阿毗达摩讲座 戒喜禅师讲

阿毗达摩讲座 中英对照

戒喜禅师讲

英译中:Bodhi Fansubs 菩提字幕屋

 

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I’m very glad to be here, be with you

我很高兴能在这里与大家一起

and to share my knowledge of abhidhamma with you

分享关于阿毗达摩的知识

I’m grateful to, I don’t remember, the sponsors so who made it possible this class

感谢促成这次课程的人

In Therava tradition,

根据上座部传统

whenever, an author writes a book,

一个人写一本书之前

he first pays homage to the triple gem,

首先要向三宝致敬

and also to his teachers.

同时也要向他的老师致敬

and today I’m very glad that all of you paid homage to the triple gem

今天你们向三宝致敬,我很高兴

the aim of paying homage to the triple gem as the beginning of a class,

在上课前,向三宝致敬的目的

or as the beginning of writing a book,

或者在写书之前,向三宝致敬的目的

is for the task to have a success end without hindrance

是为了让一切圆满,没有障碍

so we hope to finish this class without any hindrance.

我们希望这个课程圆满结束,没有障碍

years ago, I was reading a book,

若干年前,我读了一本书

a small paperback, and the name of the book was See Without Glasses.

一本小小的平装书,书名是:《摘掉眼镜也能看》

this book contains some exercises for the eye muscles.

这本书教导眼部肌肉锻炼的方法

so as to correct the vision

用来矫正视力

so that you can read without glasses.

这样就能摘掉眼镜去看书

the excises as given in that book was so invovled,

书中教导的方法很复杂

that I gave up

所以我放弃了

that is why I am still wearing glasses today.

以致现在我还戴着眼镜

But what struck me, the book struck me was some statements in that book,

但是书中有些论点还是让我吃惊

in one place, that book says, seeing is 90% mental

其中一处,它说:观看90%是心理性的作用

and only 10% physical

只有10%是生理性的作用

that book was written by MD, MD means medical doctor.

这本书是个医学博士写的

so when he wrote this, I was very surprised,

他这样说,我很吃惊

because it came very close to what was taught in abhidhamma

因为,这和阿毗达摩里的教导很类似

according to abhidhamma,

根据阿毗达摩

seeing is more mental than physical,

看,较之于生理活动,更多地是心理活动

now it is true that the eyes, and the object to be seen, play some part in the seeing

当然,眼球、所看到的物体对于“看”也起到一些作用

but seeing consists of a great amount of mental activities,

但是“看”包含了大量的心理活动

and these mental activities are explained in detail in abhidhamma

这些心理活动在阿毗达摩里得到了详细的介绍

in another place, the book says,

在另外一个地方,书里写道

in order for you to see the letter A

为了看到字母A your eyes shift four times,

你的眼睛转动四次

so only after shifting four times, do you see the letter A

你的眼睛转动四次,你看到字母A that also comes very close to what was taught in abhidhamma

这也与阿毗达摩里的讲法很类似

according to abhidhamma, in order to, say, I see a man, or I see a woman,

根据阿毗达摩,例如要想看一个男人、女人

you mind has to go through five types of thought processes

你的一个心需要经过五种心路过程

and each thought process repeat in thousands of times

每一个心路过程要重复成千上万次

so only after going through these five, classes of five types of thought processes

只有经过这五种心路过程

do you see a man or a woman

你才看到一个人

so it comes very close to what’s taught in abhidhamma

所以这本书和阿毗达摩很相似

so, quite often, we find some parallels in science, or in science and the abhidhamma.

所以,我们经常在科学里看到与阿毗达摩类似的讲法

and also, in the Reader’s Digest magazine

同样,在《读者文摘》杂志里

I read a sentence, it was actually the end of article theory

我读到一句关于粒子理论的句子

and that sentence says,

这句话是这样说的

if we take off all space, from the earth, from the globe

如果去掉地球里面的所有空隙

the earth would be no bigger than a golf ball.

整个地球就只有高尔夫球这么大

unbelievable, it is what it is said in the book

不可思议,这本书就是这样写的

and it also came very close to what was taught in abhidhamma

这也和阿毗达摩的说法很类似

so according to abhidhamma, the material properties, arise and exist in groups

根据阿毗达摩,不同种类的色法生起

and between these groups, there is always space

在各种色法之间,有很多空隙

and there are many small particles of material properties existing close to each other

许多色法颗粒紧密相邻

but there is always space between these groups of material properties.

但是在各种色法之间,总有空隙

so although we think that,

所以,即便我们认为

for example, this thing is solid

例如,这东西是致密的

actually it is like a seat

例如像一把椅子

there is much space in this stand

椅子腿之内有很多空隙

so again, it comes very close to what was taught in abhidhamma

这同样跟阿毗达摩的讲法很像

and lately

最近

I saw in an advertisement, one statement,

我在一个广告里看到一句话

now in abhidhamma, it’s taught that

根据阿毗达摩的讲法

mind or consciousness can arise and disappear

心的生灭

billions of times in a second,

一秒钟可以进行成几十亿次

what they said in the books is

我在这本书里看到的是

in the time when you snap your fingers,

弹指之间

billions of thought movements arise and disappear

有几十亿个思维过程生灭

although we have been teaching this for many years,

虽然我们长久以来受到这样的教导

we have no way of proving it,

我们没有办法证实它

until as nuclear science came into being

直到原子科学的诞生

now they have now produced watches,

他们据此生产钟表

they said, themselves

根据他们的说法

taken the time signals broadcast by one station

接受从基站里广播的时间信号

that station is located in the state of Colorado in USA

这个基站位于美国的科罗拉多

so that state is called National Institute of Standard and Technology

那个地方叫国家标准技术研究所

and it is said in this advertisement that

在他们的宣传里说

to an ordinary person, in a second, means just a tick tock of a clock,

对于普通人来说,一秒钟就是时钟滴答一次

what it is a second for us, just a tick tock of a clock 1秒钟对于我们而言,就是时钟滴答一次

but to the nuclear scientists at this center

但是对于那个中心的原子核科学家

it is, a second is nine plus billion vibrations of a cesium-133 atom 1秒就是铯133原子震荡90多亿次

I don’t know about the atoms,

我对原子一无所知

but what struck me was more than nine billion vibrations in a second.

但让我吃惊的是,1秒钟90多亿次

if they can calculate nine billion vibrations in a second

如果他们能计算1秒钟震动90亿次

that means mind and consciousness can arise and disappear billions of times in a second.

表明心可以在1秒内生灭几十亿次

so that also comes very close to what is taught in abhidhamma

这与阿毗达摩的讲法也很类似

so there are many things in abhidhamma that are very interesting

阿毗达摩里有很多有意思的东西

and that that has parallels in modern science

在现代科学里也有类似的说法

now I’m a buddhist monk,

我是个佛教僧人

I do not use modern science as a touchstone

我并不是用现代科学作为试金石

to test buddhism on it

用它来检验佛教

my attitude is the other way around,

我的态度恰恰相反

I will take the teachings of the Buddha as the touchstone,

我要将佛教作为试金石

and test science on it.

用佛教来检验科学

and if science does not agree with what the Buddha taught,

如果科学和佛教有不吻合的地方

I will wait for a time when it agrees with what the Buddha taught,

我就会等等看,等科学将来发展到与佛教一致

so in abhidhamma there are many things that are interesting

在阿毗达摩里,很多东西很有趣

it is like a storehouse,

阿毗达摩就像一个仓库

this storehouse of precious stones waiting to be explored

这个宝库里的矿石,将要被开采

waiting to be understood by people like you,

等着像你们这样的人来理解

so I’m very glad that today there are

所以我很开心,今天

I’m told that there are about 200 participants at this class

我听说有大概200人来听课

this is the biggest class I have ever taught

这是我教过的人数最多的课程

Now it is, there are two divisions of Buddhism

现在谈谈佛教的两个派别

two major divisions of buddhism, mahayana buddhism and theravada buddhism

佛教的两个主要派别:大乘佛教和上座部佛教

now we have parted from each other, but we still are brothers,

虽然已经分成了两个派别,但我们还是兄弟

but we have different

但是我们也有不同

teaching that common to both these branches, and also we have some different teachings, different suttas.

我们有相同的教法,但是也有不同的教法和经典

there is abhidhamma in mahayana, and there is abhidhamma in theravada

大乘和上座部都有阿毗达摩

they are not exactly the same.

它们不尽相同

since I’m a therava monk, I’m familiar with theravada abhidhamma

因为我是上座部的僧人,所以我熟悉上座部的阿毗达摩

and so the abhidhamma I’m going to teach you in this class is theravada abhidhamma

所以我在本次课程中讲授的是上座部的阿毗达摩

and we need to know how the buddha’s teachings recorded

我们要了解佛陀的教导是怎么记录

and handed down until the present time

并且传承到今天的

it’s a little bit of the history

所以要谈一点历史

how these teachings are handed down

这些教法怎么流传下来

now we now have theravada of three pitakas, or baskets

我们上座部有三藏

and abhidhamma is the third of these baskets

阿毗达摩是三藏之三

we need to know how these teachings are handed down from generation to generation

我们需要知道这些教法是如何代代传承的

now buddha did not write anything down,

佛陀没有写下任何东西

there were no books

当时也没有书

or books were very difficult to get in those days,

或者说当时很难获得书写材料

and also maybe people at that time

或者可能当时的人

thought that buddha’s teachings are so sacred,

认为佛陀的教法太神圣了

they should not be put on books or writing mateirals or whatever

觉得不应该被记录下来,等等

so buddha’s teachings were remembered by his immediate disciples,

所以佛陀的教导被亲传弟子所记诵

or memorized, his teachings were memorized by his immediate disciples.

他的教导被亲传弟子所背诵

and after the death of the buddha,

佛陀去世后

only three months after his death,

佛陀去世后三个月

the surviving disciples

他的亲传弟子

headed by the venerable Mahā Kassapa

以大迦叶尊者为首

decided to hold a council, a buddhist council,

决定结集

so at this buddhist council all the teachings of the buddha were collected,

在这次结集中,所有佛陀的教导都被收集

and two venerable monks

有两位尊者

presented the teachings of the buddha to the council

将佛陀的教法呈给结集的僧众

and each unit of teaching, or each saying

每一句教法

was closely scrutinized

都被严格地审查

and when the participants of the council there were

参加这次结集的人

500 arahants at the council

有500名阿罗汉

so when, all the immediate diciples of buddha,

他们都是佛陀的亲传弟子

so when the participants were satisfied that the piece of teaching was

与会大众都很满意,所有的教法

authentic teachings of the buddha

都是真真实实的佛陀教法

they accepted that teaching by reciting together

他们认可并一起诵读这些教法

so reciting together is a kind of seal of authenticity

一起诵读就表明对真实性的认可

for that particular teaching

对这些教法认可

so in this way, every piece of teaching was closely scrutinized

所有教法都经过了这样严格的审查

and then they were satisfied

大家都满意

they accepted that teaching by reciting together.

通过一起诵读来认可它

the pali word for that kind of ceremony is called Saṅgāyana or Saṅgīti

这种结集巴利语称之为

Saṅgāyana或Saṅgīti meaning reciting together.

意思是合诵或会诵。

so at the first buddhist council

在第一次结集的时候

all the teachings of the buddha were collected and invited into three pitakas or baskets

所有的教法就被归为三藏

later and also into five Nikāyas or collections,

也可以分为五部尼柯耶

and we will come to them later

稍后我们再谈这些分类

three months after the death of the buddha,

佛陀去世后三个月

the first council was held, and at that council all the teachings of buddha were collected and accepted

举行第一次结集,在这次结集中佛陀的所有教法都被收集被认可

then one hundred years after the death of the buddha,

佛陀去世100年后

there was another council,

举行了第二次结集

at that council also, those were accepted at the first buddhist council were reaffirmed, reaccepted

在这次结集时,第一次结集的经文得到再确认,再认可

and then his teachings were handed down from generation to generation by word of mouth.

佛陀的教法就这样代代通过口头相传

234 years after the death of the buddha, during the time of king Asoka

佛陀去世234年之后的阿育王时期

at Pātaliputra in India, the third buddhist council was held

在当时的华氏城,举行了第三次结集

at that council also the teachings that were accepted at the first and second councils were reafirmed,

在那次结集,前两次的经文得到了进一步确认

and accepted

并且得到认可

until that time buddha’s teachings were handed down from generation to generation by word of mouth

直到那时,佛陀的教法都是通过口头代代相传

after the third buddhist council,

到第三次结集之后

the venerable Moggaliputta Tissa, who was the president of that council

目犍连子帝须尊者主持了这次结集

with the help of king of Asoka, sent missionaries to different countries.

在阿育王的帮助下,派人去不同的国家传教

and one group of missionaries was sent to Sri Lanka

其中一个传教团被派往斯里兰卡

and that missionary was very successful and the whole of the island became buddhist.

到斯里兰卡的传教活动很成功整个岛屿的人都信了佛

and tipitaka was brought to Sri Lanka and then

三藏经典也被带到了斯里兰卡

the monks in Sri Lanka wrote commentaries also.

斯里兰卡的僧人也写了注释

but about 450 years after the death of the buddha,

大约佛去世450年后

there was a great rebellion in Sri Lanka

斯里兰卡大乱

people had to flee their places,

人们四处逃窜

and monks also could not stay at their places and so they had to go here and there,

僧人也不能安住,只能东躲西藏

some went into the forests and so on,

有些人跑进了森林

so the country was all in disorder

整个国家一片混乱

so when that happened, one group of monks,

这时候,有一群僧人

decided to go to south india, to escape the rebellion

打算逃到南印度避难

but there were other monks who chose to remain in Sri Lanka

有些僧人则选择留在斯里兰卡

although they had very different times and different conditions

虽然他们的境遇各有不同

they tried to keep the tipitaka intact in their memory.

但是他们都尽力保持完整记诵三藏

they may not have enough to eat but recited that tipitaka, so that they do not forget.

他们可能没有足够的食物但是他们对三藏一直记诵不忘

and that rebellion lasted for 12 years

这场动乱持续了12年之久

after 12 years when the rebellion was over, 12年之后,动乱结束

the monks who went over to south india came back to Sri lanka

逃到南印度的僧人回到了斯里兰卡

so when they came back

当他们回来的时候

those who were left behind Sri Lanka

留在斯里兰卡的僧人

said, brothers, you went over to south india, you did not suffer like we did

对他们说:师兄们,你们去南印度不像我们受尽磨难

but we suffered a lot during the rebellion and so

我们在这场动乱中受尽磨难

our memory might have impaired, might have been impaired

我们的记忆恐怕也受到损伤

we may have made some mistakes in our memory

我们的记忆可能出现差错

so let us check the tipitaka you have

让我们一起来核对核对三藏

memorized with our tipitaka which we have memorized

核对我们所记诵的三藏

so they checked, when the two parties checked

所以双方进行了核对

the tipitaka, they had memorized

对双方记诵的三藏进行核对

It was said there was no difference

据说没有任何不同

so they decided in the future

他们觉得在将来

people might not be able to memorize all these and put them together.

人们可能不能记诵这些经典

and so they decided to write down the tipitaka on palm leaves.

他们决定将三藏记录在贝叶上

so that took place about 450 years after the death of the buddha

这件事发生在佛陀去世450年后

done in Sri lanka in place called Aḷuvihāra, near the city of Kandy

这一次结集发生在斯里兰卡康提城附近的阿卢迦寺

then in 1871, 1871年

another buddhist council took place in Myanmar

在缅甸进行了再一次的结集

in the city of Mandalay

地点是曼德勒市

during the time of king Mindon

明东王执政时

so king Mindon was a very devout king,

明东王是非常虔诚的国王

he wanted to do what other kings had not done.

他想完成其他国王未完成的事业

he knew that tipitaka was written down on palm leaves

因为当时三藏是写在贝叶上

now he wanted the tipitaka to last forever.

所以他想永远地保存三藏

so he decided to have tipitaka inscribed on marble slabs

所以他决定将三藏刻在大理石板上

it was lucky there was a hill near Mandalay where these marble slabs can be obtained

很幸运,在曼德勒附近有一座山,可以获取大理石

who you have seen many marble buddha statues, you know how good they are.

你们如果见过大理石佛像,就知道那非常壮观

so the tipitaka was inscribed on those marble slabs

三藏都被刻在这些大理石板上

and they were all together 729 marble slabs

一共是729块大理石板

and they are still intact, they are still to be seen in Mandalay

至今保存完好,依然可以看到它们在曼德勒

even though there was fighting during the WWII around that place.

虽然在二战中那里经历了战火

none of these slabs were hit by any bomb shell or whatever

没有任何炮弹击中这些石板

so until today, they stand intact in the compound of the pagoda near Mandalay Hill.

直到如今,它们依然完好无损地保存在曼德勒山附近的佛塔里

that was in 1871

这次结集发生在1871年

then in 1954 after the independence,

然后是缅甸独立之后的1954年,

another council was held, it was called the sixth buddhist council.

举行了第六次结集

to that council, all the representatives of the theravada countries were invited,

这次结集邀请了所有上座部国家的代表

and also prominent leaders from the mahayana countries were also invited.

同时也邀请了大乘佛教国家的著名领袖

and 2500 monks participated in that council

参加结集的一共有2500名僧人

in a man-made cave near Rangoon

地点是在仰光的人造石窟里

so then it was held in 1954 and it went on for six or seven years

时间是在1954年,持续了六七年

so the tipitaka was handed down from generation to generation

三藏就这样代代流传

through the councils

经过一次次的结集

until the fifth council, there were no printed books in Burma or in Myanmar,

在第五次结集之前,在缅甸还没有印刷的书籍

later under the british rule, the books, the tipitaka books were printed

后来在英国治下,有佛经的印刷

and so at the sixth buddhist council,

在第六次结集时

all these tipitaka book along with the commentaries,

所有三藏以及注释书

and sub-commentaries were edited and published

加上疏钞都被编辑出版

so now the myanmar peole have the whole set of tipitaka

所以缅甸人拥有完整的三藏

complete with commentaries and sub-commentaries.

包括注释书和疏钞

now buddha’s teachings are divided into nikayas, and also into pitakas

佛陀的教法可以分成尼柯耶和藏

I want you to be familiar with these two divisions.

我希望你们熟悉这两种分类

So at the first buddhist council,

在第一次结集时

the elders divided the buddha’s teachings into five collections or nikayas

长老们将佛陀的教导分为五部(尼柯耶)

there are collection of long discourses,

它们是:长部

collection of middle length discourses,

中部

collection of kindred discourses or associated discourses

相应部

collection of gradual discourses and collection of minor discourses.

增支部和小部

they are respectively called in Pali:

巴利语分别为:

Dīgha Nikāya, Majjhima Nikāya, Saṃyutta Nikāya, Aṅguttara Nikāya, Khuddaka Nikāya so buddha’s teachings are divided into five collections

佛陀的教法分为此五部

that is one division.

这是一种分类方法

another division is into three pitakas or baskets

另外一种分类就是分为三藏

the word pitaka in pali means basket, or things to be learnt

藏在巴利语意思是篮子,或者说要学习的东西

and these three pitakas are:

三藏是:

Vinaya Piṭaka, Sutta or Suttanta Piṭaka, and Abhidhamma Piṭaka.

律藏、经藏、论藏

so, all teachings of the buddha are divided into five nikayas,

所以佛陀的所有教法可以分为五尼柯耶

and also they are divided into three pitakas

也可以分为三藏

now, the division into nikayas,

五尼柯耶的分类

is not the sub-division of pitaka division.

并非三藏分类的子类

it is a separate division

它是独立的分类

I tell you this because there is so much misunderstanding of our nikayas and pitakas.

我指出这点,因为对于尼柯耶、藏的概念有很多误解

many people think that digha nikaya and so on are a subdivision of sutta pitaka

许多人认为长部等等是经藏的子类

but that is not true.

并不是这样的

the nikaya division is one division,

尼柯耶是一种分类方法

and pitaka division is another independent division

三藏是另外一种分类方法

among the five collections or five nikayas

在五部尼柯耶的分类中

abhidhamma is included in the minor discourses

阿毗达摩属于小部

but in the three pitakas, abhidhamma pitaka is one separate pitaka.

但是在三藏的分类中,阿毗达摩属于独立的一藏

now we come to the word abhidhamma

现在我们谈谈阿毗达摩这个词

the word abhidhamma composed of abhi and dhamma

阿毗达摩这个词包括“阿毗”和“达摩”

abhi is a prefix

阿毗是个前缀

here it means excelling or distinguished

这里的意思是:优胜的,杰出的

and dhamma means teaching

达摩指教法

so abhidhamma means the teaching excelling or distinguished from the teachings in sutta pitaka

所以,阿毗达摩指较之于经藏,是一种优胜的,杰出的教法

and that means they are, they excel or they are distinguished from all the teachings in sutta pitaka

就是较之于经藏的教法它们是优胜、杰出的

with regard to method of treatment

这是就处理方式而言

when we say abhidhamma is excelling teaching

当我们说阿毗达摩是优胜的教法

or distinguished teaching

或者说杰出的教法

from the teachings of sutta pitaka

相对于经藏而言

we do not mean that that taught in abhidhamma pitaka

我们不是说在阿毗达摩里的教法

are better than or higher than those taught in sutta pitaka

比在经藏里的教法更好,更高级

they are called excellent or distinguished because of the method of treatment.

之所以说它是优胜、杰出的是说就它的处理方法而言

many topics were taught both in sutta pitaka and abhidhamma pitaka

经藏和阿毗达摩里有许多相同的主题

but what makes abhidhamma pitaka different from sutta pitaka is

阿毗达摩和经藏的不同之处在于

is method of treatment.

处理问题的方法

now you’re all familiar with five aggregates

你们都很熟悉五蕴

these five aggregates

这五蕴

are treated in brief in the sutta pitaka

在经藏里讨论的很简要

in the pitaka called samyutta nikaya

在相应部里面

the five aggregates are taught in brief

对五蕴的教法很简要

and it occupies only one page

只占了一页纸

but these same five aggregates are treated in abhidhamma

但是同样的五蕴在阿毗达摩里面

following the method of, suttanta method, abhidhamma method and method of questions and answers

通过经藏的方法,阿毗达摩的方法还有问答的方法,进行了介绍

and it occupies 68 pages in the second book of abhidhamma

在阿毗达摩第二卷,它占了68页

so the treatment, the method of treatment is very diferent

所以,处理问题的方法很不同

in sutta pitaka the treatment is very brief,

在经藏里,处理的很简要

in abhidhamma pitaka these five aggregates are treated in full

在阿毗达摩里,这五蕴就介绍的很详尽

according to the suttantta method, according to abhidhamma method, according to

根据经的方式、论的方式

according to the method of questions and answers,

根据问答的方式

so it takes 68 pages

它占了68页

to explain the five aggregates in abhidhamma

在阿毗达摩里解释了五蕴

Now what are taught in abhidhamma?

阿毗达摩里教授了什么?

It is ultimate teaching in contrast to conventional teaching in Sutta Piṭaka.

相对于传统的经藏教法,它是究竟的教法

In Sutta Piṭaka the Buddha used conventional terms

在经藏里,佛陀使用平常的字眼

the buddha used a person, man, woman, I, you, and so on.

佛陀使用一个人、男人、女人、我你,等等

but in abhidhamma pitaka

但是在阿毗达摩里

buddha mostly used the terms of reality

佛陀大多使用的是究竟法的字眼

not conventional terms

不用平常的习惯语言

but the terms of reality, like conciousness, mental factors, material properties and so on.

究竟法的用词,诸如:意识、心所、色法等等

and the realities are expounded in many different ways

用各种方式进行讲解实相

so mind is minutely analyzed

所以心得到了详细的分析

and also matter analyzed in very detail

色法也得到了详尽的分析

mind is divided into Citta or consciousness, and Cetasikas or mental factors.

心被分成心、心所

and matter is also treated in full, given, these sort of matters, that are their causes, and how they are grouped

色法也解释的很详细,起因、分类

and how they arise and disappear in one life and so on.

以及在一个周期里面的生灭

so in abhidhamma, what are called realities are expounded in many different ways.

在阿毗达摩里,用不同的方法解释实相

they are divided, they are analyzed into minute details.

被条分缕析

so mind is divided into first citta and cetasikas

心理活动首先被分成心、心所

and then citta is divided into 89 or 121 types and cetasika into 52 and so on.

心又被分成89或121种,心所分为52种等等

so it is very analytical and it goes into great details and

所以分析的很详尽

mostly the conventional terms are avoided in the abhidhamma pitaka

大多数情况下,阿毗达摩不使用日常用语

in abhidhamma pitaka you find the terms like consciousness

在阿毗达摩里,你会看到:心

mental factors and so on

心所等等

rather than man, woman, individual, I, you and so on.

你看不到男人、女人、个体、我你等等字眼

now people asked: whether abhidhamma is philosophy or what?

有人问:阿毗达摩是哲学还是什么?

abhidhamma is said to be philosophy

阿毗达摩被认为是哲学

because it deals with the most general causes and principles that govern all things.

因为它处理适用于万事万物的一般性因果原则

it can be called philosophy because it deals with reality, it’s about all real entities.

它可以被称之为哲学,是因为它处理究竟法,关于所有实相的

It is also called an ethical system because it enables one to realize the ultimate goal, Nibbāna.

它也被称为伦理体系,因为它让人觉悟到最终的目标,涅槃

actually there is not much of ethics in abhidhamma.

实际上,阿毗达摩中没有多少伦理的东西

when we say we can find some ethics in abhidhamma

当我们说可以在阿毗达摩中找到伦理时

we must understand ethics in a broader sense

我们要从更广义的角度来理解伦理

not in its narrow sense of, the set of moral rules or moral precepts

不是狭义上的道德戒条

we say that is sometime there is ethics in abhidhamma because

我们有时说阿毗达摩也有伦理内容

when consciousness is explained

因为在解释心的时候

consciousness is divided into wholesome consciousness, unwholesome consciousness, and neither wholesome nor unwholesome consciousness.

心被分为善心、不善心、无因心

wholesome consciousness we call good consciousness, and unwholesome consciousness bad consciousness.

善心就是好的心,不善心就是坏的心

so, since consciousnesses are divided into wholesome and unwholesome and neutral

因为心被分善心、不善心、无因心

we can say that there is a little of ethics in abhidhamma

我们可以说,阿毗达摩里也有一些伦理内容

and because it deals with the working of mind with thought processes and mental factors it is also called a system of psychology.

因为它也处理心的作用、思维过程、心理因素,所以,也被称为心理学

It is, I think it is more psychology than ethics or philosophy.

我认为,相较于伦理和哲学它更多地是关于心理学

because it deals with working with the whole mind works

因为它处理的是整个心的运作

and thought process and mental factors

思维过程和心理因素

arising together with the different types of consciousnesses

随着不同种类的心生起

and how they are related

它们之间的相互关系

how they are related

它们之间的相互关系:

consciousness to consciousness, consciousness to mental factors, consciousness to material properties and so on.

心与心、心与心所,心与色法等等

So Sayādaw U Thittila, the well known myanmar sayadaw,

所以缅甸著名吴帝提拉长老

wrote in a book called the Path of the Buddha

在他的书《佛陀之道》里写道“It is a philosophy in as much as it deals with the most general causes and principles that govern all things.”说它是哲学,因为它处理适用于万事万物的一般性因果原则。“It is an ethical system because it enables one to realize the ultimate goal, Nibbāna.”说它是伦理学,因为它让人觉悟到极终的目标,涅槃。

“Because it deals with the working of mind, with thought processes and mental factors

因为它处理心的运作,心路过程和心理因素

it is also a system of psychology.”它也是心理学“Therefore Abhidhamma is generally translated as psycho-ethical philosophy of Buddhism.”所以,阿毗达摩一般可以翻译成佛教心理伦理哲学

so all these three terms put together.

把这三个词汇结合在一起。

now comes to the importance of abhidhamma

现在谈谈阿毗达摩的重要性

many people asked: is abhidhamma necessary?

许多人问:阿毗达摩是必要的吗?

or is abhidhamma essential?

阿毗达摩是关键的吗?

now, abhidhamma is essential for a correct and thorough understanding of Buddha’s teachings.

对于准确彻底理解佛陀的教法阿毗达摩是很关键的

without knowledge of abhidhamma

如果没有阿毗达摩的知识

we do not understand the teachings even in the sutta pitaka

我们甚至不能理解经藏里面的教法

our understanding maybe erroneous or

我们的理解可能是错误的

our understanding may not be complete

我们的理解也可能是不全面的

so it is important for the correct and thorough understanding of buddha’s teachings even in the sutta

所以对于正确彻底理解佛经里的教导它是很重要的

there are people who think abhidhamma is not necessary

有人觉得阿毗达摩不是必要的

we can live without abhidhamma

没有阿毗达摩,我们照样生活

even we do not study abhidhamma,

即便不学习阿毗达摩

our understanding of the buddha’s teaching will not be incomplete or something like that.

我们对于佛教教法的理解也不会不全面,诸如此类

but actually without the knowledge of abhidhamma, it is very difficult to correctly understand the teachings in sutta pitaka

实际上,没有阿毗达摩的知识想正确理解经藏里的教法,很困难

now let us take the example of the first verse in the book called dhammapada

我们就以法句经第一句为例

I hope you all have read the book dhammapada

我希望你们都读过法句经

now the very first verse,

现在看第一句

first line of very first foot of that verse

第一句偈颂

runs in pali as:

巴利语是这样的:

manopubbaṅgamā dhammā

how do you remember they translate it?

