remorse will not arise and so on

恶作也不会生起,诸如此类

so first please noted these three arise separately

所以首先要注意:这三个单独地生起

that means one at a time

意思就是一次只生起一个

and they arise only occasionally, only sometimes

只是偶尔生起,有时生起

so

所以

they may not arise every time the dosa consciousness arises

当嗔根心生起时,它们也可能不生起

only when you feel jealousy only when you feel intolerance will they arise

只有当你嫉妒,或者不容忍它们才生起

and then the virati three abstinence three

然后是三离心所

the same, they arise separately, and they arise occasionally

同样,它们也是单独生起,偶尔生起

that means when you are paying homage to the buddha

意思是,当你礼敬佛陀的时候

they do not arise in your mind

它们并不在心里生起

and these can arise separately one at a time

它们只能每次生起一个

because right speech means abstention from wrong speech

因为正语,意思是远离错误语言

right action means abstention from wrong action, right livelihood means abstention from wrong livelihood

正业意思远离恶业,正命意思是远离邪命

so abstention from wrong speech will arise only when you abstain from wrong speech

所以,正语这个心所只有当正语的时候才生起

if you are not abstaining from wrong speech if you are just paying homage to the buddha

如果你没有正语,你只是在礼敬佛陀

if you are doing just dana

如果你只是在布施

it will not arise in your mind

正语这个心所就不会在你心里生起

so it will arise sometimes only

它只是偶然地生起

and when it arises it arises separately one at a time

当它生起的时候,只能单独生起每次生起一个

so when there is right speech there is no right action

所以当生起正语心所,就没有正业心所

there is no right livelihood and so on

也没有正命心所,等等

so these three abstinences arise separately that is one at a time

所以,这三离心所,单独生起意思是每次生起一个

and they arise only when you refrain from wrong doing

只有你正远离诸恶的时候,它才生起

and then the two appamañña two limitless ones

然后是两个无量心所

that means compassion and sympathetic joy

意思是悲、喜二心所

they arise separately and occasionally

它们单独地生起,偶尔生起

now they arise only when you have compassion for beings

只有你对众生有悲心,才生起悲心所

they arise only when you are glad at the success of others

只有当你为别人的成功开心,才会生起喜心所

but when you pay homage to the buddha they do not arise in your mind

但是当你礼敬佛陀的时候它们并不会生起

so they arise the compassion and sympathetic joy arise only occasionally

所以这悲、喜二心所只是偶尔生起

and when they arise they arise separately, one at a time

当它们生起的时候,每次只生起一个

when you feel compassion, you don’t feel sympathetic joy, vice versa

当生起悲心所的时候,就没有喜心所,反之亦然

and then mana, conceit or pride

接着是慢心所

it also arises occasionally

它也是偶尔生起

not every time the consciousness accompanied by lobha arises

并不是随着贪根心,每次都生起

only when you have this pride in yourself or the pride of something will it arise

只有当你为自己或其他而骄慢,慢心所才会生起

so mana is said to be arising occasionally or sometimes only

所以,慢心所只是偶尔地生起

you know with what consciousness does mana arise

你们知道在什么心里,生起慢心所?

let’s say that there are eight types of consciousness accompanied by lobha

贪根心有八个

so with which citta does mana arise

哪个心会生起慢心所?

with the first or with the second or with the third or with the fourth?

第一个?第二?第三?第四?

does it arise with the first?