你们记得他们是怎么翻译的么

there are many english translations of dhammapada

法句经的英译本有很多

and they are not the same, each one differs from the other one.

他们各不相同

they are the words: manopubbaṅgamā dhammā再读一遍巴利语

if you do not understand abhidhamma,

如果你不理解阿毗达摩

it is difficult to understand what dhamma there.

要了解这里的“达摩”就困难

what does dhamma stand for in that verse?

这句话里的“达摩”是表示什么

and what is mano there?

这里的“mano”是什么?

pubbaṅgamā means forerunner pubbaṅgamā意思是首领

so, now we translate using pali words

我们现在用巴利语来翻译一下

dhammas are those that have mano as their forerunner

达摩要以末那为首领

that is the literal translation of that verse

这是这句话的字面意思

that means dhammas have mano as their forerunner.

意思是达摩需要用末那作为它们的首领

here dhamma does not mean everything in the world

这里的达摩不是指世间的万物

here dhamma means just the mental aggregate

这里的达摩指涉及到心理的蕴

and mano is another mental aggregate or consciousness

末那指识蕴

so this means consciousness is the forerunner of the other mental states

这句意思是心是心所的首领

we are not to understand that: mind is the forerunner of everything in the world

不要将它理解成:心是世间万物的首领

mind is the forerunner of mental states.

心是心所的首领

that means consciousness is the chief of four mental states.

意思是心是心所的首领

if consciousness does not arise, the other mental states cannot arise.

如果心不生起,其他心所不会生起

that is why it is called the forerunner

这就是它被称为首领的原因

here forerunner does not mean that consciousness arises first

这里首领不是说心首先生起

and then mental states arise later and follow it

然后心所跟着生起来

because they arise at the same time,

因为心和心所是同时生起的

the consciousness and mental factors arises at the same time.

心和心所同时生起

but consciousness is called the forerunner of these mental states

但是心被称为心所的首领

simply because without consciousness, other mental states cannot arise

因为没有心,心所就不能生起

so we must understand that

我们必须明白这个

and then you can understand only you know abhidhamma.

只有理解阿毗达摩,才能明白

some translations are quite far from the original pali

有些英译就偏离巴利原文太远了

so they are not translations at all, they’re interpretations.

这样就不是翻译,就是一种诠释了

in this book, some translations are given

这本书里列出了一些英译

things are forerun by mind

心是万物的先导

that is one translation

这是其中一个译文

not so bad

还可以

but the next one: the mental natures are the result of what we have thought

下一个:心理的属性是我们思维的结果

this quite quite different from what the original pali means

这就与巴利语原文很不同了

and then the next one: all that we are is the result of what we have thought

再下一个:我们怎样想,就成为怎么样

althought it is not alien to buddhism

这个译法像是佛教的说法

it is not the meaning conveyed by the verse: manopubbaṅgamā dhammā但是不是巴利语原文的意思

so some translators were

有些翻译者

aware of the commentary explanation,

意识到注释书里的解释

but they just ignored it, they translated as they liked

但是他们对此熟视无睹,随心所欲地翻译

so without the knowledge of abhidhamma,

所以,没有阿毗达摩的知识

even that one sentence, we cannot understand properly

即便是那样一句话,我们也不能正确地理解

again in the dhammapada

再来一句法句经

there is a verse which says

这句是这样的:

“All fear the rod.

所有人都害怕棍棒

All fear death.”

所有人都害怕死亡

that also if we do not understand abhidhamma, we will misunderstand that

同样,如果你不懂阿毗达摩,你也会误解这句。

all tremble at the rod. It means all tremble at the stick.

一切众生在棍棒面前颤抖,就是害怕棍棒

all fear death.

一切众生害怕死亡

now according to abhidhamma arahants and buddhas

根据阿毗达摩,阿罗汉和佛陀

are those who have eradicated all mental defilements

他们已经灭尽了心里的诸漏

since they have no more mental defilements in their mind

他们已经没有心里的染污

there is no attachment in their mind, there is no fear in their mind

心中无执,也没有恐惧

no anger in their mind

心中也没有嗔

so although the verse is: all fear death

即使这句说:一切都害怕死亡

we must understand all does not mean all.

我们必须明白,这里的一切并不是一切

all except buddhas and arahants

一切,但不包括佛陀和阿罗汉

and the next verse also

同样下一句

life is dear to all, that means

一切众生都珍爱生命,意思是

everybody is attached to his life,

所有人都执着于生命

that all also is not all

这里的一切也不是一切

because arahants and buddhas are not attached to their lives

因为阿罗汉和佛陀不执着于生命

because they have eradicated mental defilement all together

因为他们断尽了一切心的染污

no attachment, no anger and so son

无执,无嗔等等

so although the words used are all

所以即使这里用的词是:一切

we must understand that all means all except arahants and buddhas.

我们必须明白,“一切”要排除阿罗汉和佛陀

these are small things but you know if you do not understand abhidhamma, you may misunderstand it

这些是小事情,所以,如果你不懂阿毗达摩就会产生误解

and you may say, now here it’s said that everybody is afraid of death, the buddha must be also afraid of death.

你可能会说,这句经文说:一切人都害怕死亡,所以佛陀也害怕死亡

and the other verse is

还有一句

that verse you already know

这句你们都知道

not to do any evil, to cultivate good, to purify your mind, this is the teaching of buddhas.

诸恶莫作,众善奉行自净其意,是诸佛教

but in order not to do evil, we must understand what evil is

但是要想诸恶莫作,我们得明白什么是恶

if we do not understand what evil is, how can we avoid doing evil?

如果我们不明白什么是恶,那怎么避免作恶呢

the english word evil here i think is too strong.

这里的英语单词“恶”,我觉得程度太重了。

because even when you are eating

因为即便你在吃

when you are eating your meal

即便你在吃饭的时候

there is evil, there is unwholesome

也存在恶,也存在不善

unwholesome mental states

不善的心所

if you eat with attachment

如果你带着执着来吃

then there is unwholesome mental state

就有不善的心所

that is also called evil, in pali it’s called pāpa

这就称之为“恶”巴利语是papa it may not be too bad, but still it is evil

虽然没那么坏,但也是恶

so if we follow the advice of buddha

所以如果我们遵从佛陀的教导

we must eat so that we are not attached to food

我们吃的时候,不要执于食物

and that we do bite applying mindfulness to the activities involved in the act of eating.

在吃的时候,应用正念

or to reflect on food as

或者省思食物

I eat food just to be able to practice the dhamma,

我们吃东西仅仅是为了修习佛法

and not to take pride in myself and so on

不要骄慢等等

so, in order to avoid evil, first we must understand what evil is

所以,要避免作恶,就要先知道恶是什么

and this you can understand only through abhidhamma

只有通过阿毗达摩才能了解这些

ok, another one

好,下一个

you all are familiar with the six attributes of the dhamma

你们都熟悉法的六个性质

svakkhato bhagavata dhammo and so on

法乃世尊所善说等等

so there is one word: akaliko

这里有一个词:akaliko akaliko is translated as not delayed akaliko被翻译成没有延迟的

or giving immediate results

或者说给予立即的结果

kala here means time, time means, time to give results kala在这指时间,产生结果的时间

so akaliko means there is no time for giving results akaliko就是说,产生结果不需要时间

that means it does not delay in giving results, it gives immediate results.

意思是,产生结果不会延迟,立刻就会产生结果

in order to undertand it, you need to understand abhidhamma

要了解这点,你需要了解阿毗达摩

in abhidhamma it is taught that at the moment of enlightenment

根据阿毗达摩的说法,在觉悟的那一刻

a type of consciousness arises,

生起一种心

that consciousness is called magga, path consciousness

这种心叫做道心

and that path consciousness is immediately followed by fruition consciousness

果心会跟随道心立即产生

two or three moments of fruition consciousness

两个或者三个果心

so magga is the cause, fruition is the effect

道心是因,果心是果

so here the magga gives its fruit immediately.

这里,道心立刻产生结果

without any intervention or time

没有任何时间间隔

so that is called akaliko, no time

所以就称之为akaliko,不需要时间

sometimes akaliko is translated as timeless

有时候,akaliko被翻译成永恒的

if we translate it as timeless,

如果这样翻译

we will mean something eternal

意思就是永恒的

it turns out something like that.

就会产生这样的效果

but the word akaliko here means it has no time in giving result.

但是akaliko这里指不需要时间,立即有结果

and you can understand the immediate result only when you know abhidhamma

只有理解了阿毗达摩,你才理解“立即的结果”这个说法

so there are many places in the sutta pitaka

所以,在经藏里很多地方

where you may not understand or you may understand wrongly if you do not know abhidhamma

如果不懂阿毗达摩,你可能就理解不了,或产生误解

another one

下一个

you are all familiar with the four noble truths

你们都熟悉四圣谛

the first noble truth is the noble truth of suffering

第一个就是苦圣谛

so explaining the noble truth of suffering, the buddha said

当解释苦圣谛的时候,佛陀说:

birth is suffering, old age is suffering, disease is suffering death is suffering, and so on

生是苦、老是苦、病是苦、死是苦,等等

and at the end what did the buddha say?

最后,佛陀怎么讲?

in brief, the five aggregates of clinging are suffering.

要而言之,五取蕴是苦

now, how do you understand aggregates

你们怎么理解“蕴”?

how do you understand clinging

你们怎么理解“取”?

and how do you understand aggregates of clinging?

你们怎么理解“取蕴”?

without the knowledge of abhidhamma, you don’t understand that

没有阿毗达摩的知识,你就理解不了这些

here, aggregates of clinging means aggregates that are the object of clinging

这里,“取蕴”指“蕴”是“取”的对象

that is what it means

就是这个意思

aggregates that are the object of clinging

“蕴”是“取”的对象

then what is clinging?

那么什么是“取”?

in abhidhamma it is taught that there are four kinds of clinging

根据阿毗达摩,有四种“取”

in reality, there are two: the attachment of craving and wrong view

在现实中,有两种:执贪、邪见

so those that can be the object of craving and wrong view are called aggregates of clinging

所以,贪和邪见的对象称之为“取蕴”

and there are five of them

有五种

so the buddha said, the five aggregates of clinging are suffering

所以,佛陀说五取蕴是苦

since it is called five aggregates of clinging

因为有五取蕴

there must be five aggregates of not clinging also.

也就有五种“不取蕴”

so five aggregates and five aggregates of clinging

所以,五蕴、五取蕴

these you understand only with reference to abhidhamma

只有参照阿毗达摩,你才理解

so when you understand abhidhamma, you know what these five aggregates of clinging are

当你理解阿毗达摩,就知道五取蕴是什么

it is important to understand the five aggregates of clinging

理解五取蕴很重要

because when you practice Vipassana Meditation

因为,当你进行内观禅修时

you take any of the five aggregates of clinging as the object

你将五取蕴作为所缘

and you do not take aggregates that are not the object of clinging as object

如果不是五取蕴的对象,就不将其作为所缘

so with reference to akalika

参照akalika we talk about magga or path consciousness

我们谈到道心

now path consciousness and each results fruition consciousness

通过道心,产生了果心

are not the object of clinging, they are outside the range of clinging

道心不是执取的对象

so when you practice vipassana you can not take path consciousness as the object.

所以,你进行内观的时候道心不能作为所缘

because if you practice vipassana you take the aggregates of clinging as the object

因为,你内观的时候,只将取蕴作为所缘

so it is important that you understand abhidhamma to you understand this

所以,理解阿毗达摩才知道这些这很重要

so there are many places in sutta pitaka

所以,在经藏里很多地方

where you need the knowledge of abhidhamma

你都需要阿毗达摩的知识

but still there are some people who said we don’t need abhidhamma

但是依旧有人说我们不需要阿毗达摩

now Sayādaw U Thittila again said in the same book

所以在同一本书里乌帝提拉尊者说“Abhidhamma is highly prized by the profound students of Buddhist philosophy,

阿毗达摩被资深佛教学者极度推崇

but to the average student it seems dull and meaningless.”但是对于资质一般的学人,它就显得暗淡,没有意义。

This is because “it is so extremely subtle in its analysis,

这是因为:“它在分析方面,特别深奥,

and so technical in its treatment that it is very difficult to understand without the guidance of an able teacher.”在处理问题上,特别需要技巧,如果没有具格的老师指导,理解起来十分困难。

that is probably why the abhidhamma piṭaka is not as popular as the other two piṭakas among Western Buddhists

所以这大概就是阿毗达摩在西方佛教徒那里没有经律二藏那么受到欢迎的原因。

now abhidhamma pitaka can not be read without the basic knowledge

没有基础知识,就读不懂阿毗达摩

I can not pick up a book on higher mathematics, and read it and understand it because I don’t have basic knowledge of mathematics.

我不能拿起一本高等数学就理解因为我没有基本的数学知识。

so first I must understand the basics of mathematics

我必须先了解基本的数学知识

to be able to read a book on higher mathematics.

才能够去读高等数学

in the same way, you cannot pick up a book on abhidhamma and read it and understand it, that’s impossible

同样,你拿起一本阿毗达摩书,就想弄懂,这也不太可能。

so in order to understand the book of abhidhamma

所以,要想理解阿毗达摩的著述

first you need to know the basic of fundamentals basic knowledge or the knowledge of fundamentals of abhidhamma

首先,你需要了解基本的阿毗达摩知识

so that is why abhidhamma is not so popular

这就是阿毗达摩不太流行的原因

because people may pick up an abhidhamma book and read it and then

因为人们可能拿起阿毗达摩的著述想去读读,

after two pages, they will put it down.

翻了两页,然后就放下了。

so you need the basic knowledge of abhidhamma

所以,你需要有基本的阿毗达摩知识

and what you will be studying at this class is not abhidhamma

所以你在这次课程里并不是学阿毗达摩

but the fundamentals of abhidhamma, the basics of abhidhamma

只是学学阿毗达摩的基础知识

so that after understanding the basics you can go into the real treasure house of abhidhamma with ease.

所以,了解基础之后,你就容易登堂入室

now the other question

另外一个问题

is abhidhamma necessary and essential to gain enlightenment

对于觉悟而言,阿毗达摩必要吗?

or to be successful in practice of meditation?

或者说对于禅修的成功,重要吗?

now the knowledge of abhidhamma is not absolutely essential

阿毗达摩的知识对于

for the realization of truth, for attaining enlightenment

觉悟真理并不绝对关键。

but it is extremely helpful to who practice meditation.

但是对于禅修而言,是特别有帮助的。

if you understand abhidhamma and practice mediation it is like

如果你理解阿毗达摩,禅修就像

reading a guide book before you visit a place

旅行时拿着一本地图

you may visit a place without reading a guide book

你可以不看地图去旅行

but if you have read a book, a guide book on the place you are going to visit

但是如果你提前阅读了地图

and then you visit it later, you know many things about that place

当你访问那个地方的时候,你已经知道了不少知识

you don’t have to be told this is this or this is this

不需要别人告诉你这是什么,那是什么

so when you have knowledge of abhidhamma, you practice meditation

所以当你具有阿毗达摩的知识你禅修的时候

what you experience you can identify

你就可以认识你体验到的东西

you don’t have to ask another person about what the experience is

你不需要去问其他人这些体验是什么

so the knowledge of abhidhamma is like knowledge of a place before you visit that place

所以阿毗达摩的知识就是在旅行前对那个地方的了解

so that is why the knowledge of abhidhamma is helpful for those who practice meditation

所以说,阿毗达摩的知识对于禅修是有帮助的。

but we do not see that it is absolutely esssential

但是,我们不是说它是绝对关键

or you must know abhidhamma before you can practice meditation.

也不是说,你在禅修前必须了解阿毗达摩

because there are many stories during the time of the buddha, that shows that

因为在佛陀时代,有很多故事表明

without the knowledge of abhidhamma you can practice meditation and attain enlightenment.

没有阿毗达摩知识,也可以禅修并且可以获得觉悟。

so two questions: is abhidhamma necessary or essential for the understanding the teachings of the buddha?

两个问题:阿毗达摩对于理解佛陀教法必要吗?

the answer is yes, it is essential for correct understanding of the teachings of the buddha

回答是肯定的。对于正确理解佛陀教法有必要。

is it essential for the realization of the truth, no

对于觉悟真理是必要的吗?并不必要。

but if you have knowledge of abhidhamma, it will help you a great deal

但是如果你有阿毗达摩的知识,就会对你有很大的助益。

so anyway knowledge of abhidhamma is beneficial to those who know it, who posses it

对于掌握阿毗达摩的人而言,它是有益处的

we take a short break.

我们休息一会儿

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whether abhidhamma should be studied or not

到底要不要学阿毗达摩

I would like you to give its advice

我希望你们自己做决定

not go by what other people say about abhidhamma

不要人云亦云

if you ask me

如果你问我

i would say, abhidhamma is very good, and so you should study it

我会说,阿毗达摩很好,你应该学学

but if you ask some other person who does not like abhidhamma

但是你如果问不喜欢它的人

he would say, no, abhidhamma is uninteresting or dull

他会说,阿毗达摩无趣沉闷

you can get no benefit from the study

学它得不到什么利益

so do not go by what other people say

所以不要人云亦云

we all are disciples of the buddha

我们都是佛陀的弟子

the buddha always advice us to find out things for ourselves

佛陀总是让我们自己找答案

when we find out for ourselves that

当我们自己发觉

it is beneficial to us, then we should follow it.

阿毗达摩是有益的,我们就要去照着做

so here also

同样

try to find out for yourselves whether it is beneficial

自己去找答案,它是否有利益

and practice, i mean to study abhidhamma or not

去修习,决定要不要学阿毗达摩

and if you find it’s beneficial for you

如果你觉得它对你有利益

if you find it’s worthwhile to study, then do it by all means

如果你觉得值得去学,就好好学

if you think that it is not valuable after

如果你觉得它没价值

finding out for yourself after studying it, you may leave it alone

你得出这个结论,那么你就别学

so abhidhamma is something that is,

所以,阿毗达摩

like i said, that is essential for the correct understanding of the teachings of the buddha

我讲过,它对正确理解佛教很重要

now we go to the abhidhamma books

现在我们谈谈阿毗达摩诸论书

abhidhamma is the one of the three baskets of buddha’s teachings

阿毗达摩是佛教的三藏之一

the first one is vinaya pittaka, the second is the sutta or suttanta pitaka, the third one is abhidhamma pitaka.

三藏是:律、经、论

and abhidhamma pitaka consists of seven books

论书包括七部

[inaudible] seven books

七部论书

the first book is called Dhammasaṅgaṇī

第一部是《法聚论》

Dhammasaṅgaṇī means the classification of the dhammas

《法聚论》意思就是诸法之分类

classification of consciousness and then the mental factors arising together with different types of consciousness,

对如下诸法分类:心,与诸心一起生起的心所

and also the material properties.

还有色法

and the second book is called Vibhaṅga

第二部是《分别论》

it is the analysis of the dhammas

就是对诸法的分析

so in this book, the terms are defined with many single names and also

这部论将各种名词进行定义

the five aggregates and so on are analyzed in great detail

例如详细分析五蕴等等

and the third one is called Dhātukathā

第三部是《界论》

discussions of dhammas taught in Dhammasaṅgaṇī

讨论《法聚论》中的诸法

now here dhatu does not mean just element

这里的“界”不仅指元素

but dhatu here means all the subjects taught in the first book, that is dhammasangani

“界“指第一部论书《法聚论》里教导的所有主题。

then number four is called Puggalapaññatti

第四部是《人施设论》

designation of types of beings

施设不同种类的众生

now this is one book that is not really abhidhamma

这部论不是真正的阿毗达摩

although it is included in the abhidhamma pitaka,

虽然它被包括在论藏里 because in this book individuals are described

因为这部论书讨论了个体

or in other words, the conventional terms are used in this book

换言之,这部论用了世俗的名相

so it is not actually the abhidhamma proper

所以它不是真正意义上的阿毗达摩

and number five is Kathāvatthu

第五部是《论事》

points of controversy

各种具有争议的论点

actually this book is edited at the third buddhist council

实际上此论是第三次结集时编入的

the commentary said that

注释书说

when the buddha taught abhidhamma to the gods in Tāvatimsa Heaven

当佛陀在忉利天向天人讲授阿毗达摩的时候

and when he came to this book

当他讲到这部论时

he just mentioned like a table of contents

他只是提到目录

and taking those table of contents as the basis for this book

将这些目录作为此论的基础

venerable moggaliputta tissa at the third buddhist council preached this book

目犍连子帝须尊者在第三次结集时宣讲了此部论

now this book is actually the book of debate

这部论实际上只是辩论之书

book of debate between theravada and other opinions

上座部和其他观点的辩论

so this is also not abhidhamma proper actually

所以这部论实际上也不是真正意义的阿毗达摩

it is not easy to understand because it is in the form of debate

它不易理解,因为是辩论的形式

and sometimes if you should do not read from the beginning

有时候,你如果不是从头开始看

sometimes you may not know whether a statement is by the opponent or the defendant.

有时候你就不知道那个论点到底是正方还是反方

and sixth book is called Yamaka

第六部是《双论》

yamaks means pairs, the book of pairs.

“双”表示成对的,

means book of pairs of questions, pairs of answers and so on.

问题是成对的,回答也是成对的,等等

and the seventh is called Paṭṭhāna

第七部是《发趣论》

the book of causal relations

讨论诸缘关系的

now the seventh book is the most comprehensive

这第七部论是最全面的

and also considered to be the most profound of the seven books of abhidhamma

也被认为是七部之中最深奥的

in this book, the 24 types of causal relations are mentioned.

这部论提到二十四缘

and then the relationship between mind and mind, mind and matter, matter and mind, and so on, are described.

谈到心心、心色、色心等等的关系

we take this book to be the most profound of the seven books of abhidhamma

我们认为这部论是阿毗达摩七论中最为深奥的

I hope you all know, the buddha spent seven weeks after his enlightenment under the bodhi tree and near the bodhi tree.

我希望你们知道,佛陀觉悟后在菩提树附近呆了七周

after his enlightenment, the buddha did not preach yet

佛陀觉悟之后,并没有立刻转法轮

but he stayed under the bodhi tree for seven days and then

他在菩提树下呆了七天

went to a place and stood there and looked at the place where he sat for seven days and so on

然后他站起来看了看他坐了七天的地方

and during the fourth week,

在第四个星期里

they said that the buddha contemplated on the abhidhamma

据说佛陀审思了阿毗达摩

so when he contemplated on the abhidhamma,

当他审思阿毗达摩的时候

nothing happened when he contemplated on the first six books

审思前六部论的时候,没什么特别的

when he contemplated on the seventh book, Paṭṭhāna

当审思第七部《发趣论》的时候

six colored rays came out of his body

他的身上发出了六色光

now you all are familiar with the buddhist flag

你们都很熟悉佛教的教旗

how many colors are there in buddhist flag?

佛教旗帜上有几种颜色

actually six colors

实际上是六种

blue, red, yellow,

蓝色、红色、黄色

white and pink and then

白色,粉红,还有

the mixture of these five.

这五种颜色的混合

so altogether, there are six kinds of rays

所以一起就是六种光线

so these six kinds of rays came of the buddha

这六种光从佛陀身上发出

when he contemplated on the seventh book of abhidhamma

当他审思阿毗达摩第七部的时候

that was because the first six books

因为前六部书

although there are very difficult for us, very profound

虽然对我们而言,很难,很深奥

but for the buddha, for the buddha’s super wisdom, there are not deep enough.

但是,对于佛陀而言对于佛智而言,并不够深

so when he was contemplating on the first six books

所以,当他审思前六部论时

his super wisdom was like a big whale put in a small tank

甚深佛智就像一头巨鲸,放在一个小水箱里

that the whale could not move upon as it likes

这头鲸不能自在移动

in the same way, his super wisdom could not get enough space to move about.

同样,佛智在前六论上没有足够的空间活动

but when buddha contemplated on the seventh book

当佛陀审思第七部论时

his wisdom was like the whale put back to the ocean

他的智慧如同鲸鱼重回大海

so when the whale was put back into the ocean, he will be very glad, he will move about freely

当鲸鱼重回大海,他就非常开心因为能自由自在活动

so in the same way, when the buddha reached the seventh book,

同样,当佛陀审思第七论的时候

his super wisdom can go deep into vipassana, and vipassana was deep enough for his super wisdom to go about,

他的审思佛智可以进入内观,他的智慧可以在内观中深入

so when buddha was contemplating on the seventh book, he became very glad.

所以,当佛陀审思第七部论的时候他很欢喜

when his mind was glad, his heart became clear

他的心欢喜,所以他的心变得清澈

and when his heart became clear, the other material properties also became clear

当他的心清澈,其他色法也变得清澈

and that’s why the rays of the six color came out of the body of the buddha

所以六色光就从佛身发出

so the seventh book is said to be the most profound and also the most comprehensive

所以说,第七部论最深奥,最全面

now during the time of the buddha

在佛陀时代

it may be enough for the disciples to understand the seven books without other help.

他的弟子可以不借助帮助理解这七部论书

but as time went on

但是随着时间的推移

when the disciples began removed the buddha by time

佛子们离佛日远

they began to need some books for explanation to the seven books of abhidhamma

所以就需要对七部论书进行解释

so the commentaries were written on these seven books on abhidhamma

所以就有关于这七部论的注释

and these commentaries were later complied into one commentary by the venerable buddhaghosa

这些论书最后被觉音尊者所归总

so the venerable buddhaghosa in the fifth century AD wrote commentaries to abhidhamma pitaka

五世纪的觉音尊者为论藏写了注释

he wrote means, actually he edited and translated the existing commentaries written in sinhalese language

实际上他是编辑和翻译了已有的僧伽罗语注释书

so even though venerable buddhaghosa lived in the fifth century

虽然觉音尊者生活在五世纪

what he wrote in the commentaries go back to the time of the buddha himself.

但是注释书里的内容可以追溯到佛陀时代

what is why we have so much respect for the commentaries.

所以我们对注释书抱有极大的尊重

we do not believe that venerable buddhaghosa wrote these commentaries all by himself.

我们不相信觉音尊者自己写了这些注释

actually he was just a compiler and the translator of the existing commentaries

实际上他只是对已存的注释书进行编译

and that go back to the time of buddha himself

而这些注释书可以追溯到佛陀时代

that’s why we have so much respect for the commentaries.

所以我们对于注释书极为尊重

and also without the help of commentaries,

并且,如果没有注释书的帮助

in many places we cannot understand the teachings of the buddha.

佛陀的很多教法我们就无法理解

there appear the commentary on the abhidhamma pitaka written by venerable buddhaghosa

觉音尊者给阿毗达摩写了注释书

but as time went on again

但是随着时间的推移

even the commentaries are not easy to understand

即便是注释书,也不容易理解了

so we need another type of explanation called subcommentaries.

所以我们需要另外的解释它被称为复注

so in the seven, about seventh century AD

所以大概在公元七世纪

the venerable ananda,

阿难尊者

not the buddha’s personal attendant ananda

这个不是佛陀的侍者阿难

another ananda wrote the subcommentaries

这个是写了复注的阿难

again those subcommentaries were explained by venerable Dhammapāla after the seventh century.

七世纪后,这些复注又被法护尊者进行了解释

so there are three levels of commentaries for the abhidhamma pitaka

所以,对于阿毗达摩有三个层次的注释

the first is commentaries, the second is subcommentaries, the third is sub-subcommentaries.

注释书、复注、复复注

and then later the authors wrote treatises on abhidhamma

后来,又有人写了关于阿毗达摩的著述

both in pali language and in other languages as well.

用巴利语写,或者用其他语言写

so there are now many books on abhidhamma, books in pali and other languages

所以,现在有很多关于阿毗达摩的各种语言的书籍

now as i told you before,

我之前告诉过你们

it is almost impossible to go into abhidhamma pitaka without the basic knowledge

没有基础知识,研究阿毗达摩几乎不可能

and the basic knowledge of abhidhamma we find it difficult to get

并且关于阿毗达摩的基础知识,我们也觉得很难获得

because you have to go through all seven books

因为,你们要研究所有七部论书

in order to know which is essential which is not

才能了解哪些是关键内容,哪些不是

and so to our joy,

让我们感到欣慰的是

there appeared in the eleventh century,

在11世纪的时候,出现了

a book called Abhidhammatthasaṅgaha

一本叫《摄阿毗达摩义论》的书

this book, the original of this book is the abhidhammatthasaṅgaha

这本书《摄阿毗达摩义论》

this book is the translation of explanation of that book

是我手上的这本就是它的译本

so that abhidhammatthasaṅgaha was written by a native of south india, his name was Anuruddha

《摄阿毗达摩义论》这本书是南印度人写的,名字叫阿耨楼陀

all the fundamental teachings of abhidhamma are treated in this small book

阿毗达摩的要义都 浓缩在这本书里

and this small book is the most popular handbook for the study of abhidhamma

这本小书是学习阿毗达摩最流行的手册

it is indispensable guide to abhidhamma

是关于阿毗达摩不可或缺的指导

and it is there a textbook for abhidhamma especially in Myanmar

是缅甸关于阿毗达摩的教科书

in myanmar,

在缅甸

where abhidhamma is the compulsory subject

阿毗达摩是必修课

for all monks nuns and novices

所以出家二众都要学

the abhidhammatthasangaha is learnt by all monks, nuns and novices

他们都要学《摄阿毗达摩义论》

now if you become a novice,

出家之后

and if you decide to be a novice or monk for life some period of time

不管你是长期还是短期出家

then immediately after your ordination, you will be given this book,

剃度之后,就立刻给你这本书

I mean the original of this book and you have to memorize it

就是这本书的巴利原本,你就要背诵下来

even though you do not know the meaning of the…you have to memorize it first

即便你不知道它的意思但是你要先背诵下来

because we had the saying, we put the book in our stomach

因为我们有一句话说:要把这本书放在肚子里

so once it’s in our stomach, we can digest it any time we like

当你把它放到肚子里后,就可以随时进行消化

and so first we take the book by heart and then try to understand the meaning of it

所以,我们首先背下这本书然后尽量去理解意思

so the abhidhammatthasangaha came to be very popular in Myanmar

所以说《摄阿毗达摩义论》在缅甸很流行

theravada buddhism was introduced to upper burma

上座部佛教进入上缅甸的时间

in the 11th century AD

是公元11世纪

ever since that time, abhidhamma has been a very popular subject with myanmar monks

从那时开始,阿毗达摩就是缅甸僧人最流行的科目

many treatises were written in myanmar

在缅甸,有许多关于它的论著

or in pali and in burmese

缅文的和巴利语的都有

so and in a book published in 1968, in the introduction of that book

在1968年出版的一本书的序言里

all the treatises of the abhidhamma available or listed there

列出了能收集到的关于阿毗达摩的所有论著

and there were 333 treatises at that time

那时候一共有333本

by now it might have been more than that

现在肯定超过这个数字了

and then there are what are called night lessons in myanmar

在缅甸有所谓“夜课”的说法

night lessons means we study abhidhamma during the day

夜课的意思是,我们白天学习阿毗达摩

and then at night we go to the teacher

晚上我们就去老师那里

no lights, or very faint light

没有灯,或者光线很暗

we recall to the teacher without books

我们复述给老师听,不看书

and then we recite what we have learnt during the day

然后我们背诵我们白天学到的内容

and the teacher would give explanations to what we have learnt

老师也会对我们学习的内容进行讲解

and so we learn in that way

我们就是这样学习的

and that is very good method of making yourself familiar with

这是种很好的方法,让你熟悉

the intricacies of abhidhamma

阿毗达摩的复杂内容

i think because of these night lessons

我觉得,正因为这种夜课

burmese monks are more familiar with abhidhamma than the monks from other countries.

缅甸僧人比其他国家的僧人更熟悉阿毗达摩的内容

we have to thank our ancient teachers for creating this kind of study

我们要感谢我们古代的老师创立这种学习的方法

so it is a compulsory subject for every monk, novice or nun

这对于出家二众,是必修课

also many laypeople study abhidhamma,

很多在家人也学阿毗达摩

and they even wrote books on abhidhamma,

他们甚至对于阿毗达摩也有著述

there were teachers on abhidhamma among laypeople.

在家人中也有讲授阿毗达摩的老师

now

现在

we take to abhidhammatthasangaha

我们继续讲《摄阿毗达摩义论》

there are english translations of that book

这本书有几种英译本

and the first one is called Compendium of Philosophy

第一本名字是《哲学纲要》

by U Shwe Zan Aung.

作者是吴雪赞昂

he was a burmese gentleman

是一位缅甸在家男众

so he translated the abhidhammasantthasangaha with a long introduction

在这个译本前,他写了一个长长的前言

so his introduction is very good,

这个前言写的很好

and maybe even better than the translation of the book itself.

或许比这本书的译文更好

so there are 76 pages of the introduction of that book

这个译本的前言有76页

on different topics of abhidhamma

对阿毗达摩的不同主题进行了介绍

the second book

第二个英译本

is called Abhidhamma Philosophy, Volume 1 by Bhikkhu J. Kashyap.

名字是《阿毗达摩哲学》卷二,作者是迦夏帕比丘

it first appeared in 1942 1942年初次印刷

he wrote two books, two volumes on abhidhamma

他写了两卷关于阿毗达摩的书

and the first volume is the translation of the abhidhammatthasangaha

卷一翻译了《摄阿毗达摩义论》

and the second volume is brief description of the second book of abhidhamma

卷二就简要地介绍了《分别论》

and the third translation is called A Manual of Abhidhamma by venerable Nārada Thera.

第三个译本是那拉达长老的《阿毗达摩手册》

he is a very well known teacher from Sri Lanka.

他是非常著名的斯里兰卡法师

and his manual first appeared in 1956.

这本手册1956年出版

and it has come through various editions

后来再版了很多次

and the last one

最后一个译本

is the Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma, that is now in your hands

就是你们手头上的《阿毗达摩综合手册》

it is a totally revised edition of number three, that is the manual of abhidhamma

它完全是第三个译本《阿毗达摩手册》的修订版

now

现在

general editor bhikkhu bodhi first tried to edit just a little bit the manual of abhidhamma

这个译本的总编辑菩提比丘开始只是想对《阿毗达摩手册》稍作修订

but as he went along

但是当他开始修订后

he found that he must do anew

他发现他必须重新翻译

so actually although this book is said to be

实际上,虽然我说这本书

a late edition of the manual of abhidhamma by narada thera

是那拉达长老《阿毗达摩手册》的最新版本

it is actually a new translation.

实际上它是一个新的译本

and this book, when he wrote this book, he was aided by one burmese monk

当他翻译这本书的时候有一个缅甸僧人协助他

who is now in england, U Revata Dhamma

这个僧人是现居英国的乌•雷瓦德•达摩尊者

and the charts in this book, the charts that i used at my classes.

这本书的图表,我曾经用于教学

one of my students sent these charts to him

我的一个学生,把这个图表寄给乌•雷瓦德•达摩尊者

and he found that helpful and asked permission to include the charts in this book.

他觉得很有用,就让我准许他使用在这本书里

so we will use this book at this class

我们在课堂上就用这本书

and as much as you can, I would like you to read

如果你们有精力,我希望你们读读

if you can please read some pages before you come to the class

有精力的话,就在课前预习几页

now about abhidhamma

现在谈谈阿毗达摩的来源

the traditional belief about abhidhamma

关于阿毗达摩,传统的信仰

the commentaries explained that buddha taught abhidhamma to gods not to human beings

注释书里,佛陀对天人宣讲阿毗达摩,并非对人讲

now in the seventh year after his enlightenment,

佛陀觉悟之后第七年

the buddha showed what is called twin miracle

他示现了“双神变”,同时变出水和火

at the city of Savatthi.

事情发生在舍卫城

then after the twin miracle he went up to tavatimsa heaven

示现双神变后,他升到忉利天宫

and there he preached abhidhamma for three months nonstop.

他不停息地宣讲了三个月的阿毗达摩

his mother who died seven days after giving birth to him

佛陀的母亲在生下他七天后就去世了

was reborn as a deity in tusita heaven

因此投生到了兜率天成为天人

and he or she

是男仙人,还是女的?

we believe that buddha’s mother was reborn as a male deity

我们相信佛陀的母亲是投生为男仙人

so he came down to tavatimsa heaven

这个仙人来到忉利天

and buddha taught to him and other deities the abhidhamma

佛陀向他和其他天人宣讲阿毗达摩

so it was in the seventh year after his enlightenment

此事发生在佛陀觉悟之后第七年

it is said that buddha taught abhidhamma to the celestial beings and his mother in gratitude of his mother

据说佛陀为了报母恩,向天人和他母亲宣讲了阿毗达摩

now when he taught abhidhamma, when he preached abhidhamma

当他宣讲阿毗达摩的时候

buddha taught nonstop for three months

连续不间断宣讲了三个月

now there comes the question

问题来了

how can buddha who was a human being

佛陀也是人

could sit for three months

怎么可以持续坐三个月

and taught without taking food,

不吃东西,一直讲法?

without attending to his personal bodily needs

人有三急,佛陀没有么?

but the commentaries explained that

但是注释书对此也作了解释

when he was preaching

佛陀讲法的时候

to the gods in the tavatimsa heaven

在忉利天宫对天人讲法时

and it is time for him to go for alms round

托钵乞食的时候到了

and he created an image of himself

他就创造了自己的一个分身

and made a resolution that

决意

the created image preach to the gods abhidhamma during his absence

在自己乞食的时候,让这个分身对天人说法,

so after creating the image of himself

创造了这个分身之后

he went down to the human world

他就下落到人间

and it is said that not all the deities had knew that buddha had left

据说并不是所有天人都知道佛陀离开了

only those who had power, great power knew that

只有具有极大神通的天人知道

so he went down to human world

佛陀下到人间

he decided he went to the northern continent

他来到北印度

and colleceted food there

在那里乞食

and then buddha went to the himalayas and he took his meal there

在喜马拉雅山脚下吃了饭

so to that place, the venerable sariputta

在那个地方,舍利弗尊者

went and attended on the buddha

去侍奉了佛陀

so when buddha met sariputta in that way, buddha said

当时佛陀对舍利弗尊者说

sariputta, i have taught abhihamma this much

舍利弗,我已经讲了一些阿毗达摩

in the interval from yesterday to today

在昨天和今天的一段时间内

i have taught these topics

我讲了这些主题

what sariputta heard from the buddha just

舍利弗从佛陀那里听到的

maybe just a table of contents

大概只是一个目录

he was able to understand exactly what the buddha taught

他能彻底了解佛陀教授的内容

because he was, as you may know, the best or the foremost

因为你们知道,舍利弗在诸弟子中

among the disciples who possessed wisdom

以智慧第一著称

actually he was second to the buddha in wisdom

实际上他的智慧仅次于佛陀

so when the buddha said I have taught abhidhamma from

所以当佛陀告诉他,我宣讲了阿毗达摩

such a place to such a place

从某某处讲到某某处

he understood what the buddha taught

他明白佛陀讲的是什么

and then about evening, buddha went back to tavatimsa heaven,

大概到了晚上,佛陀回到了忉利天宫

and took his place and continued his teaching of abhidhamma

继续坐下,宣讲阿毗达摩

now the venerable sariputta

现在谈谈舍利弗

everyday, went back to, where he was living

他回到他常住之地

and he taught abhidhamma to his 500 disciples

他向他的五百弟子宣讲阿毗达摩

so that was done everyday for three months

每天宣讲,持续了三个月

but when he taught to his pupils

当他向他的弟子们讲法时

he made it understandable for his disciples

他宣讲的方式就是让他的弟子们都能听懂

that means he did not teach everything he knew about abhidhamma

就是说,他并没有将他所有的阿毗达摩知识讲给弟子们听

he taught the abhiddhamma just enough for them to digest.

他只是讲一些刚好能让弟子们吸收的内容

so this went on everyday

这样每天讲法

and it is said his teaching to his disciples,

据说他对他的弟子们讲法

buddha’s teaching to the gods,

佛陀对天人讲法

at the same time

这两者是同时发生的

now, these 500 pupils of sariputta had a past

现在,舍利弗的五百弟子的过去世

in one past life, it is said, that they were born as bats

在过去某世,这五百弟子都是蝙蝠

so as bats, they were living in a cave

这些蝙蝠都住在洞里

and in that cave there were two monks

在洞里,有两个僧人

who were studying abhidhamma

他们在里面学习阿毗达摩

so they recited abhidhamma everyday in that cave

他们每天都在洞里背诵阿毗达摩

and those bats listened to the chanting of abhidhamma by those monks.

这些蝙蝠天天听这两个僧人背诵阿毗达摩

they may not know it was abhidhamma, but

它们可能不知道阿毗达摩

since the chanting was good, they paid attention to it

但是因为僧人诵经很好听,这些蝙蝠也就喜欢听

and so when they died

这些蝙蝠后来死了

it was said that they were reborn as devas or celestial beings

据说它们都投生为天人

and from that existence, devas reborn as human beings

后来从天人又投生为人类

so they were reborn human beings, these 500 got together

当他们投生为人时,这五百个人凑到一起

and entered the order with venerable sariputta as their teacher.

出了家,成为舍利弗尊者的弟子

so venerable sariputta taught them abhidhamma everyday and

所以舍利弗尊者每天给他们宣讲阿毗达摩

they were the first human beings who ever studied abhidhamma

他们是最早学习阿毗达摩的人

so we see that we have three versions of abhidhamma

所以阿毗达摩有三个版本

the longest version that buddha taught to the celestial beings

佛陀对天人宣讲的是最长的版本

and the shortest version that buddha taught to venerable sariputta

佛陀对舍利弗尊者宣讲的是最短的版本

and the, neither too short nor too long version

不长也不短的那个版本

that venerable sariputta taught to his pupils

就是舍利弗尊者给他的弟子宣讲的

and fortunately, that version that middle length version

很幸运,刚刚适中的那个版本

was recorded at the first buddhist council

在第一次结集的时候,被记录下来

if the first version, the longest version was to be recorded

如果第一个超长版被记录下来

there will be too voluminous books

那可真是卷帙浩繁

because it is said buddha taught very fast

因为据说佛陀说话很快

buddha can say 128 words when an ordinary person says one word.

普通人说出1个字,佛陀就能讲128个

so he could speak 128 times faster than ordinary man

所以佛陀讲话的速度是普通人的128倍

and so we can imagine how voluminous abhidhamma would be if we had to recall that all he taught to the celestial beings

所以我们可以想想,如果记下佛陀对天人宣讲的阿毗达摩,那该是多么地卷帙浩繁

because he taught there day and night without stop.

因为佛陀当时日夜不停地宣讲

so the abhidhamma pitaka we now have

所以我们现在所拥有的阿毗达摩

that is the one that is neither too long nor too short

不长也不短

and even that version occupies, how many pages?

即便是这样的版本,多少页?

4981 printed pages of the sixth buddhist council edition.

根据第六次结集的版本,4981页

and those pages do not show the ellipses in full

这些还不包括省略掉的部分

there are many places we are

有许多地方

what is to be repeated is not repeated

因为重复,所以就省略了

if we fill in all the ellipses in the books

如果把书中省略的地方补全

it will come to ten thousand pages or more

可能就要超过一万页

so abhidhamma pitaka is one of the pitakas that is

所以阿毗达摩

big in volume and it is profound

内容多,并且深奥

that profound abhidhamma was made accessible to us by the teachers of ancient times

这么深奥的教法,得益于以前的老师我们今日才得以遇到

one of those teachers was venerable Anuruddha

其中一个就是阿耨楼陀尊者

who wrote the abhidhammatthasangaha

他写了《摄阿毗达摩义论》

that abhidhammatthasangaha, actually there were other treatises also

实际上还有别人写的论著

but abhidhammatthasangaha was the best of them

但《摄阿毗达摩义论》是最好的

so it became very popular with the students of abhidhamma

所以在学习阿毗达摩的人中非常流行

we will study this abhidhammatthasangaha at this class

我们也会学习这本《摄阿毗达摩义论》

when you study abhidhamma, i would like to ask you to be patient.

当你们学习阿毗达摩的时候,希望你们能有耐心

you may have many questions

你们可能有许多问题

but i always say, abhidhamma is like a jigsaw puzzle

我常常说,阿毗达摩就像拼图游戏

Until you put in the last piece,

在你拼好最后一块前

the picture is always incomplete.

图像就不会完整

so until you go to the, you reach the end of the book

所以,在你学完这本书之前

your understanding of abhidhamma will always be incomplete

你对阿毗达摩的理解就不会完整

so please be patient with it,

所以请多一些耐心

and also you will be learning pali words

你同时也要学习巴利词汇

please do not be afraid of pali

不要害怕巴利语

because sometimes the english translations are not accurate

因为,有时候英译不准确

although we may use these words as the translation of pali words

虽然我们用这些词翻译巴利语

they are not accurate

但是并不准确

so we may use the english words, but first we must understand what that word means

所以我们可以使用英语词汇,但首先要明白这个词的意思

for example the word consciousness

例如,心这个词

now we translate what in pali citta or viññāṇa as consciousness

巴利语的citta和vinnana,我们都翻译成心

because we can not find any better words,

因为我们找不到更好的词

we use this word consciousness for the word citta or viññāṇa in pali

我们就用“心”这个词翻译巴利语的citta和vinnana but the word consciousness for citta or viññāṇa is not accurate

但是“心”这个词翻译

citta或vinnana,并不准确

as you will learn later

你以后会学到

we are never without consciousness

我们时刻离不开“心”

even we are deep in sleep there is consciousness according to abhidhamma

即便我们进入深度睡眠根据阿毗达摩,“心”也存在

sometimes we may have fainted and say we are unconscious

有时,我们晕过去,或者说无意识

even at that time there is consciousness according to abhidhamma

根据阿毗达摩,即便是这时候,“心”也存在

so to call citta consciousness

所以将citta翻译成心

if we understand the word consciousness in usual sense

如果我们理解的“心”是通常意义的心

that we may misunderstand

我们就可能产生误解

so

所以

it is good always to learn the pali words

经常学习巴利词汇很好

so that we understand properly what the word means

这样我们就能正确理解词的意义

so please do not be afraid of the pali words

所以,不要害怕巴利词汇

you may be learning many things

你可能要学很多东西

whenever you study in your subject

当你学习新的科目

you have to memorize some words

你必须背诵一些词汇

and that is inevitable

这是不可避免的

if you study zen, you will learn japanese words also

如果你学禅,你也要学习日语词

if you learn yoga, you will learn sanskrit words and so on

如果你学瑜伽,就要学梵语词等等

so here also you will learn pali words,

所以在这,你就要学巴利词汇

so please do not be afraid of pali words

所以,不要害怕巴利词汇

because pali is a language that we believed was used by buddha himself.

因为,我们认为佛陀也讲巴利语

and to say something in pali, makes us very very happy

所以讲讲巴利语,能让我们很开心

that is why when at the services we still use pali

所以在佛事中,我们还是用巴利语

when we chant we chant in pali and so on

我们唱诵的时候,也用巴利语,等等

so please do not be afraid of pali words

所以,不要害怕巴利语

after some time, or after you get acquainted with some pali words

当你熟悉一些巴利语之后

i can say you will prefer to use pali words then

可以说,你就更喜欢巴利语

you will not want to use the english translations

你就不想用英译本了

so please be patient with abhidhamma

所以,请对阿毗达摩有耐心

and do not be afraid of pali words

也不要害怕巴利语

i thought i could cover the second topic also

我原本也想讲讲第二个主题

now it’s 9:15

但是已经九点一刻了

so today will stop here.

今天我们到此结束

disk01track03

yesterday, we looked at abhidhamma from a little distance

昨天我们远瞰了阿毗达摩

so today we will go closer to abhidhamma

今天我们走近一点看看

before we get into the abhidhamma proper

在进入真正的阿毗达摩之前

we need to understand

我们需要了解

the two kinds of truths

二谛(两种真理)

two kinds of truths taught in buddhism

佛教的二谛

it is strange that in buddhism

奇怪的是在佛教里

that it is not one truth

不只是一个真理(谛)

there are four truths taught in buddhism

佛教里教导了四圣谛

and truth is a relative term

“谛”是个相对的词语

and so it may mean different things to different people

对于不同人,可能意味着不同的内涵

so if you ask a christian,

如果你问一个基督徒

what truth is

真理是什么

then he would give one answer

他会给你一个答案

if you ask a buddhist

如果你问一个佛教徒

he would give another different answer

他会给出不同的回答

although people say that there is only one truth

虽然人们说真理只有一个

and teachers express it in different ways

但是人们用不同的方式表达这个真理

even that one truth is difficult to define

即便是一个真理,也很难定义

so for buddhists the truth is one thing

对于佛教徒,真理是这样

and for other, people of other religion

对于其他宗教徒

truth may mean differently

真理可能有不同的内涵

so we must understand

所以我们要明白

what truth means in buddhism

佛教的真理是什么

and in buddhism truth is just explained as something that is not untrue

佛教里的真理,是不虚妄的

that means that is not otherwise than it’s stated

意思就是如其所是的陈述

and something that is true

如果某件事是真实的

that is true to what has been described of, it is called truth

就像已经形容的那样,这就是真理

that truth is true either in conventional sense or ultimate sense

真理可以是世俗的意义上的,也可以是究竟意义上的

and in buddhism, truths need not be good

在佛教里,真理不需要是善的

or lofty necessarily,

也不必定是高尚的

good or lofty

善或者高尚

it may be anything that is true

任何事物都可能是真实的

so that is why craving which is unwholesome mental state

所以贪是一个不善的心所

its the second noble truth

也是第二圣谛

the noble truth of the origin of the suffering

苦集圣谛

so in the teachings of the buddha

所以在佛教里

even craving which is unwholesome mental state

即便贪是个不善的心所

it’s a truth.

也是真理

just as craving is truth, so is mindfulness

如贪一样,正念也是真理

wisdom, faith

智、信

loving-kindness, so they are also truth.

慈,这些也都是真理

so there are two kinds of truths, the conventional truth and ultimate truth.

所以真理有两种:世俗谛、究竟谛

and conventional truth means something that conforms to the people and the usage of the people

世俗谛意思就是和世人的习惯用法一致

that is true by convention

就是约定性的真实

suppose i ask you how you came to the class

如果我问你们如何来听课

i think you will answer: i came in the car

我想你们会说:我坐车来的

when you say i came in the car

当你说:我是坐车来的

you’re expressing a kind of truth

你的表述就是某种真理

because when you say you came in the car you’re not lying to me

因为当你说你坐车来,你没有对我撒谎

you’re saying what is truth you’re coming in the car

你讲的是真实的:你坐车来

but if we analyze the car

但是如果我们分析汽车

if we take the parts of the car one by one

如果我们把汽车拆分掉

and put in different places

分开放置它的零部件

then we lose the car there is no car

我们就会失去汽车,就没有汽车

the wheels are not car, the body is not car, the engine is not car

车轮子不是车,车身也不是车发动机也不是车

the seats are not car

座位也不是车

but when they’re put together in a sudden way

但是当我们突然将这些放一起

we call it a car

我们将之称之为汽车

so

所以

if the ultimate analysis there is no car

从究竟的分析而言,没有汽车

just the parts

只是零部件

but

但是

when these parts are put together in a sudden way

当这些零部件突然被放在一起

we call it a car

我们称之为汽车

we call it means all of us agree

我们这样称谓它,意思是大家约定

to call it a car

称谓它“汽车”

so by convention it is true that we came here in a car

所以从世俗谛而言,我们坐车来,这是真实的

but in the ultimate analysis

但是究竟去分析

we don’t came here in a car

我们没有坐车来

we use the vehicle that is four wheels, body, the seats and so on

我们使用一个交通工具:四个轮子有身子,有座位,等等

so everything in the world that we experienced

所以我们体验到的,这个世界的所有事物

is true only to convention

只是从世俗意义上讲是真实的

we can take many examples of this

我们可以举很多这样的例子

now a house, we live in a house

房子,我们住在房子里

so when we say we live in a house

当我们说:我们住在房子里

the way again, stating the truth, we’re not lying

这也是一种真理,我们没有撒谎

but if we take the different parts of the house apart

但是如果我们拆分掉这所房子

then we lose the designation house, there is no house, just the parts

我们就失去这所房子的施设,就没有了房子,只是些构件

so

所以

conventionally,

从世俗意义上

a house is a truth

“房子”是一种真实的表达

conventionally, a car is a truth

从世俗意义上,“汽车”也是真实的表达

the same with a human being

同样,“人”也是

then we call a person man

当我们称一个人为“男人”

so when we say he is a man

当我们说:他是一个男人

we are stating a truth

我们在陈述一个事实

he is a human, male human being

他是人,是男人

and so, it is a truth

诸如此类,这是真实的

but in ultimate analysis

但是从究竟上分析

again, we don’t have a man

同样,“人”不存在

a man is nothing but a combination of mind and matter

人什么也不是,不过是名色的结合

what is true in a human being and a man

所以人的真实情况是

is mind and matter, and not the man

名色的结合,并不是人

the same with a woman

女人也是同样的

so

所以

there are always these two kinds of truths

所以,这两种真理

in everything in the world

适用于这个世界的万物

and this conventional truth

世俗谛

it’s called in pali Sammuti-sacca

巴利语是:sammutisacca i want you to be familiar with the pali words also

我希望你们熟悉巴利名相

the sammuti means convention sammuti意思是世俗的

agreement of the people

世人的约定

so the truth by agreement, truth by convention

所以是约定的真理,世俗真理

and this sammuti sacca is also called Paññatti or concept

世俗谛,同样被称为“概念”

and there are two kinds of paññatti

有两种概念

the first one is as we see on the screen, Nāma-paññatti

第一种,屏幕上有:名字概念

name concept

名字概念

name concept means

名字概念意思是

names given to different objects

赋予不同对象的名称

it is called name concept or in pali Nāma-paññatti

被称为名字概念

because it makes things noun

因为它让事物有名称

the name makes things noun, that means

名字让事物有名称,意思是

the names denote things

名字指代事物

and the other paññatti is Attha-paññatti or thing concept

另外一个概念就是:意义概念

thing concept means the object or beings denoted by the name concepts

意义概念指名字指称的对象或存在

or we always have these two kinds of concepts: name concept and thing concept

所以我们有这两种概念:名字概念和意义概念

with regard to things we experience or we come into contact with

这是对于我们体验或接触的事物而言

now for example

现在举例

again, let us take the car

再用汽车进行说明

now the name car or the word car is a name concept

汽车这个词是名字概念

because the word car denote the thing which we call a car

因为汽车这个词指称我们称之为“汽车”的东西

and the thing which is a car is the thing concept

汽车这个东西,就是意义概念

so there are two concepts regarding the car

所以对于汽车而言,有两种概念

one is name concept and the other is thing concept

名字概念和意义概念

so the word car is name concept, and the car itself is a thing concept

所以“车”这个词是名字概念,车本身是意义概念

when we say a man

当我们说:一个男人

now the word man is a name concept

“男人”这个词是名字概念

and the person who we call man

我们称之为男人的人

a human being,

人类

a male human being

男性

is thing concept

这就是意义概念

so all names or nouns are name concept

所以所有名字、名词都是名字概念

and the things or meaning denoted by or represented by these names are called thing concept.

由这些名字指称或者代表的事物或者意义,是意义概念

so everywhere we get these two

我们随时可以有这两者

and out of these concepts

从这两个概念中

we take, or we extract the ultimate reality

我们萃取“究竟法”

now when we say a man,

当我们讲:一个男人

the name or the noun man is the name concept

这个名称或者名词就是名字概念

and the man, the person we call a man is thing concept.

我们称之为男人的,就是意义概念

and from this thing concept

从这个意义概念里

we extract the ultimate reality that is mind and matter

我们萃取出究竟法:名、色

so what we call man is a combination of mind and matter

所以我们称之为男人的,是名色的组合

and so what is real in the man is just mind and matter

所以,男人中真实的东西只是名和色

and not the man, because if we analyze the man into mind and matter

并不是男人,因为如果我们分析这个男人到名色

we lose the man himself

就不存在这个“男人”了

so everywhere we can get this three things

所以,我们处处都有这三者

name concept, thing concept and reality.

名字概念、意义概念、究竟法

now in the example of a car,

在汽车这个例子中

we may say that the word car is name concept

我们可以说“车”这个词是名字概念

and car itself is thing concept

车本身是意义概念

and the parts of the car are ultimate realities.

汽车的部件是究竟法

now again

同样

this is just an example

这仅仅是个例子

because if we take the parts of the car,

因为如果我们拆分汽车的部件

if we look at the parts of the car

我们观察汽车的部件

they themselves are concepts.

这些部件也只是概念

what is real in the part is the material particles

部件里真实的东西是色聚

the very very small material particles

非常小的色聚

so the ultimate reality in the parts is the material particles

所以,汽车部件里的究竟法是色聚

so with regard to conventional terms,

与世俗谛的名相相关

we have these three things,

我们有这三者

name concept, thing concept and ultimate reality

名字概念,意义概念,究竟法

and this concept is said to be timeless

概念是不具有时间性的

now timeless means we can not say a concept is present, or past or future.

不具时间性,意思是我们不能说概念是在现在、过去或未来

because the concepts exist only in our imagination

因为概念只是在我们的想象中存在

we just think of these concepts

我们只是思维这些概念

they have no intrinsic existence of their own

他们没有自身的固有属性

so we think of the combination of mind and matter as man or woman

我们思维名色组合成的人

and we think of the combination of parts as a car, a house and so on

我们思维由零件组成的车或房子

but we do not know when the concept came into being whether it is present or future

但我们不知道概念什么时候存在是现在,还是未来

simply because it has no real existence of its own

因为概念自身并不是真实的存在

because concept just exists in our imagination

因为概念只是存在于我们的想象中

and it has no division into present or past or future

不能归入现在、过去或未来

it can not become the object of vipassana meditation.

不能成为内观禅修的所缘

when we practice vipassana meditation

我们修习内观禅修时

we try to see the arising and disappearing of the object

我们尽力去观察所缘的生灭

but we do not know when the concept arises and when it will disappear.

但是我们不知道概念什么时候生灭

because sometimes concept may seem to disappear

因为有时候概念看起来灭去了

but actually they do not

但实际上没有

now the buddha was a hermit Sumedha

佛陀过去世做过隐士,名字叫善慧

during the time of buddha Dīpaṃkara

当时住世的是燃灯佛

now that concept that name sumedha

善慧这个概念,或名字

seem to be present at the time when sumedha was living

看起来存在于这个隐士住世的时候

and he aspired for buddhahood in the present of buddha dipamkara and so on.