慢心所会与第一个贪根心一起生起么

no, because there is ditthi

不会,因为第一个是邪见相应

and with the second also? no

第二个呢,也不会

but with the third? yes, with the fourth? yes

第三个,是的,第四个,是的

ok, now let us take the third one

好,看第三个

now whenever the third consciousness arises mana may or may not arise

当第三个贪根心生起的时候,慢心所可能会,也可能不会生起

because it arises occasionally

因为它是偶尔地生起的

only when you have pride will it arise

只有你骄慢时,它才生起

if you have just attachment for something and no pride involved

如果你只是有贪执,没有涉及骄慢

then it will not arise

它就不会生起

so it arises occasionally

所以说它是偶尔地生起

and then thina and middha sloth and torpor

接下来是昏沉与睡眠

they always arise together, they will not separate

它们总是一起生起,不会分开

and they arise occasionally

但是它们是偶尔地生起

only when you become sleepy

只有当你困倦时

only when you become, when your mind become dull

只有当你的心呆滞的时候昏沉与睡眠才会生起

otherwise they will not arise with the consciousness assign to them

否则,它们就不会与那些分配给它们的心一起生起

so these, how many all together?

所以,这些一共是多少个?

three plus three plus two plus one plus two

三加三加二加一加二

eleven 11个

these eleven cetasikas are called in pali aniyatayogi

这十一个心所被称为:不定附随法

that means they associate not always

意思是它们并不是总是生起

in english they are called fixed adjuncts, niyatayogi are called fixed ajuncts,

定附随法的意思是:固定的附件

and so there are aniyatayogi, unfixed adjuncts

这些是不定附随法:不固定的附件

now the other the remaining forty one cetasikas are called fixed adjuncts

剩下的41个被称为定附随法

that means they will arise with every consciousness assigned to them

意思是对于每一个分配给它们的心,它们都会生起

so

所以

let us say

例如说

first citta accompanied by ill will

第一个嗔根心

how many cetasikas will arise with it?

有多少心所与它同生?

the maximum number is twenty

最大的数目是20个

but

但是

can twenty arise at one time? can all twenty arise at one time?

这20个心所能同时与它一起生起吗?

no

不能

issa, macchariya and kukkucca they arise occasionally

因为嫉、悭、恶作是偶然地生起

so they may not arise at all

所以它们可能完全不会生起

so the number of cetasikas arising with the first consciousness accompanied by dosa

所以第一个嗔根心所摄的心所数量

may be twenty minus three, only seventeen

可能是20减去3,只有17个

but at most, one of them can arise

但是这三个,至多只能生起一个

so at most there can be eighteen

所以,第一个嗔根心所摄心所最多是18个

but the maximum possible number is twenty

但是可能与它同生的心所最多是20个

so this difference also we have to understand

所以我们也要了解这种区别

again

接着

first citta accompanied by ill will or dosa

第一个嗔根心

when you look at this chart

当你看这个表的时候

so you will see that it is accompanied by twenty cetasikas

你会看到它摄20个心所

among the twenty cetasikas there are issa, macchariya and kukkucca

这20个之中,有嫉、悭、恶作

so these three may not arise at all with this type of consciousness

所以,这三个完全可能不与这个心同生

so every time this first consciousness arises there will be only seventeen

如果这样,每次第一个贪根心生起就只有17个心所与它同生

but since issa, macchariya and kukkucca arise occasionally

但是因为嫉、悭、恶作它们偶尔生起

then at one time, they can be eighteen

所以这个心也可以一次摄18个心所

with issa or with macchariya or with kukkucca

就是加一个嫉、或悭、或恶作

but the maximum possible number of cetasikas arising together with this type of consciousness is twenty

但是可能与这个心生起的心所最大数量是20个

and then the next thing to note is you can note on the screen or on your sheet

下一个要注意的是你们可以看屏幕或自己的材料

the three abstinences or virati cetasikas

三离心所

they arise in the eight kamavacara kusala cittas

它们在八个欲界善心里生起

it means they arise with eight sense-sphere wholesome consciousness sometimes only