在燃灯佛时,这个隐士志求佛果

but after he passed away

后来他去世了

the concept sumedha seem to have disappeared

善慧这个概念看起来消失了

but actually it did not

但是实际上并没有

because later on when buddha related his past life as sumedha

因为后来佛陀在叙述他过去世为善慧的时候

it seemed to come into being again

这个概念好像又重生了

and this name sumedha will go on in our minds

这个善慧的名称会一直在我们的心里

say, as long as the world lasts

可能要持续到世界的末日

even, it may be go on into the other worlds

它甚至可能传到其他世界

so paññatti or concept has no time frame

所以概念没有时间性

that is why paññatti can not become the object of vipassana meditation

所以概念不能成为内观禅修所缘

now the other truth is ultimate truth.

还有一个究竟谛

and in pali is called Paramattha-sacca

巴利语是:paramattha-sacca now sacca means truth sacca意思是真理

and paramattha means ultimate pramattha意思是究竟的

the final, final thing, or final truth

极终之物,或者极终真理

now the ultimate truth is that which conforms to reality

究竟谛是与究竟法一致的

that means which we can really experience

意思是我们可以体验

now for example,

例如

we take consciousness, consciousness is called an ultimate reality

我们以心为例,心属于究竟法

because it has existence of its own

因为心本身是存在的

and we can experience this consciousness in our minds

我们可以体验到心

and we know when consciousness arises we know that it arises,

当心生起时,我们知道

when it disappears, we know it disappears

当心灭去时,我们也知道

so consciousness is called an ultimate truth

所以,心被称为究竟法

it has existence of its own

它本身是存在的

now you’re listening to me,

你们现在听我讲课

and you have hearing consciousness at every moment you hear my voice

当你听到我的声音时,你们就生起耳识

so you know that consciousness is a reality

所以就知道心是究竟法

now when you see something that is a seeing consciousness in your mind

所以当你看到某物,心里就生起眼识

and you experience

你就有看的体验

and so you know that seeing, or seeing consciousness is a reality

所以,眼识也是究竟法

so the ultimate truth is that which conforms to reality which has its own existence.

所以究竟谛与究竟法一致,本身存在

and it is called paramattha in pali

巴利语叫:paramattha and paramattha is defined as the ultimate thing or the correct thing

究竟法被定义为极终的事物或者是正确的事物

it is called ultimate thing or correct thing

被称为极终事物或正确事物

because it is real as it is,

因为它如其所是

it is not otherwise than it’s stated

如所叙述的一致

that means consciousness is something that is aware of the object

意思是心就是对所缘的觉知

so when it is described as something that is aware of the object

当用“对所缘的觉知”来形容心时

it is the real awareness of the object not otherwise

是说对所缘的真实觉知,不是别的

and so it is called ultimate thing or correct thing, or in pali paramattha

所以被称为极终物,或真实物

now it is not like things as magic shows or mirage

所以这不像是幻术,或海市蜃楼

now that magic shows

那些幻术

the magicians show us things that are not real

魔术师的表演是不真实的

but we think that they are real

我们认为它真实

sometimes they may put a woman in a box

有时候他们将一个女人放到盒子里

and then they may cut her into different parts

将她切成几段

and we think that the woman is really cut

我们觉得那个女人真的被切断了

because they’re so realistic

因为看起来那么真实

but actually it’s just an illusion

但是实际上,不过是幻觉

and the same with other magic tricks

其他魔术表演也是如此

so at the magic shows,

所以幻术

whatever it shows, it’s always an illusion

无论如何,都是假象

they’re not real

它们并不真实

but this ultimate truth is not like magic shows.

但是究竟法,不像幻术

they’re real, they have their own existence

它们是真实的,本身存在

and also mirage

再谈谈海市蜃楼

i hope you have seen mirage in your life

我希望你们见过海市蜃楼

i was told that you do not have seasons in singapore

据说新加坡四季不分明

especially in summer when it is hot then you can see mirages

特别是在夏天,天热的时候,你就可以看到海市蜃楼

so they seem to be water

它们看起来像是水

and you think that is water at some distance

你认为远处有水

and then you follow that water and

你朝着那水走过去

moves from you as you move

你走过去,那水也移动

and so actually there is no water, but you think that is water

实际上并没有水,你觉得那是水

so the mirage is actually an illusion not a reality

所以海市蜃楼实际上是幻觉并不是真实存在的

the paramattha or ultimate reality is not like mirage it is real

究竟法不是海市蜃楼,是真实的

and also it can be seen by oneself

可以被自己观察到

it can be realized by oneself

可以被自己体证到

it can be experienced by oneself

可以被自己体验到

now things known from hearsay may or may not be real

道听途说的事情或真或假

say, we hear about something, that something from some other person

例如,我们从别人那里听说某事

and that may be real or that may be not

可能是真的,也可能不是

but the ultimate reality is not like that

但是究竟法不是如此

ultimate reality is something that we can see for ourselves

究竟法是我们自己可以观察到的

that we can experience for ourselves that we can realize for ourselves

我们自己可以体验并且体证到

especially through the practice of meditation

特别是通过禅修

so we practice vipassana meditation

所以我们进行内观禅修

that we experience consciousness

我们就能体验到心

we experience different mental states

体验到不同的心所

and we came to see the material properties also

我们也见到不同的色法

so they can be experienced or seen by oneself so they’re called paramattha or ultimate reality

所以它们都能被观察到,所以叫究竟法

and the ultimate reality is not easy to see

究竟法不能被轻易观察到

it is hidden from us

它们躲避我们

because we are so influenced by or so carried away by the convention

因为我们被世俗所影响,所牵涉

we live in a conventional world

我们生活在俗世

and so it is very difficult for us

所以我们很难

to cut through the outer layer of concept

切破概念的外壳

and get into the inner core of ultimate reality

进入究竟法的内核

that we have to do using the tools of abhidhamma

我们要依靠阿毗达摩的工具

the tools of analysis taught in abhidhamma

阿毗达摩中教授的分析方法

when buddha analyzed the world

当佛陀分析世界时

he analyzed it into five aggregates

将它分析成五蕴

so following this,

据此

we now see that what we call a human being

我们可以观察到称之为人的

is just the combination of these five aggregates

不过是五蕴的聚合

so these five aggregates are what are real

所以这五蕴是真实的

about the person we call a man or a woman

对于我们称之为男女的人而言

and a man or a woman himself or herself is just an illusion

而男女本身只是一个假象

we imagine that it is a being it is a man it is a woman

我们幻想那是一个人,或男或女

but in reality there is no man or woman

但是究竟法里没有男人或女人

apart from the five aggregates

只是五蕴

so when we analyze

所以我们分析

the things we come across or we analyze beings

分析我们遇到的事物或人

we come to see that

我们发现

there are only these five aggregates

它们只是五蕴

and nothing else

仅此而已

and so these five aggregates are what we call ultimate reality

所以这五蕴,我们称之为究竟法

so there are always the conventional truth and ultimate truths

所以总存在世俗谛和究竟谛

now with regard to terms of the ultimate truth

关于究竟谛的名称

there are only two things, name concept and ultimate reality

有两种:名字概念和究竟法

so there is no thing concept regarding the terms of ultimate reality

所以关于究竟法,不涉及到意义概念

for example, feeling

例如,受

now feeling is a mental state

受,属于心所

or a mental factor,

就是心的属性

and it is an ultimate reality

是究竟法

so the word feeling or the name feeling is a name concept

“受”这个词是名字概念

but the feeling itself is not thing concept because it is a reality

但是受本身不是意义概念它是究竟法

we feel or we experience the feeling

我们有受的体验

sometimes we are happy, sometimes we are unhappy, or sometimes we are neutral

有时候喜悦,有时候不喜悦,有时候是中性的状态

so we can experience the feeling, and so that feeling is an ultimate reality

我们能体验到“受”,所以它是一种究竟法

so with regard to terms of ultimate reality

关于究竟法的名相

we have only two things: name concept and ultimate reality:

只有两个:名字概念和究竟法

so we can take anything as an example, and try to find out the name concept, thing concept, and ultimate reality

我们可以任何事为例,找出名字概念、意义概念和究竟法

so from anything or everything we can squeeze out the ultimate reality

所以从任何事物中,我们都可以萃取究竟法

so these are the two kinds of truths taught in buddhism

这就是佛教里的二谛

and buddha used both terms of conventional truth and ultimate truth when he taught

佛陀讲法的时候,这二谛他都使用

if a person

如果一个人

is capable of understanding him when he used the terms of conventional truth

只有当他使用世俗谛时才能明白

then he would use the terms of conventional truth

他就使用世俗谛

like man woman animal and so on

就使用诸如:男女、动物之类的词

but if he found that a person will understand him only when he used the terms of ultimate truth

如果他发现某人只能在他使用究竟谛时才能明白

then he would use the terms of ultimate truth as aggregate

他就使用究竟谛的名相,例如蕴

sense bases, element, truth and so on

处、界、谛等等

but it is said in the books that

但是据说

buddha quite often did not thought with terms of ultimate truth

佛陀并不太想使用究竟谛的名相

because talking in terms about ultimate truth is rather dry

因为用究竟谛的名相讲法很枯燥

so if possible buddha started teaching using terms of conventional terms

所以,佛陀尽可能使用世俗谛的名相讲法

and only after a person had understood him

只有当某人能够理解时

would he use the terms of ultimate truth

他才使用究竟谛的名相

so

所以

according to the capability of the person and according to circumstances

根据不同人的根器和情况

buddha used both the terms of conventional truth and ultimate truth

世俗谛、究竟谛,都被佛陀采用

and as I said yesterday, when teaching people

如我昨天所说,当对人讲法时

buddha mostly used terms of conventional truth

佛陀大多数时候使用世俗谛

but when he taught the abhidhamma,

当他宣讲阿毗达摩时

he used mostly the terms of ultimate truth

他主要使用究竟谛的名相

because abhidhamma is very analytical and

因为阿毗达摩分析性很强

when analyzing being or things

当分析人或物时

buddha had to use the terms of ultimate truth

佛陀要使用究竟谛的名相

such as consciousness mental factors or material properties or so on

例如心、心所、色法等等

so these are the two kinds of truths we must understand

这就是我们要理解的二谛

and in abhidhamma

在阿毗达摩里

we will find mostly the ultimate truth

我们碰到的大多数是究竟法

and when we study abhidhamma, we will study the ultimate truth and their divisions

当我们学习阿毗达摩时,我们就学习究竟法及它们的分类

and in abhidhamma, it is said that four kinds of ultimate truths are taught

在阿毗达摩里,讲了四种究竟法

we have to be grateful to the teachers of old

我们要对过去的老师感恩

to tell us that in abhidhamma

他们在阿毗达摩里教授了

the four kinds of ultimate truths are taught

四种究竟法

if they did not tell us

如果他们没有教授

if they did not write books that

如果他们没有写这些著述

four kinds of ultimate truths are taught in abhidhamma

阿毗达摩里的四种究竟法

it will be very difficult for us to understand that

对于我们来说,很难理解

in abhidhamma pitaka the four kinds of ultimate truths are taught

论藏里面的四种究竟法

we would have to read the whole of abhidhamma pitaka

我们需要遍览整个论藏

and even then it’s doubtful we will understand

即便如此,能不能理解,也不好说

but now the ancient teachers have written all the abhidhamma pitaka for us

而现在,过去的老师写了这么多关于论藏的著述

and then they came out with this statement that

他们得出这样的结论

four kinds of ultimate truths are taught in abhidhamma

阿毗达摩里面教授了四种究竟法

so we should be very grateful to them

所以我们要非常感谢他们

and the four ultimate truth are:

这四种究竟法是:

1. citta now let me use the pali word citta

心,巴利语是:citta i told you yesterday that citta is translated as consciousness

我告诉过你们citta被翻译成心

and although we use the word consciousness for the word citta

虽然我们用心来翻译citta it is not accurate

但是这不准确

now citta is defined as something that thinks of the object

心的定义是:对所缘的思维

here, thinking means not the real thinking, just the awareness of the object

这里,思维,并不是真的思维只是对所缘的觉知

so citta may be defined as

所以,心的定义可以是

awareness of the object

对所缘的觉知

now when we teach meditation we use the word awareness

当我们教授禅修时,我们用到“觉知”这个词

to be aware of the object

觉知所缘

now in meditation instructions

在禅修指导中

awareness means mindfulness

觉知意思是具念

but here awareness means just the pure awareness of the object, just the mere awareness

但是这里觉知意思仅仅是对所缘的纯粹觉知,

so at the stage of this awareness

在这个觉知阶段

we do not yet know that the object is white or black or yellow or red

我们不知道所缘是白色,黑色,黄色,还是红色

we just know that there is an object

我们只知道有一个所缘

so that simple mere awareness of the object is what we call citta which is translate as consciousness

这种对所缘的纯粹觉知,就称之为“心”

and that awareness is just like the clear water, it has no color

这种觉知就像纯净的水,没有颜色

it is neither wholesome nor unwholesome, neither good or bad,

非善非不善,非好非坏

it is just the mere awareness of the object

只是对所缘的纯粹觉知

now when I’m talking: now i’m looking at you but i’m aware of something there

当我说:现在我看你我觉知到有某物

so that awareness is just an awareness, i don’t really know what it is, i know there is something there

所以那种觉知仅仅是觉知,我不知道它是什么,只知道有一个东西

so in the same way the awareness

所以觉知……

define of citta is like that just the simple or mere awareness of the object

对心的定义就是如此,对所缘的纯粹觉知

but when the commentators giving the definition

但是论师们给心下定义时

they have to use the word cinteti in pali which means to think

他们用了cinteti这个巴利词,意思是:去思维

but actually, thinking here means just knowing the object or the awareness of the object

实际上,“思维”在这里的意思只是知道所缘,或者觉知所缘

that mere awareness of the object is what we call consciousness in abhidhamma

这种对所缘的纯粹觉知,就是阿毗达摩里面的“心”

and citta is never without an object, we must understand this clearly

心总需要一个所缘,这点我们要了解清楚

this citta or consciousness must always have a object

心必须总要有一个所缘

since the definition is the awareness of the object, it must always have a object

因为心的定义是:对所缘的觉知所以必须有一个所缘

so citta can never be without an object

心不能脱离所缘而生起

sometimes, people say we put the mind blank without any object

有时候,人们说,心中一片空白,没有任何对象

but actually

但是实际上

without an object, citta can not arise, there can be no citta

没有所缘,心就不能生起,就没有心

so citta is always with an object

所以心总是有一个所缘

that object may be a vivid object

这个所缘可能是个明显的对象

as we see something or as we hear something

例如我们看到或听到什么

or it may be an obscure object like when we are asleep

或者是一个隐晦的所缘,例如我们睡觉时

so even when we are asleep there is consciousness

即便当我们睡觉时,心也存在

and that consciousness must have an object,

这个心也要有一个所缘

and that object is an obscure object

这个所缘是一个隐晦的所缘

so citta or consciousness can not be without an object at any time or any moment

所以,心任何时候都不能脱离所缘而存在

it must always have an object

必须总有一个所缘

since it’s definition is the awareness of the object or something that knows the object

因为它的定义就是:对所缘的觉知

and this citta is always with us.

我们时时刻刻都和心在一起

from the moment we take conception in the womb of the mother until we die there is always this citta

从我们在母胎受孕开始,直至死亡那一刻,心一直都存在

even when we are in deep sleep

即便我们进入深度睡眠

there is consciousness or citta

心也存在

taking the obscure object

此时它有一个隐晦的所缘

so we can never be without citta

所以我们不能离开心

that is unless we become anagmins and arahants

除非我们证得三果或者成为阿罗汉

and enter into what is called attainment of cessation

进入所谓的灭尽定

now a person after becoming an anagmin or an arahant

一个人证得三果或成为阿罗汉

if he has jhānas

如果拥有诸禅那

he can enter into what is called attainment of cessation

他可以进入所谓的灭尽定

attainment of cessation means attainment of cessation of mental activities

灭尽定意思是:灭尽所有心的活动

so when he is in the attainment, in that attainment of cessation

当进入灭尽定时

then mental activity is temporarily suspended

心的活动暂时停止了

so there is no mental activity during that time

所以这时候就没有心的活动

it may be one hour two hours it may be one days or seven days for human beings at most

可以持续一小时,两小时,一天…对于人类而言,最多是七天

if you are anagmins, if you are not arahants and not buddhas

如果没有证得三果,没有成为阿罗汉,不是佛

then we can not enter into that attainment of cessation

我们就不能进入灭尽定

and so for most people citta is always with them

对于大多数人而言,心总是存在

so we can not be without citta at any moment in our life

终其一生,我们不能须臾离开心

and then it is important to know the other words that mean the same thing used in the suttas as well as in abhidhamma

了解阿毗达摩里心的同义词也很重要

and these are:

这些词有:

now the synonyms of citta

这些都是心的同义词

Viññāṇa sometimes citta is called viññāṇa

有时候心被称为:viññāṇa so they are synonymous

这两者是同义词

sometimes it is called mana or mano

有时候被称为:mana或者mano yesterday i told you

昨天我讲过

the first verse in dhammapada: manopubbangama dhamma

法句经里的第一句偈子

so mano or mana is one synonym of citta

所以mano和mana也是心的同义词

sometimes, it is called ceta

有时候心也被称为ceta the next ultimate reality is cetasika

第二个究竟法就是cetasika心所

the word cetasika is compounded of ceta, cetas and ika

心所这个词由两部分组成cetas+ika so the word ceta is also the synonym of citta

所以ceta也是心的同义词

and then there is the word Manasa

还有一个是manasa we may find this in some discourses: manasa

我们可以在某些佛经看到manasa and the last is: Hadaya

最后一个是hadaya hadaya really means the heart hadaya实际上指心脏

the heart is said to be the seat of many types of consciousness

心脏被称为很多种心的依处

and the word hadaya or the heart came to be a synonym for citta or consciousness

所以hadaya也是心的同义词

so you may find these words when you read books on buddhism when you read books on abhidhamma

所以你在阅读佛书或者论书的时候你可能会碰到这些名词

so sometimes the word viññāṇa is used, sometimes mana, sometimes citta and so on

所以有时候用这个词,有时候用那个,诸如此类

so when we find these words, we must understand that

所以我们碰到这些词的时候,我们要知道

although the etymological meaning may be different

虽然从词源学而言,它们的意思可能不同

the real thing denoted by these words is the same

但这些词实际指代一样的东西

so consciousness is some…citta is sometimes called viññāṇa

所以心有时候被称为viññāṇa and so on

诸如此类

and you will find the word viññāṇa later on viññāṇa这个词稍后你们也会遇到

when we study individual types of consciousness

当我们学习各种类型的心的时候

and in abhidhamma

在阿毗达摩里面

citta is divided into 89 types

心被分为89种

or 121 types

或者121种

so there are 89 cittas

所有有89种心

or 121 cittas

或121种心

taught in or recognized in abhidhamma

这些都是在阿毗达摩里讲到的

now we will study these later on

我们稍后会学习这些

89 and 121 types 89种或者121种

so this is the first of the four ultimate truth

这是四种究竟法中的第一个

so the first of the four ultimate truths is citta or consciousness

第一种究竟法是心

now the second ultimate truth

现在讲第二种

the second ultimate truth is cetasikas

第二种究竟法是心所

mental factors or mental concomitants

心的属性,或者心的伴随

cetasikas is defined as those which are yoked on citta, or which are yoked with citta

心所的定义是:依附于心,或与心相随

that means which are associated with citta

意思就是与心联系在一起

which depend on citta for their arising

它们的生起依赖心

so these mental states are called cetasikas

这些心的状态被称为心所

now in abhidhamma mind is minutely analyazed

在阿毗达摩里,心被详细地分析

first it is analyzed into two: citta and cetasika

首先被分为心、心所

and then citta is analyzed into 89 or 121 types

心又被分为89或121种

and cetasikas are analyzed into 52, we will come to that later

心所被分为52种,稍后再讲

so cetasikas are those that are associated with citta

所以心所就是与心伴随

that is why they are called mental concomitants

所以也被称为:心之伴随

that means those that are concomitant with citta

意思是说它们与心相随

or those that arise at the same time with citta

与心同时生起

and they are called cetasikas

它们被称为心所

because they depend on the citta to arise

因为它们的生起依赖于心

that means if there is no citta, they will not arise, there can be no cetasikas

意思是,如果没有心,心所就不会生起

now citta is defined as awareness of the object

心的定义是对所缘的觉知

when there is no awareness of the object

如果没有对所缘的觉知

how can there be feeling of the object,

怎么会有对所缘的感受呢

how can there be understanding of the object,

怎么会有对所缘的理解呢?

how can there be mindfulness of the object

怎么能对所缘具念呢?

so that is why citta is said to be their leader, their forerunner

所以说心是心所的首领

so cetasikas or mental factors

所以说心所

depend on citta for their arising,

要依赖于心才能生起

only when citta arises, do they arise.

只有心生起,心所才生起

and if citta does not arise, they can not arise

如果心没有生起,心所也不能生起

so citta and cetasikas arise at the same time, simultaneously

所以,心和心所同时生起

but citta is called their leader or their forerunner

但是心被称为心所的首领,先驱

so forerunner means just they are leader,

先驱跟领袖一个意思

and they are leader here means that the cetasikas depend on citta for their arising.

领袖的意思是心所依赖于心才能生起

and the cetasikas have the following characteristics

心所有如下四相:

arising together with citta, a cetasika must arise together or at the same time with citta

与心同生,心所必须与心同时生起

and perishing together with citta

与心同灭

it disappears simultaneously with citta, so they arise together, they disappear together.

心所与心同时消失,所以说:同生同灭

and they must have the same object as the citta

心所与心同一所缘

there is no such case as citta taking one object

不存在这样的情况:心有一个所缘

and cetasikas taking another object

心所有另外一个所缘

so they must take the same object

它们必须缘取同一个对象

and the last characteristic is

心所的最后一个相是

they must have a common base with citta

心所必须与心有同一个依处

there are material properties that are called bases

有些色法可以被称为处

for example the eye

例如眼处

there are sensitive material properties in the eye, properly on the retina

眼净色,位于视网膜

the eye is said to be a base

眼被称为处

for seeing consciousness to arise

生起眼识

that means only when we have the eye, do we see,

意思是有了眼睛,我们才能看

if we have no eyes then we will not see and there will be no seeing or seeing consciousness

如果我们没有眼睛,就不能看,也就没有眼识

so when seeing consciousness arises, it must depend on a base

所以当眼识生起时,必须有所依处

a material base, here the sensitive part of the eye

色处,在这里就是眼净色

so the consciousness must have that sensitive part as a base

所以,心也需要有这样一个感受性的处

and so must the mental factors

心所也必须有这样的依处

they must have the same base, they must depend on the same base

它们必须有同一个依处,

so any mental state that is endowed with these four characteristics is called a cetasika

所以任何具有此四相的心理状态就被称之为:心所

the cetasikas are analyzed into 52 in abhidhamma

在阿毗达摩里,心所被分为52种

and we’re studying these cetasikas in due course

我们没多久就会学习这些心所

so this is the second ultimate reality

这是第二种究竟法

now the third ultimate reality is

第三种究竟法是

Rūpa or matter

色法

so matter is one reality taught in abhidhamma

色法是阿毗达摩里讲的一种究竟法

and matter or rupa is defined as something

色法的定义是

which changes when coming into contact with adverse conditions

遭受诸妨害缘所造成的变易物

such as cold, heat etc

诸妨碍缘包括冷热等等

now when we go out into the sun

我们走到太阳下

we have one series of material properties

我们出现一系列色法

when we go into the shade, we have another series of material properties and so on.

当我们走到阴凉处,就有另外一系列色法,等等

so

所以

the mateiral properties with these conditions such as cold heat

这就是在此等冷热诸缘下的色法

when we are thirsty we have one kind of material properties,

当我们口渴时,就有相应的色法

and when we are hungry, another kind of material property and so on

当我们饥饿的时候,就有另外的色法,诸如此类

and here change means the obvious or discernable change

这里的变易意思是明显的、可见的变化

because mind changes also, mind changes every moment

因为心也会变易,心时刻都在变化

but mind is not called rupa,

但是心不被称为色法

only that whose change is obvious is called rupa

只有发生明显可见的变易,才被称为色法

so in everyday time, rupa means matter

在日常生活中,色法就是物质

or material properties

或者物质属性

so they are called rupa in pali because they change with cold, heat and so on.

巴利语称之为rupa,是因为它随着冷热诸缘会变易

and this matter exists in living beings

此种色法存在于有情众生

and also in outside things.

也存在于外部无情之物

so there is rupa in our bodies, or in us, and there is rupa in outside things,

所以我们的身体中有色法,外部世界无情也有色法

in trees, plants, mountains, rivers, and so on.

诸如树木,植物,山河等等

it has no ability to cognize,

色法没有认知的能力

now rupa has no power to cognize

色法没有能力去认知

so rupa does not know anything, a rock does not know anything

所以,色法不能了知任何事物石头不知道任何事情

and even our bodies, if separated from mind, knows nothing

即便我们的身体,如果和心分离不知道任何事情

that is when we die

就像是我们死的时候

so

所以

the material property or rupa has no cognitive power, it does not know anything.

色法没有认知能力,不能了知任何事情

in contrast, citta and cetasika

相反,心、心所

have the cognitive power, they take object and they know the object.

它们具有认知能力,它们缘取对象,了知对象

the rupa or material property, has no such ability.

而色法不具有这样的能力

so it can not know anything, it cannot cognize anything

所以色法不能了知任何事情

and the rupa is analyzed into 28 kinds of material properties in abhidhamma

根据阿毗达摩,色法被分为28种

so according to abhidhamma, there are 28 material properties

所以根据阿毗达摩,有28种色法

they are comparable to elements in chemistry.

它们与化学元素类似

so we are composed of 28 material properties.

所以我们由28种色法组成

a man is composed of 27 material properties

男人由27种色法组成

and a woman is composed of 27 material properties

女人也由27种色法组成

and the outside things are composed of 8 kinds of material properties

外部世界的无情由8种色法组成

so we will come to that later

稍后我们再讨论这些

when we study the rupa or matter in detail

我们到时候再详细研究色法

now the last ultimate reality is nibbāna

现在谈谈最后一种究竟法:涅槃

it is the highest goal of buddhism

这是佛教的最高目标

so the highest goal or the aim of all buddhists is to reach nibbāna

佛教徒的最高目标就是证得涅槃

and what is nibbāna

什么是涅槃

it is very difficult to describe nibbāna

这非常难以描述

simply because we have not been into the nibbāna

因为我们并没有证得涅槃

and also it is so different than what we have been experiencing

也因为它与我们的体验大不相同

that it is difficult to perceive, difficult to understand

涅槃很难被认知、了解

it is described as extinction of desire ill will and delusion.

涅槃被描述为贪嗔痴的断除

that means the extinction of mental defilements

意思是心之诸漏被灭尽

although it is described as extinction of desire ill-will and delusion.

虽然涅槃被描述为灭尽贪嗔痴

it is not a negative state.

但涅槃并非一个消极的状态

it is like health or peace

例如健康、和平

now health, if you are asked to define health, how would you to do it?

健康,如果要你来定义,你怎么做?

or somebody ask, what is health, how would you answer?

有人问:什么是健康,你怎么回答

absence of disease

没有疾病

so we will use negative terms to define a positive state

所以我们用否定的词语来定义正面的状态

health is not a negative state

健康不是一个消极的状态

but when asked to define it, we will say health is the absence of diseases

但是我们定义健康时,我们就说健康是疾病的消除

if you are asked about peace, what is peace

如果让你定义和平,什么是和平?

peace is absence of violence and so on

和平就是暴力的消除,等等

so nibbāna is a positive state

所以涅槃是正面的状态

but mostly it is described in negative terms

但是我们常常用否定词来定义

not this, not this and so on.

非此,非彼,等等

it is liberation or freedom from all suffering

是从所有苦中解脱

so when a person attains final nibbana

当一个人证得最终的涅槃

he gets free from suffering,

他就免于诸苦

so that freedom from suffering is also called nibbana.

所以从苦中得到解脱就是涅槃

now out of the four ultimate realities, the first three are those, that are conditioned.

在这四种究竟法中,前三种是有为法

but the last one this nibbana is unconditioned

但是涅槃是无为法

so it is not caused by anything, it is not the result of anything.

涅槃不是因缘法

so it is a state by itself as freedom from suffering or freedom from the mental defilement

所以它是脱离苦、灭尽心中诸漏的一种自在状态

it is important to understand this

了解这点很重要

because there are some people who do not understand the pali word for it the unconditioned asankhata

因为有些人不懂巴利语“无为法”这个词

and then they say nibbana is uncompounded but is not unconditioned

他们说,涅槃非合成法,但不是“无为法”

i don’t think that is correct

我认为这种说法不对

the word asankhata means not made

“无为法”这个词,就是非造作的

not made means it must not made by anything it must not be conditioned by anything

非造作的,意思就是不受任何条件限制

so nibbana is called in pali asankhata

所以涅槃在巴利语里就是asankhata and it is translated as unconditioned

翻译成“无为法”

so whether it is unconditioned or uncompounded

不管它是无为法,还是非合成法

it has no cause, it is not caused by anything, it is not the result of anything.

它都不是因缘法

and it is not consciousness, it is not mind.

它不是心

in abhidhamma, nibbana is described as an external object

在阿毗达摩里,涅槃被形容为出世间法

external object means not belonging to us

出世间意思是不属于这个世间

just as we can take any external object as object at the moment of enlightenment

在觉悟的时候,我们可以缘取出世间法

the consciousness can take nibbana as object

心可以将涅槃当成所缘

only when the consciousness takes nibbana as object

只有心将涅槃作为所缘的时候

does the consciousness possess the power to eradicate mental defilements

它才有能力灭尽心中的所有染污

that means at the moment of enlightenment,

意思就是在觉悟的那一刻

a type of consciousness arises in his mind,

有一种心生起

and that consciousness is called path consciousness

这种心被称为道心

and that path consciousness takes nibbana as object

道心将涅槃作为所缘

it takes nibbana as object and at the same it eradicates mental defilements

同时灭尽心中诸漏

so nibbana is an external object

所以说涅槃是出世间法

that can be taken as object by the path consciousness and fruition consciousness

它可以是道心和果心的所缘

but there is a saying in a discourse that all four truths

在经中有这样的说法,所有四谛

can be found in this fathom-long body

都可以在我们七尺之躯找到

the truth of suffering, truth of origin of suffering, truth of cessation of suffering

苦集灭谛

and truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering

道谛

they can be found in this fathom-long body

都存在于我们的七尺之躯

but that does not mean that nibbana exists in us, in our body or in our mind

但这并不意味着涅槃存在于我们的身体或者心里

that means just that

它的意思只是说

nibbana is realized by oneself

涅槃的体证依赖于个人

and taken the nibbana as object

将涅槃作为所缘

so nibbana is not internal it is external, and nibbana is not mind or not mental

所以涅槃非内在,它是出世间的它不属于心

it is no mind no matter so it is outside mind and matter

不是名法,也不是色法,超越于名色

but there is a saying

但是有一个说法

or it is taught in abhidhamma

根据阿毗达摩

that nibbana is called nāma

涅槃被称为名法

that may be confusing

这可能让人困惑

in the sixth book of abhidhamma, nibbana is mentioned as nāma, one of the nāma

阿毗达摩论书第七部,涅槃被称为名法之一

but there

但是

it does not mean that nibbana

它不是说涅槃

has cognitive power

具有认知能力

or nibbana knows the other objects

也不是说能了知所缘

the word nama is defined in two ways

名法这个词有两种解释

the first is it inclines to the object that is one definition of the word nama

第一种:对所缘的趋向

so what is nāma? nāma is something that inclines to the object, that bends to the object

什么是名法,名法就是趋向所缘的

that means that takes the object, that is one definition of the word nāma

意思是缘取对象,这是名法的一个定义

and the second definition is something that makes other incline towards it

第二个定义就是让其他事物趋向它

so there is a causative sense here

有使他物趋向的意思

something that makes others incline toward it

让其他事物趋向于它

so according to that definition, nibbana can be called nāma

根据这个定义,涅槃是可以被称为名法的

that is why nibbana is mentioned as nāma

这就是涅槃也被称为名法的原因

but we are not to understand that, since it is called nāma, it is mental

但是我们不这样理解,因为名法,就是心法

nibbana is not mental, nibbana is neither mental nor physical,

涅槃不是心法,也不是色法

nibbana is something quite different from both mind and matter

涅槃与名法和色法颇不相同

therefore it is said it can not be adequately described in everyday terms

所以,涅槃不能用日常语言恰当地进行定义

so in everyday terms, however much we will describe nibbana

所以,如果用日常语言,不管我们怎么形容涅槃

we will not describe it accurately or adequately

我们都不能准确恰当地定义它

but nibbana is a positive state which can be realized

但是涅槃是可以被我们体证到的积极状态

through the practice of vipassana meditation

通过内观禅修就可以体证到

only through vipassana medition can one realize nibbana

只有通过内观禅修,我们才能体证到涅槃

so these are the four ultimate truth, citta, cetasikas, rupa and nibbana

所以,这些就是四种究竟法:心、心所、色法、涅槃

and these ultimate truths are taught in many ways in the seven books of abhidhamma

这四种究竟法,在阿毗达摩七论中得到了方方面面的解释

and in the abhidhammatthasangaha also

在《摄阿毗达摩义论》也是如此

which we are studying these four ultimate realities

我们学习这四种究竟法

are taught or described in detail

在这本书中解释的很详细

and so we will be studying these during this class

我们在这次课程中就要学习这些内容

ok, there will be a coffee break

好,现在是咖啡时间,休息一下

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i hope you remember the seven books of abhidhamma that we studied yesterday

希望你记住昨天学的七部论书

among them there is one book called Puggalapaññatti descriptions of the types of beings

里面有一部《人施设论》讨论了各种不同种类的人

so that book deals with what are called concepts

所以这本书讨论的是“概念”

because that books deal with different individuals

因为这本书讨论的是不同的个体

apart from that, i mean, and also from Kathāvatthu, the points of controversy

除了这本书,还有一本《事论》是辩论之书

what is taught in abhidhamma is mostly four ultimate truths

阿毗达摩里讲的主要是四究竟法

and these four ultimate truths are taught in different ways

这四种究竟法被条分缕析

and now you might want to know how the four ultimate truths correspond to the four noble truths

你们可能想知道四究竟法和四圣谛的关系是怎样的

now the four noble truths are the noble truths of suffering, the noble truth of the origin of suffering, the noble of the cessation of suffering,

四圣谛是:苦谛、集谛、灭谛

and the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering.

道谛

now the first noble truth, the noble truth of suffering consists of

第一圣谛是苦圣谛包含了

mundane cittas, cetasikas and rupa

世间心、心所,色法

so among the four ultimate truths,

所以,这四种究竟法中

the first one, part of the first one, second one and the third one, correspond to the noble truth of suffering

部分第一、二种究竟法、第三种究竟法,与苦圣谛对应

and the second noble truth, the noble truth of origin, is craving,

第二圣谛,集圣谛,就是贪

which is a mental factor.

这是心所之一

now craving is among the cetasikas, 52 cetasikas

贪是52心所之一

because craving is lobha, attachment

因为贪就是lobha,是一种执取

so

所以

the second noble, the noble truth of the origin of suffering is just one of the 52 cetasikas.

第二圣谛,集谛是52种心所之一

and the third noble truth, the noble truth of cessation of suffering,

第三圣谛,灭谛

is nibbana which is the fourth ultimate truth

就是涅槃,是第四种究竟法

and the last one, the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering

最后一个,道谛

now this, the fourth noble truth is often called the middle way or the eightfold path

第四圣谛,通常被称为中道,或者被称为八正道

now eightfold path means this path has eight members or eight constituents

八正道的意思是这条道路由八个部分组成

and many of you may be familiar with these eight factors

你们许多人可能很熟悉这八个因素

right understanding and right thought and so on

正见、正思维等等

these eight factors are actually states of mental factors

这八因素实际上就是心所的状态

so they are included in the cetasikas

所以被包括在心所里

so these eight cetasikas from the middle path or the fourth noble truth

所以这八个心所源于中道,也就是第四圣谛

which is the way or the path leading to the cessation of suffering

这是导向苦之灭的方法或道路

so all four noble truths are included in these four ultimate realities

所以所有四圣谛都被包含在这四种究竟法里面

but not just one to one,

不只是一个对一个

so the first noble truth consists of some cetasikas and rupa

第一圣谛包含某些心所和色法

and the second noble truth consists of one cetasika which is craving or attachment

第二圣谛由贪心所组成

and the third noble truth consists of nibbana the extinction of all suffering

第三圣谛由涅槃(苦之灭)组成

and the fourth noble truth consists of the eight mental factors or eight cetasikas

第四圣谛由八个心所组成

after we understand the four ultimate truths that are taught in abhidhamma pitaka

理解了阿毗达摩里面的四种究竟法

we will now go to the detail study of these four ultimate realities

我们现在详细学习这四种究竟法

the first of the four ultimate realities is consciousness

第一种究竟法是:心

and so we will study the types of consciousness

所以,我们将学习不同种类的心

so consciousness is something that arises in our mind

心从我们的内心生起

by mind I mean consciousness and mental factors together.

这里的内心包括:心、心所

so consciousness is something that arises in our mind

心生于我们的内心

and consciousness arises when there are conditions for it

诸缘成熟,心就会生起

and there are different types of consciousness, different kinds of consciousness

有不同类型的心

so first, the consciousness is divided with reference to the planes of existence

首先,心依生命界而分类

so first you need to know the planes of existence

首先,你需要了解生命界

and these planes of existence are taught in the fifth chapter of this Comprehensive Manual

在《阿毗达摩概要精解》第五章讲到这些生命界

so if you want to know the 31 planes of existence, you go to this book

所以,如果要了解这31界,就可以参考这个章节

the fifth chapter

也就是第五章

but you need not go into detail now

不过你现在不需要详细了解

so there are 31 planes of existence 31个生命界

the lowest of them are the four that are called:

最底层的四个叫做:

planes of misery or planes of suffering:恶趣地

so those that are born in these four planes of existence had a lot of suffering,

投生到此四恶趣地的众生要受很多苦

like those born in hell and so on

例如投生到地狱等等

so first there are four planes of existence the lowest of them,

首先最底层的就是这四个生命界

then above the four, there is plane of human beings

这四界之上,就是人界

and above the human beings, there are six planes of devas or celestial beings

人界之上,有六个天界

and above the six planes of celestial beings

在这六个天界之上

are the 20 planes of existence called brahma

有20个梵天界

we may call them higher celestial beings

我们也可以将其称为:高等天界

so altogether there are 31 planes of existence

一起就是31生命界

again, the first four, that are the planes of misery

再重复一次,首先四个是恶趣地

and then human realm or human plane

然后是人界

and then six deva or celestial beings plane

然后是六个天界

and then 20 higher celestial beings

然后是20个更高的天界

so if we add up all of them, we get 31 planes of existence

如果我们把它们加起来,就是31个生命界

now among them

它们之中

the four lower planes,

四恶趣地

human plane

人界

and the six deva planes or six celestial planes

六天界

are collectively called sense-sphere planes

这些统称为欲界地

so, these 11 are called sense-sphere planes

所以,这11界叫做欲界地

and above them

它们之上

out of 20 planes for brahmas, we divide them into two

二十个梵天界分为两类

the brahmas of

这些梵天界

they call them material plane and immaterial plane

他们称之为色界、无色界

so material plane means those who are reborn in those planes have both mind and body

所以色界意思是投生到此界的众生具有名色

only one of them has body only and no mind

只有一界只具有身体,没有心和心所

and then the last four are called the immaterial planes

最后四界称为无色界

because they do not have the physical body, they only have consciousness and cetasikas

因为他们没有身体,他们只有心、心所

so roughly, we have three levels of planes

所以,大体上有三界

the lowest is called sense-sphere plane, and then the second is material plane, and the third immaterial plane

最低一个叫欲界,第二个是色界第三个是无色界

so the immaterial plane and the material plane beings are called brahmas

无色界和色界的众生被称为梵天

and the others are devas and human beings and beings of four states of misery.

其他是天人、人、四恶道众生

now all of these beings in the 30 planes have consciousness

所有这些众生中,有30界的众生具有心

so they experience consciousness in different ways and so there’re different types of consciousness

他们以不同的方式体验到心所以就有不同类型的心

and consciousness is divided with reference to these planes

心就是根据这些界来分类

consciousness that frequently arises in the 11 sense-sphere planes are called sense-sphere consciousness

经常出现在11欲界的心被称为欲界心

and the consciousness that frequently arises in the material plane

经常出现在色界的心

are called the material sphere consciousness.

就被称为色界心

and those that arise frequently in the immaterial plane are called immaterial plane consciousness,

经常在无色界生起的心被称为无色界心

immaterial plane consciousness

无色界心

so properly speaking, there are three planes of consciousness

恰当地说,心分三界

and then there is one more which is called supramundane plane

然后,还有一个叫出世间界

and supramundane plane means it has no actual place

出世间界意思是,它没有一个实际的处所

but just the some types of consciousness

但是只有某些种类的心

are called supramundane plane

称为出世间心

supramundane plane means the plane that transcends the lower three planes

出世间界意思是说超越它下面的三界

or that transcends the five aggregates of clinging, that are called the world.

或者说超越五取蕴,五取蕴被称为世间

so the supramundane plane is something like out of the world.

出世间界就是指超出这个世间

and the other three belong to the world.

其他三界属于这个世间

so broadly, the consciousness is divided into these four

所以概言之,心被分为此四类

according to the planes where they arise frequently

根据是在何界经常生起

the first group consists of again unwholesome consciousness, rootless consciousness and so on.

第一组包括不善心,无因心等等

so we will study them in detail one by one.

我们现在逐个详细学习

now first, let us consider an illustration

首先我们考虑一个场景

suppose there is a boy

假设有一个男孩

and he goes to a fruit store, and he sees mangoes there.

他去水果店,看到那里有芒果

and he holds the view that there is no evil in stealing

他觉得盗窃不是恶

it is alright to steal

盗窃没问题

and with happiness he steals a mango

他愉悦地偷了一个芒果

so when he steals a mango with happiness,

当他愉悦地偷了一个芒果

and with the view that there is no evil in stealing

并且认为偷窃不是一种恶

there arises one type of consciousness in his mind.

他生起了一种类型的心

his consciousness when he steals, there is lobha or attachment in his mind.

当他偷窃的时候,心里生起贪执

because he wants to steal, he wants that mango,

因为他想去偷窃,想得到那个芒果

and so there is lobha or attachment or greed accompanying his consciousness,

所以,贪就伴随他的心

so at that moment when he steals a mango

在他偷芒果的时候

there arises in his mind one type of consciousness

他心中生起一种心

and that consciousness is accompanied by let us say, greed.

贪就伴随着他的心

and since he steals with happiness, his consciousness is accompanied by happiness

因为他带着愉悦偷窃,愉悦就伴随着他的心

and since he steals with a view that there is no evil in stealing

因为他偷窃的时候,认为偷窃不是恶

it is alright to steal, he has a wrong view.

认为偷窃没问题,他就有邪见

and spontaneously he steals with not being prompted by anybody or any circumstances.

没有任何人怂恿,他自发地偷窃了

so in that case, there arises in his mind one type of consciousness

所以,在这种情况下,他心中生起一种心

now you remember what type of consciousness that is

你们现在知道他们生起什么心

a consciousness accompanied by greed

这种心与贪相伴

so to be short, I use with pleasure with wrong view unprompted

简言之:悦俱邪见相应无行心

so that first type of consciousness there

所以他生起的第一种心

with pleasure with wrong view, unprompted

悦俱邪见相应无行心

and it is accompanied by or rooted in attachment

与贪相伴,或以贪为根

we can know this consciousness in a boy who spontaneously steal an apple from, a mango or an apple from a fruit store.

我们知道,一个男孩从水果店自发地偷窃一个苹果或者芒果,就会生起此心

with a view that there is no evil and stealing, and he steals it with happiness

认为偷窃不是恶,带着愉悦偷窃

so in that case, this type of consciousness arises in his mind

在这个例子中,他心中生起这种心

so this is the first of the unwholesome consciousness

这就是第一种不善心

now this is called unwholesome consciousness, it is morally unwholesome

之所以叫不善心,因为从道德上讲,是不善的

and also unwholesome consciousness brings painful results.

同样,不善的心,带来苦果

in pali it is called akusala, unwholesome

巴利语是:akusala,不善

sometimes akusala is translated as unskillful

有时候,akusala被翻译成不善巧

so unskillful consciousness or unwholesome consciousness and i prefer unwholesome to unskillful

不善心,或不善巧的心我倾向于不善心

ok, now i will explain to you the meaning of word kusala first.

我现在先给你们讲讲

kusala这个词的意思

when you understand the word kusala you understand the word akusala

当你懂得kusala这个词,就会明白akusala这个词

kusala means wholesome, and akusala means unwholesome kusala意思是善的,

akusala意思是不善的

now kusala is also translated as skillful kusala也被翻译成善巧的

now it is correct that it is translated as skillful but

翻译成善巧也是对的,但是

I’m not in favor of using skillful for kusala

但我不喜欢将kusala翻译成善巧

because people can manipulate this, people can twist this

因为有人会利用这种翻译,扭曲它

you can skillfully kill a man and get away with this

你可以善巧地杀人,并逍遥法外

you can skillfully steal a object

你可以善巧地偷东西

when you kill a human being, when you steal something it is not kusala

当你杀人或偷东西时,这不是kusala i think we should avoid using skillful for the word kusala,

我认为我们不要用善巧来翻译kusala although basically, the word kusala means skillful

虽然,基本上,kusala这个词意思也是“善巧的”

sometimes the meaning of the word change with times.

有时候,词语的意义随着时间而改变

originally, the word kusala kusala这个词的本义

comes from two components: kusa and la

由两部分组成:kusa+la now kusa means a kind of grass kusa是一种草的名字

a kind of grass whose blades are sharp

这种草的边缘很锋利

so with sharp blades on both edges, that grasses like a knife.

因为边缘很锋利,就像一把刀

I don’t know whether there are grasses like this in this country.

我不知道这个国家有没有这种草

so that kind of grass

这种草

if you do not know how to handle that grass, you will cut your hand.

如果你不知道这种草,就会割到自己的手

so if somebody says, this man can handle the kusa grass,

所以,如果有人说,这个人能应付这种草

that means this man is clever enough to handle the grass without cutting his hand

意思是,这个人很聪明,不会被此草割到手

so a man who can handle the kusa grass without cutting his hand is called a kusala

所以,一个人不被此种草割到手就被称之为kusala later on this name is extended to mean anybody who is skillful, who is skillful to do anything.

后来这个词的意义扩大了,指做事具有善巧的人

so the original meaning of the word kusala is skillful

所以,这个词的本义是善巧的

but it is explained that it is also means to be healthy

但是也被解释成:健康的

so i like that meaning healthy for the word kusala

我喜欢kusala的这个意思:健康的

the opposite of the word kusala is akusala kusala的反义词是akusala so here akusala we translate as unwholesome, unwholesome consciousness

这里akusala,我们翻译成不善的,不善心

so this first unwholesome consciousness arises

所以,这里生起的第一种不善心

when a boy spontaneously steals a mango or an apple

当一个男孩自发偷盗一个芒果或苹果

without being prompted by anybody

没有任何人怂恿他

and he has a wrong view that it is alright to steal, and he steals with happiness

他具有邪见,觉得偷盗没问题很愉悦地偷了东西

so the first type of consciousness is

这第一种心

accompanied by pleasure, associated with wrong view and unprompted

悦俱邪见相应无行心

if he steals that mango

如果他偷了那个芒果

when he is prompted by somebody,

是被别人怂恿的

when he is encouraged by somebody, and then he steals it

别人鼓励他,然后他就偷了东西

then at that moment there is the second type of consciousness

这时候,他就生起了第二种心

arising in his mind that is with pleasure with wrong view and prompted

就是悦俱邪见相应有行心

so there are always these two kinds of consciousness,

所以常常碰到此两种心

one unprompted, and the other one prompted

无行,有行

so prompted and unprompted urged by someone or urged by oneself.

有行或无行,意思是被别人或自己怂恿

or encouraged by someone, or encouraged by oneself.

被别人或者自己鼓励

sometimes you have to encourage yourself to do something

有时候,你需要鼓励你自己做某事

so that is also called prompted

这也被称为有行

sometimes you do the act spontaneously without even thinking about it

有时候,你自发地做某事,想都不想就去做了

so that is called unprompted

这就叫:无行

the unwholesome consciousness arises sometimes unprompted and sometimes prompted

不善心生起的时候,可以是无行,也可以是有行

so we get the first two types of consciousness

我们了解了这两种心

the first one that is with pleasure with wrong view and unprompted,

第一种是:悦俱邪见相应无行心

the second one with pleasure with wrong view and prompted

第二种是悦俱邪见相应有行心

if that boy does not have that wrong view

如果那个男孩没有邪见

does not have the view that it is alright to steal

不认为偷盗是正确的

he knows that it is wrong to steal, but still he steals unprompted

他知道偷盗是错的,没有任何人的鼓励,他还是偷了

also he steals happily

他愉悦地偷了东西

then there arises in his mind, the third type of consciousness

他心中就生起了第三种心

that is with pleasure without wrong view and unprompted

悦俱邪见不相应无行心

and if he is prompted, then another type of consciousness in his mind

如果他是被怂恿的,就生起另外一种心

with pleasure without wrong view and prompted

悦俱邪见不相应有行心

so first we get four types of consciousness here

所以,我们知道了开始这四种心

that are accompanied by pleasure, and two with wrong view, two without wrong view, and two prompted, and two umprompted.

悦俱,两个邪见相应,两个邪见不相应,两个有行,两个无行

so first we get these four types of consciousness

首先,我们就知道了这四种心

to be easy to memorize i use the key words here

为了便于记忆,我这里用了关键词

if you want to know the four translation of these types of consciousness

如果你想知道这些心的翻译

please read this book: the comprehensive manual

就读读这本《概要精解》

and then there are the other four which are accompanied by indifference

所以还有四种舍俱

that is he is neither happy nor angry

就是说,他不愉悦,也不恼恨

so with the neutral mind, he steals the apple or the mango

在这种中性的心情下,他偷了芒果

and with wrong view, without wrong view, unprompted and prompted

与邪见相应或者不相应,无行或者有行

and so altogether we get eight types of consciousness

所以,一起我们知道了八种心

that are rooted in attachment, rooted in attachment really means

它们都是以贪为根,意思是

accompanied by or associated with attachment,

与贪执相伴

attachment here means just the desire to possess

贪执这里指占有欲

so we get eight types of consciousness that are rooted in attachment.

以贪为根的心有8种

and then there are two types of consciousness rooted in ill-will or anger.

以嗔为根的心有2种

now the example here is with hatred, one man murders another.

举例:一个人带着仇恨杀了另一人

in his spontaneous fits of rage

他自发生起怒火

so one person gets angry, and then he just kills another person

一个人带着愤怒,杀掉另外一个人

so when he kills another person he has anger or hate in his mind

当他杀掉另外一个人时,心里有嗔恨

since he murders without being prompted by anybody on the spot of the moment

因为此时他杀人的行为不是被人怂恿的

now his consciousness is said to be umprompted, so in this case

所以这是无行心,这种情况下

the first of the two consciousness rooted in ill-will arises in his mind

在他心里生起两种嗔根心的一种

that is with displeasure that means with hate or with hatred i mean with anger, with ill will and unprompted

忧俱嗔恚相应无行心

by he murders a man with premeditation

如果他经过谋虑之后杀人

then the consciousness that arises in him is with displeasure

他心里生起的就是:忧俱

with ill will and prompted

嗔恚相应有行心

so there are only two types of consciousness accompanied by ill will or anger or hate

所以嗔根心只有两种

but there are eight types of consciousness accompanied by attachment or lobha

贪根心有8种

i think we are fortunate that there are only two types of consciousness rooted in anger, ill will

我想我们还是很幸运,嗔根心只有两种

if there were eight of them, we can not imagine how miserable the world would be

如果它们也有8种,我们很难想象这个世界将是多么地痛苦啊

even these two kinds create a lot of cruelty or violence in the world.

即使只有这两种,也让这个世界充满了残暴行为

so there are two types of consciousness rooted in ill will

所以,嗔根心有两种

and then there are two more that are rooted in delusion, now delusion means ignorance

还有两种是痴根心,“痴”意思是愚痴

later on i will tell you the pali words for them

稍后我会告诉你们它们的巴利语

so delusion really means ignorance

痴实际上就是愚痴

consciousness rooted in ignorance, there are two of them

痴根心有两种

and the first one is with indifference and with doubt

第一种就是舍俱疑相应

now sometimes people have doubt about the buddha, about the dhamma, about sangha, abouth enlightenment of the buddha

如果有人对佛法僧有疑问,对觉悟有疑问

or about the practice and so on,

或者对修行有疑惑

so when a person due to delusion, that means he is deluded he is ignorant

当一个人因为愚痴,意思是他被蒙蔽了

and doubt the enlightenment of the buddha,

对佛陀的觉悟产生怀疑

or the efficacy of the dhamma as a way to deliverance.

对佛法的解脱功效产生怀疑

then he has this type of consciousness in his mind

在心里就生起此种心

with indifference with doubt,

舍俱疑相应

and here there is no difference between unprompted and prompted

这里就不存在无行、有行的差别

so there is no such division here

所以这里就没有此种区分

now this doubt is very damaging, especially when you practice meditation

这种怀疑,很有害处特别是在禅修的时候

sometimes doubt arises when you are meditating

有时候,你在禅修时会产生疑问

whether this method is really good,

这种方法是不是有效?

whether it will really lead to the understanding the true nature of things and so on

他是不是导向对事物性质的理解等等

but sometimes people will doubt about the efficacy of this method

有时候,人们会怀疑禅修方法的功效

or doubt about the trustworthiness of the teacher and so on.

或者对老师的可靠性也发生怀疑

so when such doubts arise a meditator can not go on meditating.

当产生这些疑问时,就不能继续禅修

so in this case when he is practicing vipassana meditation,

在内观禅修的时候

he just need to note the doubt, he just need to be aware of the doubt.

他只需要标记他的疑惑只需要觉知他的疑惑

and thus he eliminates the doubts

这样就消除了疑惑

so that is the consciousness accompanied by doubt

这就是疑相应的心

and with indifference

舍俱

since that doubt, his mind can not be happy, or can not have ill will

因为有疑,他的内心不会愉悦,也不会怀有嗔恨

so it is neutral

所以是中性的

and the last one is with indifference and with restlessness

最后一个是舍俱掉举相应

now a person is so distracted in mind, that he cannot focus his mind on any object.

一个人他的内心受到很大的干扰无法专注于任何所缘

did you have such an experience?

你们有没有此种经验?

i think you did

我觉得你们有

everybody has such an experience

每个人都有这种经验

sometimes we practice meditation and our mind doesn’t seem to be on the object.

有时候我们禅修,我们的心似乎不能安住于所缘

we don’t seem to be able to concentrate on the object

我们似乎不能够专注于所缘

our mind is like not stuck to the object

我们的心不能附着于所缘

but above the object, moving a little

只是在所缘上,略微动动

so that is called restlessness of mind

这就被称为心的掉举

so in abhidhamma restlessness means restlessness of mind

在阿毗达摩里,掉举指心的掉举

and restlessness of mind really means shaking or moving above the object

心的掉举实际指心在所缘之上晃动或者移动

our mind is not with the object,

我们的心并不与所缘在一起

now we do not see the object clearly when there is restlessness in our mind

如果心里有掉举,我们就不能清晰地观察所缘

at that moment this type of consciousness arises in our mind,

此刻,这种心就会生起

and so there are altogether two types of consciousness rooted in delusion

所以,痴根心共有两种

now the first eight consciousnesses rooted in attachment

贪根心有8种

in pali they are called lobha mūla

巴利语称之为lobha mūla you have the other sheet

你们有另外一张表

you may look at the pali sheet also, so lobha mūla

你们也可以看看巴利语的那个表

now mūla means root mūla就是根

and lobha means lobha attachment so lobha mūla means lobha就是贪执,合起来意思是

having lobha as root

以贪为根

and there are eight of them,

有八种

and the second group is called dosa mūla

第二种就是dosa mūla so dosa means ill will or hate or anger dosa意思是嗔恨、愤怒

so rooted in hate or rooted in ill will or rooted in anger

以恨、嗔、怒为根

they are called dosa mūla, two

就成为嗔根心,有两种

and then the third group is called moha mūla

第三种称为痴根

so moha means delusion or ignorance and

痴就是指受到蒙蔽,愚痴

the consciousness rooted in moha is called moha mūla

以痴为根的心就是痴根心

so altogether there are 12 types of consciousness,

所有一起一共是12种

and these 12 types of consciousness are called unwholesome consciousness

这12种心被称为不善心

you may also call it unskillful

你也可以称之为不善巧的心

but i think we better call it unwholesome

我觉得最好称之为“不善心”

so unwholesome types of consciousness

所以不善心这个类型

whatever bad karma we do, we do with one of these types of consciousness

我们造恶业的时候,就会生起它们之中的一种

sometimes we are attached to something,

有时候,我们贪执于某事

sometimes we may take something that is not given to us.

有时候,我们不予而取

then there is this lobha or the lobha mūla consciousness in our mind and so on.

这样贪根心就会生起,诸如此类

sometimes we get angry and

有时候我们发怒

then there is one of the two types of consciousness arising in our mind

所以就会生起嗔根心中的一种

now in abhidhamma the anger or hate includes fear

在阿毗达摩中,嗔包括恐惧

so when we are afraid of something, when we fear something

当我们惧怕某事时

then one of these two types of consciousness rooted in ill will arises in our mind

嗔根心中的一种就会生起

so when we’re afraid of something, we have dosa mūla consciousness

当我们害怕某事的时候嗔根心就会生起

or when we fear something, we have dosa mūla consciousness

当我们恐惧的时候,也会生起嗔根心

so the dosa can cover many types of emotions

所以,嗔可以包括很多种情绪

sadness, depression, dissatisfaction, anger, hate and fear

忧伤、沮丧、不满、愤怒、痛恨、恐惧

all come under the head of ill will

都归于嗔

so when we are afraid of something, we have one of these two types of consciousness

当我们害怕某事的时候嗔根心中的一种就会生起

now prompted or unprompted

现在谈:有行、无行

you may read the note at the bottom of the page

你们可能看到了这页底部的注释

the pali word saṅkhāra is used here in the sense specific to abhidhamma

“行”这个词在这里是阿毗达摩的特有用法

to mean prompting, instigation, inducement, or the application of an expedient.