意思是它们只是偶尔地与八个欲界善心生起

so again when abstaining from evil speech evil deeds or wrong livelihood

只有当你正语、正业、正命的时候

and not at other times

其他时候不生起

and they arise separately when a person abstain from evil speech

而且它们是单独地生起,当一个人离恶语的时候

only samma vaca arises and not the other two and so on

只是生起正语心所,其他两个不生起

this you already understand

你已经知道这个了

but when they arise with the lokuttara cittas with the supramundane cittas

当它们与出世间心一起生起时

they arise by all modes of crushing evil speech, evil deeds and wrong livelihood

它们一下全部摧毁了恶语、恶业、邪命

for there is no job for them in these cittas to crush evil speech, evil deeds and wrong livelihood one at a time as in the kamavacara kusala cittas

在欲界善心里,恶语、恶业、邪命是一个个摧毁的,但在出世间心里是全部摧毁的

now when the path consciousness arises

所以道心生起的时候

now it is said that these three arise

所有三离心所都生起

not like with the sense-sphere consciousness

不像是在欲界心里的情况

when the abstinences arise with the sense-sphere consciousness

当三离心所在欲界心里生起

they will arise sometimes only they will arise one at a time

它们只是偶尔地生起,一次也只生起一个

but with the supramundane consciousness

但是在出世间心里

they will always and all three will arise simultaneously

它们总是生起,而且是三个同时全部生起

because when a path consciousness arises

因为当道心生起时

the path consciousness can eradicate completely all evil and livelihood at once

道心可以一次性摧毁诸恶、邪命

it is like lightning striking a tree

就像闪电摧毁一棵树

so since it can eradicate all evil and all wrong livelihood all at once

因为它可以一次性摧毁诸恶、所有邪命

they arise together at the same time

所以三离心所同时生起

so this is the different between the abstinences arising with sense-sphere consciousness and with supramundane consciousness, it is the opposite

所以,这就是三离心所在欲界心和出世间心中的区别它们是相反的

when arising with supramundane consciousness they arise always

当它们与出世间心一起生起时它们总是同时生起的

not occasionally

不是偶尔生起

and all three arise together not one by one

三个一起生起,不是单独生起

now there is one more thing to note

还要注意一件事

and that is with regard to karuna and mudita

就是关于悲、喜二心所

now according to this chart

根据这个表格

the karuna and mudita compassion and sympathetic joy

悲、喜二心所

arises with how many cittas?

与多少心同生?

you know where to find karuna and mudita

你们知道在哪里找悲、喜二心所

apamana two is karuna and mudita in this chart

表格里的二无量就是:悲、喜心所

so karuna and mudita arise with twenty eight types of consciousness

悲、喜二心所与28种心相应

now this is the common opinion of teachers

这是所有老师的普遍看法

but there are some teachers who had different opinion

但是有些老师有不同的看法

so the author of the manual of abhidhammatthasangaha says

所以《摄阿毗达摩义论》的作者说

some say this and that

有些人这样说,那样说

so when the word “some say” are used, that means the author doesn’t like it

当有“有些人说”这种措辞时表示作者不喜欢这些说法

that is why he said some say this, some say that

所以他就这样写:有些人这样说,有些人那样说

this is a kind of style in writing in the olden days that

这是以前的写作风格

when they used the word some say that means they don’t like it

如果他们用“有些人说”,表示他们不喜欢这样的说法

so the karuna and mudita

所以悲、喜二心所

when cultivating karuna and mudita

当修悲、喜时

one may do experience preliminary cultivation

可能有一些初级的修持

that is before jhana arises, with cittas accompanied by upekkha

就是在禅那生起之前,是舍俱之心

now when you practice let us just say compassion

例如当你修悲的时候

when you practice compassion

你修悲

first you practice compassion saying to yourselves

开始你修悲,对自己说

may this being get free from suffering, may this being get free from suffering and so on

愿众生免于苦,等等

so when you are doing this

当你这样做的时候

by the force of the practice

通过修持的力量

you may do this preliminary exercises with consciousness accompanied by indifferent feeling

这些初级的修持之心,可能是舍受

when

you have thoroughly learned a passage

你对某段文字彻底熟悉时

you can recite that passage

你可以背诵这段文字

without paying attention to it

不需要在将注