意思是:怂恿、教唆、劝诱、采用方便手法

this prompting may be induced by others or it may originate within oneself.

这种怂恿,可能来自别人,也可以源自自身

the means employed may be bodily, verbal, or purely mental.

使用的方法可以是肢体的、语言的或者仅仅是思想方面的

that consciousness which arises spontaneously

如果心自发生起

without prompting or inducement by expedient means,

没有被怂恿或者劝诱

it’s called unprompted

就被称为无行

that consciousness which arises with prompting or inducement by expedient means

如果心被怂恿或者被劝诱

it’s called prompted

就被称为有行

so this is from the comprehensive manual of abhidhamma

这些都来自《阿毗达摩概要精解》

so prompting can be one’s own, or it may can from outside other persons

所以怂恿可以来自自身,也可以来自外部别人

sometimes when we want to do something, we want to encourage ourselves.

有时候,我们想做某事,需要自我鼓励

sometimes we do it spontaneously,

有时候,是自发地去做

and so when we do it spontaneously the consciousness that arises in our mind is called unprompted and

如果是自发地做,我们生起的心就是无行心

when we do with prompting it’s called prompted

当我们受到怂恿,就是有行心

now the pali words for this word prompted or unprompted are asaṅkhārika and sasaṅkhārika

无行有行的巴利语分别是:

asaṅkhārika 和 sasaṅkhārika now you may notice that there is the word saṅkhāra there in the word asaṅkhārika and sasaṅkhārika

你可能注意到里面有saṅkhāra这个词

now the word saṅkhāra in pali is a difficult word to understand,

巴利语里saṅkhāra这个词很难理解

and also it can not be translated by just one english word.

也不能用仅仅用一个英语单词来翻译

so you have to find out what it means to get the correct translation of the word.

所以,你必须理解意思,才能找到合适的词来翻译

for example, when we say all saṅkhāras are impermanent

例如,当我们说:诸行无常

we mean those that are conditioned

这里指的是有为法

but in the formula dependent origination the sentence is

但是在十二缘起支里

because there is ignorance there is a condition

无明缘行

there are saṅkhāras

这里也有“行”

now in that sentence the word saṅkhāra can not be translated

这里的“行”就不能翻译成

as conditioned things, or conditioned phenomena

有为法

there saṅkhāra is translated as formations or kamma formations

这里的“行”就被翻译成造业的心所

the word saṅkhāra has at least two meanings, one is active and the other is passive

“行”这个词至少有两个意义一个是主动的意义,一个是被动的意义

so saṅkhāra means something that makes, or that produces

“行”指:造作、创造

and also saṅkhāra means that something is made or that is produced.

也指:被造作,被创造

so we need to understand what meaning is appropriate in a given context

所以,我们要明白在特定的语境下,它是什么意思

that is why we can not translate this word with just the mental formation or just conditioned phenomena

所以,我们不能将它一律翻译成:思想活动,或者有为法

so we have to depend on the context

所以得参照语境

but here in this particular context, the word saṅkhāra means effort.

在这里,在这个语境下,“行”指:使力

that is why it is very difficult to get a correct translation

所以说很难找到一个正确的翻译

when you translate from pali into english or any other language

很难将巴利语翻译成英语或其他语言

so here prompted and unprompted are

这里有行、无行

the translations of the pali word sasaṅkhārika and asaṅkhārika

就是对这两个巴利语的翻译

and here saṅkhāra means effort

这里,“行”指“使力”

but in other places saṅkhāra may mean all conditioned phenomena or kamma formation

在其他地方“行”可能指:有为法,或者造业的心所

that means or that produce results

意思是:造作结果的

so now we have the 12 unwholesome types of consciousness

我们已经学了12种不善心

do you bring the small card with you today

你们今天带了那张小卡片吗?

that is for memorization of the consciousness

它们是用来帮助记忆这些心的

so please look at the first column represent the 12 unwholesome types of consciousness

请看第一列,代表12个不善心

and in order to differentiate those that are accompanied by pleasure from those that are accompanied by indifference

为了区分悦俱、舍俱

we use colors, so red color means accompanied by pleasure

我们用不同的颜色,红色表示悦俱

and blue color means accompanied by indifference

蓝色表示舍俱

so this card will help you to memorize the different types of consciousness

这卡片将帮助你记忆不同种类的心

in a different sheet, you may write down the name so those,

你可以用另外一张纸写下这些心的名称

but later you may not need the descriptions

但以后你可能就不需要这些描述

just look at this chart, and you know this is

看这张表,你就知道

pleasure with wrong view unprompted, with pleasure with wrong view prompted and so on

悦俱邪见相应无行,悦俱邪见相应有行,诸如此类

the first column represents the 12 unwholesome types of consciousness

第一列代表12种不善心

the first 8 are those accompanied by or rooted in attachment

前八种是贪根心

and then the two green color,

然后是两个绿色的

the two are accompanied by ill will with displeasure

这两个是忧俱嗔恚相应

and the last two the blue ones are accompanied by indifference.

最后两个蓝色是舍俱

indifference means neutral feeling

舍俱指中性的感觉

neither pleasure nor displeasure, neutral feeling

不愉悦也不忧伤,中性感觉

so we study these 12 looking at these dots

我们通过这些圆点来学习此12种心

so the first 8 are accompanied by attachment

首先的8个是贪根心

and the two green dots are accompanied by hate or anger

两个绿色的嗔根心

and the last two accompanied by delusion or moha

最后两个是痴根心

and we can exercise with these chart

我们可以通过这张表来练习

so how many are accompanied by pleasure

悦俱的有几个?

out of these 12, how many are accompanied by pleasure

这12个之中,有多少是悦俱的?

number 1, 2, 3 4

第1、2、3、4 how many are accompanied by indifference or neutral feelings

有多少是舍俱的?

5,6,7,8 oh, there are no numbers

哦,这些没标数字

5, 6, 7, 8, and 11 and 12 5, 6, 7, 8,11,12 and how many are accompanied by displeasure or dosa

有多少是忧俱的

the two green dots

两个绿色的圆点

so now we know

我们现在知道

that out of 12 unwholesome types of consciousness 12种不善心中

4 are accompanied by pleasure

有四种是悦俱

and 6 are accompanied by indifferent feeling or neutral feeling 6种是舍俱

and the 2 accompanied by ill will or anger 2种是嗔根心

so you keep this card with you, put it in your pocket

你将这张卡片随身带着,放在口袋里

and then you take it out at odd moment and look this and memorize it

在空闲时拿出来记记

so if you do this, you will get the whole card very easily

如果你这样做了,就很容易记下整个卡片

once you’re familiar it

一旦你熟悉这张卡片

you know the value of this card.

你们知道这张卡的价值

because it is like a map

因为它就像一张地图

so wherever you go, you read a map

当你旅行时,你就要看地图

before you’re going

在出发之前就要读地图

so when you know the map, then when you reach the place

你如果读过地图,抵达之后

you know where to go or where you are and so on

你知道该去哪里,你在哪里诸如此类

so in the same way, it’s important that you remember this,

所以,同样,你记住这些也很重要

because in the next chapters

因为在以后的章节里

they will be referred to again and again

这些将被反复提到

so it is important that you are familiar with this before you to the next chapter and so on

所以,在学习下一章之前,熟悉这些很重要

and if you’re familiar with this, then you will find joy in studying and understanding

如果对这些熟悉了,你们就会在学习和理解中找到乐趣

so please give some time to this card and then memorize this

所以,请对这张卡片花些时间记住这张卡的内容

so ok now we have 12 unwholesome types of consciousness

我们学了12种不善心

and I think we know what types of consciousness is arising in our mind when we do something bad

我想当我们做坏事的时候,就会知道生起什么心了

so when we get angery with somebody,

当我们对某人生气时

then what type of consciousness will be in our mind?

在心里会生起哪一种心?

one of the two green ones

两个绿色之一

suppose after the class you drive and somebody cut in front of you

假设下课后,你开车时,有人插到你前面

and you are angry

你生气了

so in that case, one of these two, and i think your anger will be umprompted

这样,就是这二者之一我想你的愤怒是没人怂恿的

and so it may be the first type of consciousness.

就是嗔根心的第一种

and if you have doubt about the teachings, doubt about the buddha,

如果你对佛法有怀疑对佛陀有怀疑

the consciousness accompanied by delusion has arisen in your mind, number 11

痴根心,也就是11号,就会生起

so something like that

诸如此类

then you want something, when you want something

当你想得到某物的时候

then one of the 8 may be in your mind 8种贪根心的其中一个就会生起

so this is the practical benefit we get from understanding abhidhamma

这就是我们理解阿毗达摩的实际益处

because now you know that the unwholesome consciousness is described as morally unwholesome or morally unhealthy

因为现在你们知道了不善心就是道德上不善或道德上不健康的心

and it is productive of painful results

它会导致苦果的产生

now if we get painful results then we must avoid having these types of consciousness

如果我们不想得到苦果,就必须避免这些不善心

we may not be able to avoid all together.

我们可能不能一下子全部避免这些

because only when we become buddhas and arahants

因为只有我们成了佛,或者阿罗汉

we will be able to avoid all of them but

我们才不会生起所有这些心

we can avoid as much as we can and

但是我们可以尽可能多地避免

in provision as we can avoid these types of consciousness

如果我们能避免这些不善心

so we will have less painful results in the future.

在未来就会少受一些苦果

so if we hate pain or if we want to avoid painful results in the future

如果我们不喜欢苦,想在未来避免苦果

try to prevent these types of consciousness from arising in our mind

尽量阻止这些心的生起

and yesterday i told you about the teaching of buddha that not to do any evil

昨天我告诉你们诸佛通偈中的诸恶莫作

now you know what evil is

现在你们明白了何为恶

now whenever one of these types of consciousness arise in our mind

当这些不善心中的一个生起时

that means there is evil in our mind

就表示我们心中有恶

so when we know that it is evil then we will get rid of it as soon as we can.

当我们知道它是恶,就要尽快处理它

so that we do not acquire much unwholesome or bad karma

所以我们就不会造作太多的恶业

so when we know that something is harmful then we can avoid it

所以当我们知道有害的事情我们就可以去避免它

if we do not know that something is harmful we will be doing it

如果我们不知道它是有害的,就会去做这些事情

so this is the practical benefit we get from the knowledge of abhidhamma

这就是我们从阿毗达摩里得到的实际利益

now there is some sheet saying that not all craving is bad

有些地方说并非所有的贪都是坏的

so not all craving is bad

并非所有的贪都是坏的

I’m not encourage you to have craving

我并非鼓励你们起贪心

but i want you to understand that some craving is not bad for us

我希望你们了解有些贪心对我们而言,并非是不好的

so here craving is

这里的贪

craving for enlightenment

对觉悟的贪心

we want to get enlightenment, so we are attached to enlightenment

我们希望获得觉悟,所以执于觉悟

that craving is good or bad

这种贪心是好是坏?

now the commentary says that

注释书说

based on the present craving, that is desire for becoming an arahant

基于现在的贪欲,即贪求成为阿罗汉

he gives up previous craving

而放弃之前的贪欲

that was the root cause of once involvement in the cycle of rebirth.

而之前的贪欲是轮回的根本原因

depending on one craving

依靠现在的这个贪心

you try to give up another craving

你放弃之前的那些贪

because you want to attain enlightenment you try to get rid of attachment

因为你想获得觉悟,想对治贪执

or you try to get of craving,

或对治贪欲

so that kind of craving, craving for enlightenment

所以那种对觉悟的贪

desire to become enlightenment is here said that

贪求觉悟在这里

what does the commentary say

注释书怎么说?

now it may be asked whether such present craving for arahantship is wholesome or unwholesome

这种现前对阿罗汉果的贪求是善的,还是不善的?

it is wholesome or unwholesome to crave for enlightenment

贪求觉悟是善,还是不善?

now we want to get enlightenment, that desire, is that wholesome or unwholesome

我们现在追求觉悟,这种欲望,是善还是不善?

abhidhamma, look at faces, in the pun as we call look at faces that mean abhidhamma does not exercise partiality

阿毗达摩直面这个问题并没有厚此薄彼

so it must be impartial when we come to abhidhamma

阿毗达摩对此一视同仁

so that craving, is that wholesome or unwholesome? it is unwholesome.

这种贪心,是善还是不善?它是不善的

then the commentary said here, should it be pursued or not,

注释书在这里说:要不要追求

that kind of craving?

这种贪心?

it should be pursued, so it is alright to have such craving

应该追求,所以可以有这种贪心

does it drag one into rebirth or not

它会不会把人拽入轮回?

that means, now the unwholesome kamma gives painful results.

意思是,不善的业带来苦果

but this kamma will not drag you into rebirth

但是这种业不会拽你入轮回

that means it is not too bad

意思是这种业并不是那么糟糕

so it does not drag one into rebirth

所以,它不会把人带入轮回

such permissible craving is abandoned when its object is obtained

当目的达成之后,就会舍弃这种贪心

now we crave for enlightenment

我们现在贪求觉悟

when we become enlightened, then we are able to discard or abandon the craving

当我们觉悟之后,我们就能舍弃这种对觉悟的贪心

so we should have some kind of craving for enlightenment

所以我们应具有对觉悟的某种贪

we should have some kind of craving to get result when we practice meditation

我们在禅修的时候,也需要具有某种贪心,以便获得成果

only when we have this expectation

只有当我们具有此种期望

we will practice

我们才会去修行

if we do not expect anything out of the practice of meditation we will not practice at all

如果我们对禅修没有任何期待我们就不会去禅修

therefore

所以

expecting for result of the practice of meditation is pursuable as the commentary says here

根据注释书在这里说的对禅修的结果抱有期望,是可以的

but what is important when you practice meditation is

但是当你禅修的时候,重要的是

to leave them alone

就不要理睬这些贪求

that means it is good to have expectation before you practice meditation

意思是在禅修之前,具有期望很好

but when you are right in the practice, when you are sitting down in practicing they will become obstacles

当你正在禅修,正在禅坐时这些期望就会成为你的障碍

so at that time you can not afford to have this kinds of expectations

所以,禅修当中,带着这些期望你就会不堪其负

but they may come they will come quite often to you

但是这些期望可能会经常现身

and when they come up, you just be mindful of them

当它们出现时,你只要对它们保持正念

make mental notes of them

在心中对它们进行标记

so that is advice for practice meditation

所以这就是对于禅修的建议

although lobha or craving is unwholesome mental states

虽然贪是一种不善的心所

craving for arahantship, craving to become an arahant, craving to gain enlightenment

贪求成为阿罗汉或者觉悟

is a pursuable craving

是可以被允许的贪求

and so it is not so bad, now that is one thing

并没有那么不好,这是一点

and another thing is, another sheet, what is the greater evil

另外一点,另外一张纸,哪种恶更大一些

once king milinda asked reverend venerable nagasena now he asked

有一次弥兰王问那先比丘

revered nagasena

那先长老

for whom is the greater demerit

这两者谁的恶更大

he who does evil deeds knowingly

一个是知其恶而为恶者

or he who does an evil deed unknowingly?

一个是不知其恶而为恶者

so which would be greater demerit, greater akusala, greater unwholesome act

哪一种罪恶更大呢?

when he does an evil deed unknowingly or

是不知其恶而作恶者

he does it knowingly.

还是知其恶而作恶者?

the answer is

答案是

his is the greater demerit sir, who does an evil deed unknowingly

大王,不知其恶而作恶者,罪恶更大

now it is opposite to what we think, right?

这跟我们想的相反,对吧?

because we can forgive people who say: oh because i don’t know i did this, please forgive me

因为如果别人说:哦我不知道,所以做了错事,请原谅我们就会原谅他

then we can forgive him readily

我们就会欣然原谅他

but here the venerable nagasena saying, he who does an evil deed unknowingly

在这里,那先比丘说不知恶而作恶者

get greater demerit

罪恶更大

milinda was not satisfied with just this answer so he said

弥兰王对这个答案并不满意,说

well then bhante, do we doubly punish the royalists of ours or chief minister who does an evil deed unknowingly

尊者,对于那些王室成员,或者大臣如果他们不知其恶,而去作恶是不是应该加倍地处罚?

then the venerable nagasena said: what do you think about this?

那先比丘说:想想下面这个例子

if one man should unknowingly take hold of a red hot bowl of iron

如果一个人无意地去拿一个很烫的铁碗

aglow, aflame, ablaze

这个铁碗很红很烫

and another should take hold it knowingly

另外一个人有意地去拿这个碗

which would be more severely burned

哪个人被烫的更厉害?

it is very apt question, right?

这个问题很聪明,对吧?

so you know that it will burn your hand but you pick it up

你知道会烫手,但是你拿起它

and you don’t know that it will burn your hand and you pick it up

你不知道它烫手,你拿起它

so if you pick up without knowing it

如果你在不觉察的状态拿起它

and you will take hold of it firmly, so you will be burned more

你会紧紧抓住它,就会被烫的更厉害

so that is what the venerable nagasena was saying here

这就是那先比丘的意思

so king milinda said, he who took hold of it unknowingly would be more severely burned

弥兰王说:没有觉知而拿的那个人他被烫的更严重

then venerable nagasena said that if so sir

那先比丘说:如果这样,大王

the greater demerit is his who does an evil deed unknowingly

不知其恶而为恶者,罪恶更大

and milind said, you are dexterous, reverend nagasena

弥兰王说,你很有智慧,那先长老

so according to this

根据这个故事

answer given by the venerable nagasena doing demerit unknowingly

那先比丘的回答,不知其恶而作恶

will bring us more demerit

会有更大的罪恶

or bring us more painful results

带来更多的苦果

because when we know that it is unwholesome it brings painful results

因为当我们知道他是不善的,会带来苦果

then we will be careful when doing it

我们就会小心一点

but if we don’t know it then we will do it with might and main

但是如果我们不知其恶,就会尽全力去做

so that we will get the painful results of it in the future.

所以在未来就会获得苦果

so this is the answer given by venerable nagasena

这就是那先比丘给出的答案

we should keep it mind whatever the situation is we should try to avoid doing evil

我们要记住它,在何种情况下都要尽量避免作恶

having the akusala cittas as much as possible

尽可能地避免作恶

now we know these 12 akusala cittas we will be able to avoid them

我们知道了这12种不善心,我们就能避免它们

in our daily activities in our dealing with people and so on

在日常生活,与人相处中等等

and so this is one great advantage we have when we understand abhidhamma

这就是我们理解阿毗达摩的益处

so i want you to look at the chart again and memorize it

希望你们再看看那个表,记住它

ok, the first one

第一个

with pleasure with wrong view unprompted

悦俱邪见相应无行心

the second one

第二个

with pleasure with wrong view prompted

悦俱邪见相应有行心

the third one

第三个

with pleasure without wrong view, unprompted

悦俱邪见不相应无行心

the fourth one

第四个

with pleasure without wrong view prompted

悦俱邪见不相应有行心

the fifth

第五个

with indifference with wrong view unprompted

舍俱邪见相应无行心

the sixth

第六个

with indifference with wrong view prompted

舍俱邪见相应有行

seventh

第七个

with indifference without wrong view unprompted

舍俱邪见不相应无行心

then eighth

第八个

with indifference without wrong view prompted

舍俱邪见不相应有行心

these eight are accompanied by or rooted in lobha or attachment

这八个是贪根心

and then the next two

接下来两个

the first one with displeasure with ill will unprompted

第一个忧俱嗔恚相应无行心

the second one with displeasure with ill will prompted

第二个忧俱嗔恚相应有行心

these are the two that are accompanied by ill will or dosa

这两个是嗔根心

and the last two, the first one

最后两个,第一

with indifference with doubt,

舍俱疑相应

and the second one with indifference and with restlessness.

第二个舍俱掉举相应

here the feeling is indifferent

舍俱

and there can be no pleasure or displeasure

就是不愉悦也不忧伤

because when there is delusion, mind is dull

因为愚痴的时候,心很暗淡

so when mind is dull it can not experience the object

当心暗淡的时候,就不能体验到所缘

pools of folly

一团浆糊

and so the feeling is only indifference or neutral

这就是舍俱,中性的感觉

so now we know that 12 types of consciousness

我们现在知道了12种心

that are unwholesome and unwholesome means morally unhealthy

不善心,不善意思是道德上不健康的

and also productive of painful results

也会导致苦果

and when we know this, we will try to avoid, we will try to prevent these types of consciousness

知道这点,我们就会尽量避免这些不善心

from arising in our mind as much as possible,

尽量让它们不生起

we will be able to get rid of them altogether when we reach arahantship.

当我们证得阿罗汉果就能全部舍弃它们

so today we come to the end of unwholesome consciousness

对于不善心的学习,今天就到此为止

and we will continue our study of cittas tomorrow

明天继续学习心

any questions?

有问题吗?

student: …one question on the which is the greater evil

学生:关于“哪个罪恶更大”的问题

which you mentioned that the person to do the demerit unknowingly actually has the greater demerit

你提到不知其恶作恶的人罪恶更大

I think to find out is it because of the wrong view elements that present when he’s doing it unfavorably?

我觉得因为这种心与邪见相应,所以它的罪恶就更大,对么?

sayadaw: it can be wrong view

尊者:可以是邪见相应

yes, because, unknowingly means he is not aware it will bring painful results to him

是的,因为不知其恶,意思是他不知道这种行为会带来苦果

so it is a kind of wrong view

这是一种邪见

anyone?

还有人问么?

student: venerable sir, suppose someone were to kill a small creature by stamping on it knowingly

学生:假设一个人故意踩死了一个小虫

and someone who unknowingly stamp on a creature and kills it

另外一个人不经意踩死了一个虫子

who has the greater demerit?

谁的罪恶更大?

sayadaw: that depends on step on it intentionally or unintentionally?

尊者:这取决于他是有意还是无意?

sometimes he doesn’t know he is stepping on an insect

有时候人们不知道踩到了昆虫

so in that case there is no unwholesome deed or demerit for him

这样他并没有犯下罪过

but if he intentionally step on the insect and kills it

如果他故意踩死昆虫

that will be a great demerit for him

这就是很大的罪过

because here in the other case he has no intention to kill

因为那种情况,如果他没有杀生的动机

he step on it accidentally

只是不小心踩到了

so i think you know the story of the monk cakkhupāla during the time of buddha he was an arahant and he was blind.

我想你知道佛陀时代的护目长老他是一个阿罗汉,眼睛瞎了

and then he practice meditation walking up and down

他行禅的时候

he step on many insects and kill them, right?

踩死了很多昆虫,对不对?

so but when it is reported to the buddha, buddha said:

当有人将此报告给佛陀,佛陀说:

he was innocent because he did not see these insects.

他没有任何罪过,因为他看不到这些虫子

so he steps on the insect unintentionally, if he does not know

如果他无意之中踩死了昆虫他并不知道

that there are insects and step on them

不知道有昆虫,踩到它们

and that he is free from akusala

他就没有任何不善心

but there would be akusala only when he steps on them intentionally

只有他刻意去踩死蚂蚁,才生起不善心

but if he intentionally steps on the insect

如果他故意去踩昆虫

and he knows that it is akusala it may be

知道那是不善

for him, it maybe a little less akusala than he steps on it without knowing it is akusala

比他不知道是不善,而去踩这个罪过可能会小一点

student: venerable sir, one of them refer to the cittas

学生:尊者,当你提到心时

you define citta as pure awareness of the object

你对心的定义是:对所缘的纯粹觉知

so what is the definition of object

那么所缘的定义是什么?

for example with sound an object

例如,对于声音的所缘

and the second question is

第二个问题是

awareness, does it depend on senses? we have five senses?

觉知依赖于诸根么?我们有五根?

sayadaw: first everything is the object

尊者:首先,任何东西都是所缘

this class is an object, this bag is the object, also the mind is the object of the other mind

这门课是所缘,书包是所缘心也可以是另外一个心的所缘

we’re aware of our mind

我们觉知到我们的心

we are aware of the mind of other’s

我们觉知到别人的心

and so the object means anything we can experience

所缘意思是我们能体验到的任何东西

that we can see that we can hear and so on, so they are all called object.

我们可以看到听到等等它们可以被称为所缘

next one?

第二个问题?

so does consciousness mean something experienced by the senses, the five senses like

心意思是被五根所体验到的么?例如五根

the eye and the ear

眼、耳

sayadaw: consciousness is experienced not five senses in buddhism there are six senses

尊者:心通过六根而被体验到在佛教里,不是五根,是六根

mind is also called a sense in buddhism

还有一个意根

actually, they are called doors,

实际上它们被称为“门”

so you will study the doors in the third chapter of this book

在本书第三章你们就会学到各种“门”

so consciousness is something that arises in one of or through one of these senses

心就是在诸根或者通过诸根产生的 you should have no more questions, shall we call it a day, please rise

提问结束,到此为止,请起立

disk01track05

now we go back to akusala

现在我们回到akusala last time we studied the akusala citta, unwholesome consciousness

上次课,我们学了不善心

with that you see, with pleasure with wrong view unprompted and so on

悦俱邪见相应无行等等

now consciousness or citta is said to be pure

因为心是纯净的

consciousness is not wholesome or unwholesome

心不是善或者不善

it is exactly neutral

它是完全中性的

but when it is accompanied by unwholesome mental states

如果伴随它的是不善的心所

then it is called unwholesome citta

就被称为不善心

when it is accompanied by wholesome mental state it is called wholesome citta

如果伴随它的是善的心所,就被称为善心

now in the first citta, pleasure, pleasure is a mental factor

在第一个心里,悦俱,喜悦是一个心所

pleasure can be either wholesome or unwholesome

喜悦可以是善或不善的

but the second one wrong view is an unwholesome mental state

第二邪见,这是一个不善的心所

and also there are other unwholesome mental states arising with these consciousness

伴随心的还有其他不善的心所

so these consciousness is called unwholesome consciousness

所以,这些心被称为不善心

so the consciousness becomes wholesome or unwholesome depending on

所以心是善还是不善取决于

whether the cetasikas or whether mental factors arising together with it wholesome or unwholesome

伴随这个心的心所是善还是不善

that is why cetasikas are compared to color, citta is compared to pure water

所以将心所比作颜料,心比作纯净的水

so when water is pure, it is pure and there is no color

纯净的水没有颜色

but you put red color in the water and we call it red water

你将红色颜料放进去,我们就称之为红色的水

and when you put green color we call it green water and so on

你将绿色的颜料放进去,我们就称之为绿色的水,等等

citta by itself is neither wholesome nor wholesome

心本身非善非不善

but when it comes into contact with or when it is associated with the mental factors that are unwholesome

当与不善的心所为伴时

then it is called an unwholesome citta

它就被称为不善心

and when it is accompanied by wholesome mental states or mental factors, it is called wholesome citta

当它与善的心所相伴时就被称为善心

so last night we studied the unwholesome cittas,

昨天晚上,我们学习了不善心

now how many unwholesome cittas are there?

不善心有多少种?

12, right? 12种,对不对

how many are rooted in attachment?

以贪为根的有几种?

8, how many in ill will? 8种,以嗔为根的几种?

2, and how many in delusion, 2, ok. 2种,以痴为根的几种?

how many are accompanied by pleasure?

悦俱的几种?

4, how many by indifference? 4种,舍俱的几种?

6, and how many by ill will? 2, very good 6种,忧俱的几种?2种

now imagine yourself are back to school, like school children

把自己想象成小学生,重返校园

ok, now we will go to next section of the consciousness

好,现在进入心的下一章节

the rootless consciousness.

无因心

now last night i told you that consciousness is divided into different categories.

昨晚我讲过心被分成不同的类型

according to the sphere or the realms it frequently arises in

根据心在哪一界经常生起

now consciousness can be divided in another way

心也可以按照其他方式分类

and it is according to the books by way of its nature

在本书还可以按照它的性质来分类

but we may call it by karmic activity

我们可以说是业果活动的性质

that means, consciousness that produces results

意思是,造业的心

and consciousness that are results

和受报的心

and consciousness that neither produces results nor results themselves.

不造业也不受报的心

so result-producing consciousness

造业的心

result-consciousness

果报心

and consciousness that is neither producing nor result themselves

还有不造业也不受果报的心

akusala citta or unwholesome consciousness are those that produce results

不善心属于造业的心

and in this case, they produce painful results

在这里,它们会造成苦果

today we are going to study another kind of cittas or types of consciousness

今天我们要学习另外一种心

and they are mostly the resultant consciousness

基本上都是果报心

now when we see something

当我们看到某物的时候

there arises in our mind a consciousness

我们生起一个心

actually we see with that consciousness

实际上,我们用那个心看

so that consciousness is called eye consciousness

这个心被称为眼识

because it depends on the eye for its arising

因为它依赖于眼睛而生起

if there is no eye, there can be no eye consciousness

如果没有眼睛,就没有眼识

and we may call it seeing consciousness, but in the books, it is called eye consciousness

我们也可以称之为“观看的心“在这本书里称之为眼识

consciousness that depends on the eye to arise

依赖于眼睛而生起的心

so in order for the eye consciousness to arise

所以,眼识的生起

first we need the eye and we need the thing to see

首先我们要有眼睛,被看的物体

the eye means not the whole eye ball but

眼睛并不是指整个眼球

but the sensitive part in the eye

是指眼睛里敏感性的部位(眼净色) the material properties in the eye that are sensitive to the light

就是眼睛里对光敏感的物质属性

so according to medical science, it may be the retina in the eye

所以根据医学理论,可能是眼睛的视网膜

so that we call eye,

我们称之为眼[净色] so in order for the eye consciousness to arise

所以眼识的生起

we need that eye and also we need that is to be seen or a visible object

需要有眼净色、色所缘

so when these two come into contact then

当这两者接触时

the eye consciousness arises, or eye consciousness is produced

眼识就会生起

so that eye consciousness is called seeing consciousness

这就是眼识

now we need not just

我们不仅需要

the eye and the visible object

眼净色和色所缘

we need two more conditions for the eye consciousness to arise

眼识生起,还需要两个条件

and there are light and attention

光、作意

because even though we have the eyes and there is a visible object when there is pitch dark

因为即使我们有眼净色,色所缘如果是一片漆黑

when there is no light, the consciousness will not arise

如果没有光,眼识就不能生起

so light is one condition for eye consciousness to arise

所以光线是眼识生起的一个条件

and also attention is important

作意也很重要

sometimes, even a big object may pass in front of us but we may not see it

有时候,即便是一个很大的东西从我们眼前经过,我们也可能看不到它

if we are not attentive, if we do not pay attention

如果我们不作意

then eye consciousness or seeing consciousness can not arise

眼识可能就不会生起

so for the seeing consiousness to arise we need four conditions

所以眼识的生起,需要四个条件

the eye, the visible object, light and attention

眼净色、色所缘、光、作意

when these four come together, there is what we call seeing consciousness or the eye consciousness

具备这四者,才生起眼识

now this first consciousness

所以这第一个心

is called eye consciousness

就被称为眼识

and this is the result of past karma

这就是过去的果报

when we see something ugly

当我们看到一个丑东西

when we see something we don’t want to see

当我们看到我们不想见的东西

there is this eye consciousness arising in our mind

这种眼识就会生起

and this eye consciousness is the result of the akusala kamma we did in the past

这种眼识的生起是由于我们过去所造的不善业

so when we see something, let us say here an ugly thing

当我们看到某物,例如,一个丑陋的东西

it is because of our past akusala kamma, that we see it

这是因为我们过去世的不善业,我们才会看到它

if we understand this

如果我们理解这点

we will not blame anybody

我们就不会迁怒于别人

if we want to blame we must blame our kamma in the past

如果说非要责怪谁,那就要责怪我们过去造的业

so knowledge of abhidhamma can help us to avoid unnecessary anger

所以,阿毗达摩的知识可以帮助我们避免生起不必要的愤怒

when we see something bad

当我们看到不好的事情

so when we see something bad there is the eye consciousness

当我们看到不好的事情,眼识生起

and this eye consciousness is the result of past kamma

这个眼识是过去的果报

and so we alone are responsible for this seeing an ugly object.

我们自己得对看到这个丑陋的东西负责

so if to blame at all we must blame ourselves

如果要责怪,就责怪我们自己吧

and not the other people and not the object

而不是去怪别人,或怪某个东西

so we are not to get angry with the object so abhidhamma can help us

所以我们就不会对所缘发怒阿毗达摩可以帮助我们

and to keep ourselves away from unwholesome mental states arising in our mind

帮助我们的心远离不善的心所

now the second consciousness is called ear consciousness

第二个心是耳识

and in order for the ear consciousness to arise

耳识的生起

we need four conditions again

也需要四个条件

auditory organ that means the ear

听觉器官,也就是耳净色

or sensitive material qualities particles in the ear

或者说是耳朵里的敏感细胞

and then sound and then space and then attention

声所缘、空间、作意

if there is no space no ether

如果没有空间

we will not hear the sound

我们就听不到声音

so space is one condition for the ear consciousness to arise

所以空间是耳识生起的一个条件

so here this consciousness is the result of akusla kamma in the past

所以这个心也是不善果报心

and so the object here is an ugly sound the sound we don’t like

所以所缘就是难听的声音我们不喜欢听的声音

and then the next is the third one is nose consciousness

第三个就是鼻识

that means smelling consciousness

嗅知的心

the smelling consciousness arises when an odor comes into contact with our nose

香所缘和鼻净色接触就生起鼻识

and this particular citta is the result of akusala, so in this case the smell is bad smell

这个心也是不善果报心所以这种香所缘是难闻的气味

when we had bad smell these types of consciousness arises in our mind

当我们闻到难闻的气味就会生起这种心

for the smelling consciousness or nose consciousness to arise

鼻识的生起

we need the nose, smell, and air, and attention

需要:鼻净色、香所缘、风界、作意

and the next one is tongue consciousness

下一个是舌识

when we experience some taste

当我们尝到某种滋味

so for the tongue consciousness to arise we need the gustatory organ

舌识的生起,需要尝味的器官

that means we need the tongue

需要舌头

there are taste buds in the tongue

舌头上有味蕾

and when these taste buds come into contact with some taste

当舌净色和味所缘接触时

then we have this consciousness called tongue consciousness

就会生起舌识

so for the tongue consciousness to arise we need the tongue the taste or the food with the taste

舌识的生起需要:舌净色、味所缘

water or moisture and attention

水界、作意

and the next is body consciousness

下一个是身识

or touch consciousness

或者触碰时产生的心

in order for this type of consciousness to arise we need the tactile organ, that means we need the body

这个心的生起需要:身体器官

some parts of the body and then something to be touched tactile object

身净色、触所缘

and the earth element and attention

地界、作意

so when these four conditions are fulfilled then the body consciousness arises

满足这四个条件,身识就会生起

and since this group is the result of akusala

因为这组心都是不善果报心

the touch must be displeasurable touch such as pain or numbness and so on

这种触碰肯定是不舒服的例如:疼痛、麻木等等

so corresponding to the five senses we have these five types of consciousness

对应于五根,我们有五识

so these are eye consciousness ear consciousness nose consciousness tongue consciousness and body consciousness

眼识、耳识、鼻识、舌识、身识

so again eye consciousness means consciousness depending only eye for its arising and so on

眼识指依赖于眼生起的心,等等

and the sixth is called receiving consciousness

第六个是领受心

when the object is presented to the senses

当所缘呈现于诸根

first the consciousness arises that experiences the object

首先生起的那个心体验到这个所缘

you smell, taste and touch

你闻、尝、触

immediately after that moment, there comes in your mind another type of consciousness

随即生起另外一种心

that receives the object

领受目标

now first the object is presented we experience it

首先目标出现,我们体验到了

just for a very brief moment

只是一个很短的时间

and then there arises a type of consciousness that receives its object

然后有一种心来领受这个目标

now when we talk about these things we have to blow up the picture maybe a million times

当我们谈论这些事情的时候我们要将这个图景分成一百万次

as I said on the first night

第一天晚上我讲过

thought moments can come and go a million times in a second

一秒钟可以出现十亿次心路

so these types of consciousness last for that just one billion or one nine billions of a second

所以这种心的持续时间只是十亿或者九十亿分之一秒

so after seeing let’s say regarding seeing

现在以视觉为例

after seeing consciousness arising and disappears

眼识生起又灭去之后

there arises another consciousness that receives the object

生起的另外一个心领受目标

so that is called receiving consciousness

所以它被称为领受心

and after receiving consciousness

领受心之后

there arises another consciousness called investigating consciousness

生起另外一个心,叫推度心

after receiving it the mind investigate it

领受目标之后就要分析目标

so altogether we get seven types of consciousness

所以,一起有七种心

and these seven types of consciousness are the result of unwholesome kamma in the past

这七种心是过去不善业的果报

these are called ahetuka rootless

这些心被称为无根心(无因心) now before we try to understand rootless we must understand what are the root

在理解“无根”之前,我们必须理解什么是“根”

in abhidhamma there are six mental states they are called roots

在阿毗达摩里有七个心所被称为“根”

three are unwholesome roots

三个是不善根

and another three beautiful or good roots

另外三个是美根

now three unwholesome roots are greed hate or hatred and delusion

三个不善根是:贪嗔痴

in pali lobha dosa and moha

巴利语是:lobha dosa 和 moha and three good roots are the opposite of these three

三个美根与此相反

so non-greed, non-hatred and non-delusion

无贪无嗔无痴

these are called good roots

这些被称为美根

I do not say wholesome roots because both wholesome and other roots are called beautiful roots

我没有称之为善根因为善根和其他根,被统称为美根

so there are these six roots

一共是这六根

since there are mental factors they always arise with certain types of consciousness

因为它们是心所,它们总是与某种心一起生起

but with these actually they are 18 in this section

在这章里,实际介绍了18种

with these types of consciousness none of these roots arise

这18种心里,没有这些心所

so they arise without these mental factors that they are called roots

这些心的生起并没有此六个称为根的心所

last night when you studied the unwholesome consciousness you found the word rooted in attachment, rooted in ill will rooted in delusion

昨晚,学习不善心的时候,你们知道有些心以贪为根,以嗔为根,以痴为根

that means accompanied by attachment and so on

意思是伴随着贪等等

but these today’s types of consciousness are not accompanied by anyone of these roots

但今天所学的心没有这些根的伴随

either unwholesome root or beautiful root so they are called rootless consciousness

没有不善根,也没有美根所以被称为无根心(无因心) since they are rootless they are not as strong as others that have roots

因为它们是无因心,所以比有因心弱

so this first group consists of seven types of consciousness

所以第一组无因心有七个

and these seven types of consciousness arise when we experience something we don’t like

当我们经历不喜欢的事情这七个心就会生起

we experience the visible object audible object and so on

我们经历的色所缘、声所缘等等

and

并且

all these types of consciousness are accompanied by what feeling?

所有这些心伴随的是什么样的感受?

indifferent or neutral feeling

中性的心,也就是舍心

so when we see something when we hear something

所以当我们看到或者听到

that seeing consciousness or hearing consciousness is always accompanied by indifferent or neutral feeling

眼识或耳识总是舍俱的

but the fifth one arises with what feeling? painful feeling.

但是第五个生起的时候是什么感受?苦受。

it is called in pali it is called dukkha

巴利语成为:dukkha now in order to understand why the others are accompanied by neutral feeling,

为了理解为什么其他的是舍俱

and number five accompanied by pain

第五个是苦受呢

we need to understand some material properties

我们需要了解一些色法

now there are 28 material properties taught in abhidhamma

阿毗达摩里讲了28种色法

among them the first 4 are called the primary elements

其中前4个被称为元素色(四大种) and the primary elements are as you know the element of earth water fire and air

元素色,就是地水火风

these primary elements are said to be great essential

这四种元素色也被叫做大种

these primary elements are said to be hard

这些元素色是坚硬的

and the other material properties like the material properties in the eye in the ear and so son

其他色法,例如眼净色、耳净色等等

are called dependent material properties

被称为所造色

they depend on the great essential to arise and to exist

它们依靠四大种生起并存在

and they are said to be not hard so let us say they are soft

这些都不具坚硬性,所以称之为柔软的

the four great elements are hard

四大种是坚硬的

and the other material properties are soft

其他色法是柔软的

now when we see something

当我们观看的时候

that is the eye, the eye is also a soft material property

这是眼净色,眼净色也属于柔性的色

and what we see the visible object is also dependent matter so it is also soft

色所缘也是所造色,也是柔性的

when one soft thing hit another soft thing there is no strong impact

一个柔性的物体撞击另外一个柔性的物体,没什么强烈作用

since there is no strong impact the feeling that arises with this consciousness can not be strong feeling

因为没有强烈的作用,所以随着那个心生起的感受也不强烈

so it is the neutral feeling

所以是舍受

now it is compared to this, you have this diagram in the handout also?与此比较,你们有没有这个表?

yes, the one of the screen may not look the same as on the sheet you are distributed

是的,屏幕上的与发给你们的表可能看起来有所不同

this diagram on the screen was created just today

屏幕上的表格是今天做的

and it was not by professional person

也不是出自专业人士之手

actually venerable nandisena did it this afternoon

实际上是一位法师做的

but it serves the purpose

但是可以实现我们的目的

the two yellows balls on the left represent the cotton balls

左边的两个圆球代表棉花球

when one cotton ball is hit by another cotton balls

当一个棉花球被另外一个棉花球撞击

even though it is on the anvil the hitting cotton ball will not hit the anvil

即便它在铁砧上,撞击它的棉花球也碰不到铁砧

even it hits the anvil, it hits very softly

即便撞到了铁砧,也很柔软

so that is no strong impact

所以不是很强的作用

in the same way, when you see something

同样,当你看到某物

what you see is soft material property and your eye is material property

你看到的是柔性的色法,你的眼净色也是柔性的

but your eye depends on the four essential elements

但是眼净色也是四大所造

like the anvil here

四大就像是铁砧

so the visible object when it strikes the eye

当色所缘撞击眼净色时

since both are soft material properties

两个都是柔性的色法

there is no strong impact and so there can be no pronounced feeling

所以没有强烈的作用,就产生不了感觉

when there is no pronounced feeling, then the feeling is neutral

产生不了作用,就是舍受

now with regard to the number five

现在来看第五个

touch, now touch means the combination of the three great essential

触(身所缘),身所缘就是三个大种的结合

the earth element, fire element and air element

地、火、风

so what we call touch or tactile object

所以触,也就是身所缘

is just the combination of these three great essential so they are hard material properties

是三大种的结合,所以是坚硬的色法

so in the diagram they are like the hammer

所以在图表中,就像是锤子

so when the hammer hit the cotton ball on the anvil

当锤子撞击铁砧上的棉花球

it will not stop on the cotton ball but it will take the anvil so there is impact

它不会停止在棉球上,它会触及到铁砧,产生作用

so in the same way when the tactile object hit the tactile organ in the body

同样,当身所缘撞击身净色

which is soft material property

身净色是柔性色法

it strikes at that material property

它撞击到那个色法

and reaches the great essential which are like anvil here

然后冲击到大种,这里就是铁砧

so the impact is strong and so here the feeling is not neutral

这种作用就是强烈的,感受就不是舍俱

when it is a good or pleasant tactile object then it is pleasure

当身所缘是美好的,感受就是愉悦的

and when it is an unpleasant object then it is unpleasant feeling

当身所缘是不好的,就是不愉悦的感受

that is why number five it is said to be accompanied by pain not by joy or neutral feeling

所以第五个就是苦受不是乐受、舍受

now this is at the moment of seeing consciousness and so on

这仅仅是眼识等等的生起

but immediately following the seeing consciousness, are receiving consciousness, investigating consciousness

紧随眼识之后,就是领受心和推度心

and also the other types of consciousness will follow

同样其他类型的心也随之生起

and then comes the full experience of the object

这就是对目标的完整体验

so at that moment when it comes the full experience of the object

当达成对目标的完整体验时

it may be accompanied by pleasure or it may be accompanied by pain or it may be accompanied by the neutral feeling.

伴随的可能是乐受、苦受、舍受

but at the very moment of seeing hearing and so on

如果是看、听等等

the consciousness is always accompanied by neutral feeling

这些识都是舍俱的

and if it is the tactile object, it is always accompanied by painful feeling

如果碰到的是身所缘境,那就是苦受

so these 7 are called the rootless resultant consciousness of unwholesome kamma

所以这七种被称为无因不善果报心

in pali they are called akusalavipāka

巴利语就是akusalavipaka akusalavipākacitta

不善果报心

now here akusala qualifies vipaka not citta

这里的不善,是形容果报的并不是形容心的

so these 7 types of citta or these 7 types of consciousness

所以这七种心

are the result of the akusala are the result of bad kamma in the past

是过去不善业的果报

but when we see something beautiful when we see something we like to see

但是当我们看到美丽的东西看到我们喜欢的东西

then the seeing consciousness arises and again it is accompanied by indifferent feeling and so on

眼识生起,伴随的是舍受等等

so when we experience somthing that is pleasurable that is good that we like

当我们体验到愉悦的、美好的事情

then we have these types of consciousness

我们就会生起这些心

and ahetukakusalavipākacitta

无因善果报心

they are eye consciousness, ear consciousness, nose consciousness

眼识、耳识、鼻识

tongue consciousness and body consciousness

舌识、身识

now when it comes to body consciousness

对于身识

since it is the result of wholesome kamma in the past

因为是过去善业的果报

the feeling is pleasure

感受是快乐的

and in the kusalavipaka or the wholesome resultant cittas

在善果报心里

there is one more the number seventh called in pali it’s called santīraṇa, the investigating consciousness

多一个,第七个是推度心

now there are two investigating consciousness among the resultant cittas of kusala

对于善果报心,有两种推度心

that is because there are two kinds of objects

因为有两种所缘

ordinarily desirable or very desirable

中等可喜、极可喜

so when the object is very desirable, the investigating consciousness is accompanied by pleasure

当所缘是极可喜,就是悦俱推度心

and if the object is just ordinarily desirable

如果所缘是中等可喜

then the investigating consciousness is accompanied by neutral feeling

就是舍俱推度心

so there are two types of investigating consciousness among the cittas that are the result of wholesome kamma

所以善果报心里的推度心有两种

now again there when we see something beautiful when we see something that we like to see

当我们看到愉悦的事物

we can praise ourselves

我们就可以赞美自己

because we did something good in the past now we see or we hear and so on the beautiful objects or the objects we like

因为我们过去造了善业,所以我们就看到或听到这些美好的东西,等等

so if we understand this, we understand a lot of kamma

如果我们理解了这点,就对业有所了解

good kamma produces good result, bad kamma produces bad result

善有善报,恶有恶报

when we see something good that is the result of the good kamma in the past

当我们看到好的东西,就是过去善业的果报

and when we see something bad, and again that is the result of bad kamma in the past

当我们看到不好的东西同样,是过去不善业的果报

so we alone are responsible for our pleasure or our suffering

所以我们对自己的苦乐负责

so there are eight types of consciousness in this group

所以这一组心有八种

seven plus just one which is the investigating consciousness accompanied by pleasure

七种之外,加一个悦俱推度心

so these two groups are the resultant consciousness

这两组心都是果报心

there are the result of past kamma

是过去所造业的果报

now we come to the third group, there are called functional consciousness

现在谈第三组:唯作心

functional consciousness means these consciousness just arise they do their function and disappear

唯作心意思是这些心生起实行其作用,然后灭去

without leaving any karmic force in the continuity of a being.

这种心并不造业

and they just arise and they disappear without leaving any karmic force

只是生起,然后灭去,不造业

and these three are first five-sense-door-adverting

这三个心中的第一个是五门转向心

now it is a long name in pali also it is a long name

这个名字很长,巴利语也很长

so five-sense-door-adverting

五门转向

now when let’s say when the visible object is presented to the mind

例如,当色所缘呈现于我们心里

the mind turns to that object

心转向这个目标

so that point of turning is called here five-sense-door-adverting

这个转向就被称为五门转向

before the visible object strikes the mind

色所缘撞击心之前

our mind may be on some other object

我们的心可能在其他所缘上

our mind may be on the obscure object

我们的心可能在隐晦的所缘上

but when a visible object comes into the avenue of our eyes

当色所缘进入我们眼睛的领域

this visible object is said to strike at the sense organs

这个色所缘要撞击感觉器官

after it is taking, the four of the inactive thought moments stopped and the mind turned to the object

撞击之后,四个不活跃的心识刹那就停止,心就转向目标

that turning to the object is what we call five- sense-door-adverting

这种转向,就被称为五门转向

maybe let us say, you’re looking at another place

例如,你看其他地方

and then you hear a noise you turn to the noise

然后你听到一个声音,你就转向那个声音

so that turning [inaudible] you call five sense-door-adverting

这个转向就是五门转向

because it arises with regard to five senses

因为它与五根有关

with regard to eyes, ears, nose, tongue and body

眼、耳、鼻、舌、身

and this also is accompanied by indifferent or neutral feeling

这也是舍俱的

so this is one type of consciousness

所以这种心

it is no karmic power it does not give any results

是不造业的,不产生业果

and it is not the result of any kamma

也不是果报心

now second one mind-door-adverting

第二个是意门转向心

that means when you think of something without the use of the five sense you just think of something

意思是你思虑某事没有涉及五根,仅仅是思虑

then a type of consciousness arises that turns the mind to the object

你的心就转向所缘,生起这种心

so that is the mind door adverting consciousness

这就是意门转向心

this mind door adverting consciousness is also not the result of any kamma and it does not give any result

这种意门转向心,不是果报心,也不造业

and this second type of consciousness arises in five senses as well as in the mind

这第二种心可以生起于五门心路过程也可以生起于意门心路过程

so when it arises in the five senses or through the five senses, it has just one function

当它生起于五门心路过程时只有一个作用

that is called determining

就是:确定

and when it arises through the mind door it has the function of turning the mind to the object

当它生起于意门心路过程它的作用就是转向目标

you will understand more of this when you study the thought process because it is contained with thought process

当你学习心路过程时,你就能了解更多,这包含在心路里面

and the last one is called smile producing

最后一个是生笑心

but do not think that you can experience this type of consciousness

不要觉得你也可以体验到这种心

now you are smiling, right?

你们现在在笑,对吧?

but you’re smiling with another type of consciousness not with this type of consciousness

但是你们笑的时候,生起的不是这种心

because this type of consciousness is peculiar to arahant

因为这种心专属于阿罗汉

arahant here means both arahants, buddhas and paccekabuddhas

阿罗汉这里指:阿罗汉、佛、辟支佛

so these beings or arahants smile with this type of consciousness

他们笑的时候,就生起此心

so this is called smile producing

它就被称为生笑心

since it is smile producing it is accompanied by pleasurable feeling

这种生笑心是悦俱心

so these three are called

所以这三种心被称为

rootless functional consciousness

无因唯作心

they are rootless because they are not accompanied by any of the roots any of the six roots

它们没有任何六根之一为伴所以被称为无因心

and they are called functional because they just arise and they disappear they do not have any productive power

它们被称为唯作心,是因为它们仅仅生起,然后灭去没有造作任何业

and among these three the first two can arise both in ordinary worldings and arahants,

这三者中,前两种都可以在世间人和阿罗汉心中生起

but the last one can arise only in the minds of arahants,

但是最后一种只能在阿罗汉心中生起

here arahant means arahants as well as buddhas and paccekabuddhas

这里的阿罗汉指:阿罗汉、佛、辟支佛

that means those who have eradicated all mental defilements

就是已经灭尽心中诸漏的人

so all together now we have 18 rootless consciousness

我们一起学了18种无因心

seven are the result of unwholesome kamma 7种是不善果报心

and eight are the result of wholesome kamma 8种是善果报心

and the three are not the result of any kamma and they are not kamma themselves

三种不造业,也不是果报

they just arise and disappear performing their function

只是生起,灭去,实行其作用

the last three are called functioning

最后三种被称为唯作心

so all together these 18 cittas are called rootless consciousness

所以一起这18种被称为无因心

because they are not accompanied by any of the six roots

因为它们不和任何六根相伴

now in pali the word hetu

在巴利语里hetu这个词

hetu, the meaning of the word hetu is a cause hetu的意思是:原因

so if you take just pali ahetuka you may misunderstand this word

如果仅仅从巴利语ahetuka来看你可能会对这个词产生误解

since hetu is a cause, ahetu means no cause

因为hetu的意思是原因

ahetu就是指没原因

so you may think that these types of consciousness arise without cause, but that is not true

所以你可能觉得这种心的生起不依赖于任何原因,但这是不对的

so here hetu represents what we call the roots or in pali mula

这里的hetu,就是指“根”,用巴利语讲就是mula you’re familiar with the word mula, mula(根)这个词你们已经熟悉过了

when we say lobha mulu dosa mula and moha mula

我们讲:贪根、嗔根、痴根

so these types of consciousness are called ahetuka or rootless because

这种心被称为ahetuka或无根心

they are not accompanied by any of the roots

因为没有任何“根”伴随

and how many roots are there? there are six roots

一共有多少”根“,六种

three are unwholesome roots, and the other three are called beautiful roots

三种是不善根,其他三种是美根

and now the first group in pali they are called akusalavipaka

第一组心是不善果报心

and the second group ahetukakusakavipaka

第二组是无因善果报心

do you have the correct name they are?

你们上面印的巴利语是正确的吗?

in pali ahetukakusalavipaka

巴利语:ahetukakusalavipaka now the first seven are called just akusalavipaka

第一组七个是不善果报心

but the second are called ahetukakusalavipaka not just kusalavipaka

但是第二组无因善果报心不仅仅是善果报心

they are qualified by the word ahetuka

前面有“无因”来形容

that is because later we will find kusalavipaka that are with roots

因为,稍后我们会学到“有因”善果报心

so in order to differentiate these eight from the resultant consciousness that are with roots

为了将这8种与有因果报心区别

they are here qualified by the word ahetuka

前面就加了“无因”这个词

the rootless resultant consciousness

无因果报心

the third group is also called ahetukakiriyā第三组也被称为无因唯作心

because there are functional consciousnesses that are accompanied by hetus or roots

因为有些心是:有因唯作心

so to differentiate these three from the others that are with roots

所以为了将这三者与有因心区分

they are called ahetukakiriyā称其为:无因唯作心

now when we talk about these types of consciousness we will be using these names again and again

当我们谈到这些心的时候,我们会反复用到这些名称

so we want to refer to the last three we will say ahetukakriya, three ahetukakriya and so on

当我们要称呼最后三种,我们就会用巴利语讲出名字

so these 18 types of consciousness are called rootless because they have no concommitant root.

所以这18种心,被称为无因心因为没有任何根与之相随

and these arise when we see something when we hear something and so on

当我们看到、听到等等它们就生起

and all these have, they are placed in thought process

它们在心路里都有自己的位置

now when we see something, we see the object with thought process

当我们看到某东西我们就会经历心路过程

not just with one type of consciousness,

不仅仅生起一种心

actually our mind has to go through different types of thought processes

实际上我们的心经历不同的心路

and there we can say we see something or we see a man and so on

我们才能看到某物、某人等等

these types of consciousness taught in this section

在这章学到的这些心

have a place in the thought processes

在心路过程里有它们的位置

and when we come to thought processes, you will understand them more clearly

当我们学习心路过程时你们就会了解的更清楚

here the sequence is first turning to the object

这个过程在这里首先转向目标

the first and second of the last group

最后一组的第一个、第二个心

turning to the object and then seeing the object hearing the object and so on

转向目标,看到或听到目标等等

and then accepting or receiving the object and then investigating the object and then determining the object

然后领受目标、推度目标,确定目标

and after determining comes, the full experience of the object

确定目标之后,我们就有关于目标的完整体验

so we will study these different stages in the experience of the object when we come to the thought processes

我们学到心路过程时,我们就会学习心的这些不同的阶段

so we will have a break now

现在休息一下

disk01track06

so at the beginning

开始的时候

I told you about the pali alphabet and pali pronunciation

我教了巴利语字母的发音

now I want you to read the pali on the screen

我希望你们读一下屏幕的巴利文字

get familiar with the pali

熟悉一下巴利语

upekkhāsahagata cakkhuviññāṇa

捨俱眼識

upekkhāsahagata sotaviññāṇa

捨俱耳識

upekkhāsahagata ghāṇaviññāṇa

捨俱鼻識

upekkhāsahagata jivhāviññāṇa

捨俱舌識

dukkhasahagata kāyaviññāṇa

苦俱身識

upekkhāsahagata sampaṭicchana

捨俱領受心

upekkhāsahagata santīraṇa

捨俱推度心

I want you to guess the meaning of these words

我希望你们猜猜这些词的意思

upekkhāsahagata with indifference or with neutral feeling

舍俱

cakkhuviññāṇa eye consciousness

眼识

sotaviññāṇa ear consciousness

耳识

ghāṇaviññāṇa nose consciousness

鼻识

jivhāviññāṇa tongue consciousness

舌识

dukkhasahagata dukkhasahagata, with pain

苦俱

kāyaviññāṇa body consciousness

身识

upekkhāsahagata, with indifference

舍俱

sampaṭicchana receiving, accepting, sampaṭicchana

领受[心] upekkhāsahagata, with indifference

舍俱

santīraṇa, investigating

推度心

ok, little by little you come acquainted with these pali words

你们将慢慢熟悉这些巴利词

and then the next again upekkhāsahagata cakkhuviññāṇa

再来一次:捨俱眼識

upekkhāsahagata sotaviññāṇa

捨俱耳識

upekkhāsahagata ghāṇaviññāṇa

捨俱鼻識

upekkhāsahagata jivhāviññāṇa

捨俱舌識

sukhasahagata kāyaviññāṇa

樂俱身識

upekkhāsahagata sampaṭicchana

捨俱領受心

somanassasahagata santīraṇa

喜俱推度心

upekkhāsahagata santīraṇa

捨俱推度心

ok, again, cakkhuviññāṇa

好,再来,眼识

eye consciousness

眼识

sotaviññāṇa, ear consciousness

耳识

ghāṇaviññāṇa, nose consciousness

鼻识

jivhāviññāṇa, tongue consciousness

舌识

kāyaviññāṇa body consciousness

身识

sampaṭicchana receiving consciousness

领受心

santīraṇa investigating

推度心

santīraṇa, again, investigating, ok

再来一次,推度心,好

now the last three

最后三个

upekkhāsahagata pañcadvārāvajjana

捨俱五門轉向心

upekkhāsahagata manodvārāvajjana

捨俱意門轉向心

somanassasahagata hasituppāda

喜俱生笑心

now, pañcadvārāvajjana, pañca means five pañca的意思是“五”

dvāra means door dvāra意思是“门”

and āvajjana means turning

āvajjana意思是“转向”

so turning to the object in five sense doors

所以转向于五根门中的目标

the eye, ear and so on are called doors

眼耳等等被称之为门

because it is through these that consciousness enter our mind, so they are called doors

因为通过它们才生起心所以,它们被称之为“门”

altogether they are six door, the five senses and the mind

门一共有六个,五根、意

and manodvārāvajjana, mano means mind, mano意思是“意”

dvāra means door dvāra的意思是“门”

and āvajjana means turning

āvajjana意思是“转向”

so turning in the mind door

所以:意门转向

the last one hasituppāda, hasita means smiling

最后一个hasituppāda,

hasita是笑的意思

uppāda means producing or cause to be uppada的意思是:产生

so hasituppāda means smile producing

所以这个是生笑心

and when we see something, what consciousness arises

当我们看到某物,生起什么心

eye consciousness

眼识

and when we see something ugly?

当我们看到丑陋的事物呢?

akusala resultant

不善果报心

when we see something we like, beautiful?

当我们看到美丽的事物,我们很喜欢

kusalavipaka, very good

善果报心,非常好

say, when we hit ourselves against something, we have pain?

当我们撞到了自己,很痛?

body consciousness, akusalavipaka, body consciousness.

身识,不善果报心

when we have good touch?

当我们触摸到很舒适的东西?

again body consciousness, resultant of kusala, very good

也是身识,善果报心,非常好

and when buddha smiles, not us.

当佛陀微笑时,不是我们微笑

then why are these called ahetuka or rootless?

为什么这些被称为无因心

because they have no concommitant roots

因为没有任何“根”伴随着它们

because they arise without roots, what are the roots?

因为它们无根而生起,什么是根

three unwholesome roots and three beautiful roots.

三个不善根,三个美根

what are the unwholesome roots?

哪些是不善根?

greed, hatred and delusion, and the beautiful roots? non-greed, non-hatred, and non-delusion

贪嗔痴,美根呢?无贪无嗔无痴

very good, so the six are called roots

非常好,所以这六个就是根

so next will go to kāmāvacara sobhana citta sense-sphere beautiful consciousness

下面我们学习欲界美心

these types of consciousness are called beautiful consciousness because

这些被称为美心因为

they are accompanied by beautiful mental factors

美心所与它们相伴随

now in the second chapter of the manual you will study the 52 mental factors

在本书第二章,你们会学到52心所

and these 52 mental factors are divided into

这52个心所被分为

the common or neutral mental factors, unwholesome mental factors and beautiful mental factors

通一切心所、不善心所通一切美心所

those types of consciousness that are accompanied by beautiful mental factors are called beautiful consciousness

美心所伴随的心,就被称为美心

and here in this section these types of consciousness

这章里,这种心

mainly arise in the sense sphere

主要在欲界生起

sense sphere means 11 planes of existence

欲界指的是十一欲界地

so they mainly or frequently arise in these realms and so they are called sense sphere beautiful consciousness

这些心主要或经常出现在这些界所以被称为欲界美心

and they are again divided into three

它们又被分为三种

wholesome, resultant and functional

善、果报、唯作

so sense sphere wholesome consciousness, sense sphere resultant consciousness with roots

欲界善心,有因欲界果报心

and sense sphere functional consciousness with roots

有因欲界唯作心

now if you are familiar with the 8 types of consciousness accompanied by attachment or rooted in attachment

如果你们熟悉8种贪根心

you can easily understand these 8 sense sphere wholesome consciousness, there is only one difference

你们就很容易理解这8种欲界善心它们只有一个地方不同

now if you read the consciousnesses you will see with pleasure with knowledge unprompted

你们看看这些心就知道悦俱智相应无行

so the only difference is with knowledge, instead of with wrong view, it goes with knowledge

所以唯一的区别就是:智相应,而不是邪见相应

so with pleasure with knowledge and unprompted, this is the first type of consciousness

所以,悦俱智相应无行心,这就是第一种心

so the examples are given in the manual

书里也举了例子

someone joyfully performs a generous deed

某人愉快地布施

understanding that this is a wholesome deed

认识到这是一种善行

spontaneously without prompting

自发自愿,不是被人劝说的

so that means say you go to a temple and happily you make a donation

意思是你去寺院,愉快地供养

spontaneously without being prompted by any person

自发自愿,而不是被人劝说

so in that case the first type of consciousness in this group arises in your mind

所以,生起这组心里的第一种

someone performs the same good deed with understanding after deliberation or prompting by another

在别人的鼓励下,一个人有着同样的认知行布施

sometimes another person may say to you why not make donations to the temple and then make the donation,

有时候别人对你说:怎么不去寺院做供养然后你就去做供养

or sometimes you encourage yourself

有时候你自己鼓励自己

so in that case the consciousness is prompted that is with knowledge with understanding

所以这时候的心就是智相应有行心

someones joyfully performs a generous deed without prompting but without understanding

一个人愉快地布施没有别人鼓励,也没有认知

that it is a wholesome deed

这是善行

without understanding sometimes means without understanding the law of kamma

没有认知有时候指不理解因果法则

so in that case the third type of consciousness arises

这样就生起第三种心

and the fourth type of consciousness is someone joyfully performs a generous deed

第四种心是一个人愉快地布施

without understanding after deliberation or prompting by another

是被自己或别人劝说的,没有智慧的认知

so in that case the fourth type of consciousness arises

所以就生起了第四种心

and number five to number eight types of consciousness should be understood in the same way as the presetting four

第5到8种跟前面四种一样

but with neutral feeling instead of joyful feeling

只是把悦俱换成舍俱

sometimes you do a meritorious deed with neutral feeling

有时候你带着舍受做好事

you’re not happy but you do the meritorious deed

你并不愉悦,但是你做了好事

so in that case the type of consciousness is accompanied by indifference or neutral feeling

所以,这种情况下,就是舍受的心

so like the eight types of consciousness rooted in attachment

如同贪根的那八种心

here we have eight types of consciousness accompanied by knowledge and not accompanied by knowledge

这里我们有八种心,智相应或智不相应

so sometimes we do some meritorious deed with understanding

有时候我们带着正确的知见做好事

with understanding the law of kamma, with understanding that

认识到因果的道理

this is the good kamma this good kamma will give us pleasant results in the future

认识到善业将会带来好报

with that understanding we do meritorious deeds

带着这种知见,我们去做好事

so sometimes we do meritorious deeds without understanding

有时,我们做好事时与智不相应

that can happen when we do it lightly when we do not pay attention to the deed

当我们对所作所为不注意就会发生这种情况

now this teaches us that when we do some meritorious deeds

这教导我们,当我们做好事的时候

we must see to it that knowledge is present in us

我们要生起智慧

you do some good deeds you do some charity

你做好事,做慈善

you keep precept or you help other people and so on

你持戒,你帮助别人等等

but whatever you do you try to know or you try to understand the law of kamma when you do the meritorious deed.

不管你做什么,当你做好事时你尽量去理解业果的道理,

so that is important for us

对于我们来说,这很重要

sometimes we do meritorious deeds without thinking of it

有时候我们做好事,不假思索

say, you may just pick up a flower and offer to the buddha without understanding

例如,你可能摘一朵花供佛没有任何智慧的认知

so in that case it will be merit without knowledge

在此情况下,就是智不相应的好事

so when we understand these types of consciousness

当我们理解这些心的时候

then we can do meritorious deeds which will give us best results

我们就能让我们的好事给我们带来最好的果报

so these are the wholesome consciousness, kusala consciousness

所以,这些都是善心

and since these types of consciousness are wholesome they are bound to give good results

因为这些心是善的,所以与善果报相连

and the good results are in the form of another type of consciousness that are called resultant consciousness

善的结果就是另外形式的心是一种果报心

so the resultant consciousness of the eight wholesome consciousness are the same or identical

所以就会有八种相同的果报心

so we can with regard to resultant consciousness

对于这些果报心

we also say, with pleasure with knowledge unprompted, with pleasure with knowledge prompted and so on

我们也说:悦俱智相应无行悦俱智相应有行等等

now these eight types of consciousness

这八种心

arise as a result of the eight wholesome consciousness shown above

就是上面八种善心的果报

it is said that the sense sphere wholesome kamma can produce identical as well as non-identical results

欲界善业可以产生相同的果报心,也可以产生其他类型的心

so these eight the second group resultant consciousness,

所以第二组的八个果报心

these eight are identical results

这八个就是相同的果报

can you tell me which are the non identical results?

你们能告诉我不同的是哪些吗?

where do you find the non-identical results?

不同的在哪里可以找到

you go back to ahetuka

翻回到无因心

rootless consciousness, the second group of the rootless consciousness is the result of the wholesome kamma, right?

无因心,第二组无因心,它们是善业的果报,对不对?

so you see something good, that is the result of kusala, right?

你们看到好的东西,这就是善业的果报,对不对?

you hear something good you smell something good and so on, and

你们听到、闻到好的东西,等等

that consciousness is the result of the wholesome sense-sphere wholesome consciousness

这些心都是欲界善心的果报

so the sense-sphere wholesome consciousnesses give identical results as well as non-identical results.

所以欲界善心产生相同的果报心也产生不同的果报心

identical results are given here as eight sense-sphere resultant consciousness with roots

相同的就是这里的八个有因欲界果报心

and the non-identical result consciousness can be found among the eight rootless resultant consciousness

不同的就是八个无因果报心

and the third group sense-sphere functional consciousness with roots

第三组欲界有因唯作心

now these eight types of consciousness are called functional

这八种心被称为唯作心

again, functional means they just arise and disappear without any potential to give results or without any karmic activity.

同样,唯作意思是生起灭去不产生果报,也不造业

and these eight types of consciousness are identical with the first eight, the sense-sphere wholesome consciousness

这八种心与第一组八个欲界善心是一样的

but they arise in the mind of buddhas and arahants

但是佛陀和阿罗汉才有这些心

they are called functional consciousness

它们被称为唯作心

now when we do some act of charity or we make some donation, we get kusala we get merit

当我们做慈善,当我们捐款我们获得善业

but when arahants make the same kind of charity, what does he get?

但是当阿罗汉做同样的慈善,他得到什么?

does he get good kamma?

他也得到善业吗?

no, he is just doing the act

不会,他只是施行那个行为

his act is not called kamma

他的行为不叫“业”

because he has eradicated the roots of kamma that are ignorance and craving

因为他已经断尽了业根:无明和贪

since he has no ignorance and no craving whatever he does is just doing

因为他没有无明、贪,不管做什么,仅仅是一种行为

without any potential to give results.

没有产生果报的可能性

so when a arahant does an act of charity

所以当阿罗汉做善事

then one of the functional consciousness here the sense-sphere functional consciousness will arise in his mind

其中一个欲界唯作心就会生起

it is the same type of consciousness as the wholesome consciousness

跟善心是一样的

but the difference is that it doesn’t give any results.

区别是它不会产生任何果报

because the volition in these types of consciousness does not constitute kamma

因为这种心里面的“思”心所不会产生任何“业”

so when we add these eight wholesome eight resultant and eight functional consciousness

所以这八个善心、八个善果报心、八个唯作心一起

we get altogether 24 types of consciousness

一共就是24种心

and these 24 types of consciousness are called sense-sphere beautiful consciousness

这24种心被称为欲界美心

when we do enumerations of the cittas

当我们数这些心时

sometimes we have to use short collective names for group of consciousness

有时,我们要用集体名词称呼不同分类的心

so since these are called sense-sphere beautiful consciousness

这些被称为欲界善心

the others that we have just studied

我们学习的其他心

are called non-beautiful consciousness

就被称为“不美心”

12 unwholesome consciousness and 18 rootless consciousness are called non-beautiful 12个不善心,18个无因心一起被称为“不美心”

called means they’re called in myanmar in our country

这只是在我们缅甸这么叫

but they’re not called non-beautiful in the books

在书本里,并没有称它们为:不美心

but when we study these types of consciousness

当我们学习这些心

we need to be very familiar with the particulars of these types of consciousness

我们需要对于它们的特性很熟悉

so when we try to be familiar with these types of consciousness

当我们尽量去熟悉这些心时

sometimes we have to use short names for groups, types of consciousness

有时候我们要用简称称呼不同分类的心

so if you want refer to the 30 types of consciousness

所以如果你想称呼30种心

that are 12 unwholesome and 18 rootless consciousness

就是12个不善心和18个无因心

we will say non-beautiful consciousness

我们就称他们为:不美心

it is important that we remember

重要的是要记住

we always are able to see these types of consciousness clearly in our mind

我们时刻要在心里清楚地知道这些心

in order to mermorize them

为了记住它们

that card is very useful

那张卡很有用

so please take out that small card

请拿出那张小卡

and let us see, identify the consciousness

让我们看看,认一认这些心

types of consciousness represented by each

每个代表一种心

now altogether we have finished 54 types of consciousness

我们现在一共学了54种心

now the first 12 are akusala

首先的12种是不善心

and then the 3 columns consist of 18 rootless consciousness

接着三列是18种无因心

and then the next 3 columns consist of sense-sphere beautiful consciousness

接下来的三列是欲界美心

so we get altogether 54 types of consciousness

一共是54种心

and these 54 types of consciousness are called sense-sphere consciousness

这54种心被称为欲界心

so among the sense sphere consciousness, 30 are non beautiful and 24 are beautiful.

这些欲界心,30个为不美心

24个为美心

now I want you to find out some types consciousness

现在告诉我一些心的类型

ok, seeing a ugly object, right

好,看到一个丑陋的东西,对

seeing a beautiful object, right.

看到一个美丽的东西,对

hearing a ugly sound, hearing a beautiful sound

听到不好听的声音,听到好听的声音

and when we are angry, one of these two

当我们生气时,这两者中的一种

when we doubt about the efficacy of the dhamma

当我们怀疑佛法的功效

when our mind can not take the object clearly

当我们的心不能清晰地专注目标

whe it is just moving above the object

只是在目标上移动

the last one called restlessness

最后这个被称为掉举

then when we are attached to something and we have no wrong view

当我们贪执于某事物,没有邪见

fourth of them, right?

第四个,对不对?

you can exercise like that

你们可以这样练习

looking at this and then imagine different situations, what type of consciousness arises in your mind?

看这些,想象不同的场景各生起什么心?

and with the help of this card, you are get more and more familiar with these types of consciousness

在这张卡片的协助下,你们会对这些心越来越熟悉

so all together there are 54 types of consciousness

一起是54种心

and among them how many are unwholesome?

其中有多少不善心?

12 how many are wholesome?

多少善心

8 how many are resultant?

多少果报心

how many?

多少?

8, 7, 8 23 so 23 are resultant, how many are functional? 23种果报心,多少唯作心?

3 plus 8, 11 3加8,11种

now the wholesome and unwholesome

善心,不善心

can they produce results or not?

它们可以产生果报吗?

yes, they can produce results

是的,它们可以产生果报

then the resultant consciousness can they produce results?

果报心,它们能产生果报吗?

no, because they are themselves results they have no ability or power to produce results

不能,因为它们自身就是果报没有能力产生果报

and then functional consciousness can they produce results?

唯作心,它们能产生果报吗?

no, are they results of anything? no

不能,它们自身是果报吗?不是

so they are called indeterminate

所以,它们被称为“不定的”

that means not declared as kusala or akusala

意思是不由善与不善而定

so the functional consciousness are also called indeterminate

所以唯作心也被称为:不定

that means not declared as kusala or akusala

意思是也不是由善与不善而定的

now let us say how many are accompanied by pleasure?

看看,悦俱的有多少种?

so 30 [18] are accompanied by pleasurable feeling 18种悦俱

how many are accompanied by neutral feeling?

舍俱的有多少种?

you can pick up the blue dots, right?

你们可以数蓝色的点,对不对?

maybe 32

可能是32种

so in this way also you can make yourself familiar with these types of consciousness

这样你就能熟悉这些心

so when we study abhidhamma

当我们学习阿毗达摩时

in the beginning when we are novices

刚出家当沙弥时

we are expected to be very familiar to this

被要求对这些很熟悉

and we are expected to be able to give the answers right away

要立刻就能回答这些问题

so we have to exercise again and again so that we are asked we are able to give answers

所以我们需要不断练习当被问的时候,就能迅速作答

now you’re not taking any examinations

你们现在不是在考试

and so it’s alright if you cannot give the answer without looking at the books

所以,如果你们不看书就无法作答, 也没关系

so what i want you to be able to do is to find the answer you want in the book or in your notes

我只希望你们能够从书中或者笔记里找出答案

so if you can give the answer looking at the book it’s ok

如果你们看书能找到答案,就可以了

now we finish the types of consciousness that are called sense-sphere consciousness

我们学完了欲界的心

they are called sense-sphere consciousness, why?

它们被称为欲界心,为什么?

because they arise mainly in the realms called sense sphere

因为它们主要在欲界生起

and how many realms are there? how many planes of existence are there?

欲界一共是多少个界?

11, so they arise in the minds of human beings 11个,所以这些心生起于人类心里

they arise in the minds of animals

也生起于动物心里

and hell, hell beings, and they arise in the minds of celestial beings.

也生起于地狱众生,或者天人心里

but they arise in the minds of brahmas also

它们也在梵天人心里生起

but since they arise mainly or frequently in the minds of the beings in the sense sphere

但是它们主要或经常生起于欲界众生的心里

they are called sense-sphere consciousness, so we must understand this.

所以被称为欲界心,我们要明白这点

because they are called sense-sphere consciousness

因为它们被称为欲界心

we must not say that they arise only in sense-sphere,

我们不要说它们只生起于欲界

not in material sphere and immaterial sphere

不会生起于色界和无色界

because they arise in those spheres too

实际上它们也生起于色界、无色界

but their main area of arising is the 11 sense-sphere planes

但是它们主要生起于11欲界地

so they are called sense-sphere consciousness

所以它们被称为欲界心

and the types of these sense-sphere are altogether 54

欲界心一共有54种

so the next group of consciousness is called rūpāvacara consciousness or form sphere consciousness

另外一组心被称为色界心

or we may call it material sphere consciousness

色界心

and these form sphere or material sphere consciousnesses

色界心的种类

are 15 in number

一共是15种

and they’re divided into again wholesome

分为善心

resultant and functional

果报心、唯作心

now the first sentence you see the first jhana

你们看到的第一句就是初禅

and the second the second jhana, third jhana, fourth jhana and fifth jhana

第二句二禅,三禅,四禅,五禅

now

现在

these types of consciousness are we may call them higher states of consciousness

这些类型的心我们可以称之为比较高层次的心

they arise in those who practice meditation and who attains what are called jhanas

禅修者如果获得禅那,就会生起这些心

now a person may practice a kind of samatha meditation

一个人可能修习止禅

now there are different types of samatha meditation

止禅有很多种

and let us say a person is practicing the disk meditation

我们假设他用盘子修禅

now disk meditation means you make a disk with clay and

这种禅修就是用泥巴做一个圆盘

you put the disk in front of you and then look at it and keep your mind on the disk

将圆盘放在你面前,看着它将你的心专注在盘子上

saying, it is a earth disk, so: earth, earth, earth

因为是泥盘,你就念:泥、泥、泥

thousands of time actually memorizing that earth disk

经过成千上万次,你实际就记住了那个泥盘

and a time will come you have memorized that image

最终你就记住了它的形象

and so you can see that image without looking at it

然后你不需要盯着圆盘就可以看到它的形象

with your eyes close even you can see that image

即便是闭上眼睛,你也可以看到它的形象

then when you can see that image

当你可以看到它的形象

you go on practicing meditation on that mental image

你就通过你心里的这个形象继续禅修

and that mental image will become more and more refined

这个心里的形象会越来越精细

now the first the mental image will appear to you

首先你心里的这个形象就会向你显现

the same as the real image

跟真实的样子一模一样

that means if there are some blemishes in the disk

如果原来泥盘上有瑕疵

then they will appear in the mental image

这些瑕疵也会出现在心里

when you practice meditation on it again and again

你这样以它为对象不断禅修

then that mental image will become refined and clean and

那个心里的形象变得精细,干净

all the blemishes will disappear

所有瑕疵都会消失

it will appear to you as a polished mirror

它就像一个抛光的镜子显现在你面前

and then you practice meditation on it

你用它做对象进行禅修

and then a type of consciousness arises

然后就会生起一种心

as the results of that practice

这是禅修的结果

that type of consciousness you have not experienced before

这种心你之前没有体验过

and that type of consciousness is called jhana consciousness

这种心就被称为禅那心

and this jhana consciousness is accompanied by mental factors

这种禅那心也伴随着心所

and the important mental factors are they are given

重要的几个心所如下:

vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha, ekaggatā寻、伺、喜、乐、一境性

now will have to memorize these pali words

你要记住这些巴利词语

because english translations are long

因为英译太长了

so vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha, ekaggatā记一下:vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha, ekaggatā

these five are called factors of jhana

这五个被称为禅支

or constituents of jhana or members of jhana

就是组成禅那的要素

so the first jhana consciousness arises accompanied by these five jhana factors

初禅心的生起伴随着这五种禅支

after getting the first jhana a person wants to attain the second jhana

获得初禅后,禅修者就想获得二禅

so in order to attain the second jhana he practices meditation again

为了获得二禅,他继续禅修

this time finding fault with the first one vitakka

这时候他就发现“寻”的问题

it is like after you graduate from high school

就像你从高中毕业

you want to get a degree

你希望获得一个文凭

so after you get a BA degree you want to get a MA degree

然后你获得学士学位,你就想获得硕士学位

after you get a MA degree you want to get a Phd degree

获得硕士学位之后,你希望获得博士学位

so in the same way a person who has reaches the first jhana wants to get the second jhana

同样,获得初禅的人就会想获得二禅

so in order to get the second jhana

为了获得二禅

he has to see fault in vitakka

他要明白“寻”的弊端

now vitakka means thinking

“寻”的意思是思考

so this thinking is a little distracting

这种思考有一点干扰性

so it can distract the mind

你可以扰动你的内心

so he finds fault with vitakka and practice meditations

禅修者看到“寻”的弊端

so when he gets the second jhana

获得二禅

vitakka is missing in his jhana

他的禅那里就没有“寻”

simply because he doesn’t want vitakka

仅仅是因为他不需要“寻”

so in this way he eliminates one after another of these mental factors or jhana factors

同样,他一个个舍弃禅支

so when he gets the second jhana there are only four jhana factors with it

他获得二禅时,只有四个禅支

when he gets the third jhana there are only three jhana factors with it.

当他获得三禅时,只有三个禅支

when he gets the fourth jhana there are only two jhana factors with the jhana consciousness

当他获得四禅时,他的禅那心只有两个禅支

when he gets the fifth jhana there are only two jhana factors.

当他获得五禅时,也是两个禅支

so the first jhana factors are accompanied by vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha, ekaggatā所以初禅禅支是:寻伺喜乐一境性

second is vicāra, pīti, sukha, ekaggatā二禅是:伺喜乐一境性

third: pīti, sukha, ekaggatā三禅:喜乐一境性

fourth: sukha, ekaggatā四禅:乐一境性

and fifth with upekkhā and ekaggatā五禅:舍一境性

so these five types of consciousness are called jhana consciousness

所以这五种心被称为禅那心

now

现在

the pali word jhana

巴利语:禅那

you see the note,

你们看注释

the pali word jhāna is derived from the pali root jhe,

巴利语jhana的词根是jhe meaning to contemplate and to burn up

意思是:念虑、烧尽

does the jhanas are so called because they closely contemplate the object

因为它们密切地念虑目标

and because they burn up the adverse states or pours to concentration

还因为它们烧尽与定对抗之法

the adverse states are the five hindrances or nivāraṇas

与定对抗之境即是五盖

of sensory desire, ill-will, stoth-and-torpor, restlessness-and-worry, and doubt

五盖即:欲欲、嗔恨、昏沉与睡眠、掉举与恶作、疑

so jhana the word jhana has two meanings,

所以禅那有两个意思

one is to closely contemplate the object

第一是密切地念虑目标

and the second meaning is burning up the mental hindrances

第二个意思是:烧尽五盖

when one gets jhana, the mental hindrances are subdued

当一个人获得禅那,五盖就得到镇服

so there subduing is called burning up,

所以这种镇服被称为烧尽

so the word jhana has these two meanings

禅那这个词有这两个意思

closely observing the object

密切地观察目标

and also burning up the mental hindrances

烧尽心中诸盖

now the five factors of jhana:

禅那的五支:

vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha, ekaggatā寻伺喜乐一境性

now vitakka is translated into english as initial application of mind

寻翻成英语是:心的初次应用

initial application of mind to the object

心对目标的初次应用

and vicāra is translated as sustained application of the mind to the object

伺的翻译是:心对目标保持应用

pīti is translated as zest

喜翻译成热情

sometimes it is translated as joy

有时候被翻译成愉悦

some authors translated it as happiness

有些人翻译成幸福

and also it is translated as rapture

也被翻译成狂喜

so, which translation do we stick to?

所以,我们要用哪个翻译?

we would rather stick to the word pīti

还不如直接用巴利语

right?

对吧

so otherwise

否则

we can not be accurate

就不准确了

or people may misunderstand us

或者造成别人的误解

suppose I say joy as the meaning pīti

如果我用愉悦指“喜”

but you may understand joy to be sukha or somanasa

但是你可能会讲它理解成sukha或somanasa and so in this case we have to keep the word, pali word as it is

所以,在这种情况下,我们就要使用巴利语

and use it pīti

就用piti so pīti is a kind of joy it is a kind of pleasurable interest in objects.

所以“喜”是一种愉悦,也是一种对目标喜悦的兴趣

and then sukha, sukha is translated as happiness

“乐”被翻译成幸福

now piti and sukha are different

喜和乐是不同的

sukhu is one kind of feeling, vedanā“乐”是一种受

piti is not vedanā,

而“喜”不是受

so these two are different

所以这两者是不同的

and then the last one is ekaggatā, one pointedness of mind

最后一个是一境性

mind having only one object

心只有一个所缘

so ekaggatā is actually another name for samadhi or concentration

所以一境性实际上是三摩地或者禅定的同义词

now only when you have strong concentration do you get jhana

只有当你有强烈的禅定时,才获得禅那

so in the jhana factors ekaggatā is very important

所以在诸禅支中,一境性很重要

now vitakka these are all mental states mental factors

“寻”,这些都是心所

and so we will find them in the second chapter in the manual

我们可以在本书第二章心所里找到它们

the function of vitakka is to put the mind on the object

“寻”是将心置于目标上

without vitakka mind cannot climb onto the object it is said

没有寻,据说心不能投入目标

so vitakka is a mental factor

所以寻是这样一个心所:

that takes the mind and put the mind on the object

把心投入到目标

the function of vicāra is to keep the mind on the object

伺的作用是将心保持在目标上

now vitakka put the mind on the object, vicāra keep the mind on the object

寻将心投入到目标,伺将心保持在目标上

and pīti is just pleasurable interest or zest or joy

喜只是愉悦的兴趣或者热情或愉悦

and sukha is happiness and ekaggatā firmly fixed on the object

乐就是幸福,一境性是牢固地专注于所缘

so when these five jhana factors are strong

当这五个禅支很强烈

and they are doing their own function properly

正确地实行起功用

then a person is said to get the first jhana

这个人就获得了初禅

and after the first jhana, he may want to get the second jhana

获得初禅,他就想获得二禅

and so he practices meditation and he gets the second jhana and so on

所以他禅修,获得二禅等等

so first jhana has five factors and second jhana has four, the third jhana has three

所以初禅有五禅支,二禅四个,三禅三个

fourth jhana has two, and fifth jhana has two also

四禅和五禅都是两个

now you see the difference between the fourth and fifth jhana

你们可以看到四禅和五禅的区别

fourth jhana is accompanied by sukha and ekaggatā, happiness and one pointedness of mind

四禅的禅支是:乐、一境性

and the fifth jhana is accompanied by upekkhā and ekaggatā五禅的禅支是:舍和一境性

so when he gets these types of consciousness are called wholesome consciousness

当他获得这种心,被称为善心

wholesome jhana consciousness

善的禅那心

if a person dies with these jhanas intact

如果一个人带着完整的禅那心死亡

then he will be reborn in the world of brahmas

他就会投生为梵天

he will not be reborn in the world of human beings

他就不会投生为人

or he will not be reborn in the world of lower celestial beings called devas

也不会投生到低一级的欲界天

so he will be reborn in the world of brahmas

他会投生到梵天

when he is reborn in the world of brahmas

当他投生为梵天

his first type of consciousness in that life will be the resultant of these five jhanas

他此世的结生心就是相应五禅的果报心

suppose a person gets first jhana in this life

假设一个人在此生获得初禅

and he dies with that first jhana intact

他的死心是完整的初禅心

then he will be reborn as a brahma in the world of brahmas

他就会投生为梵天

and the first consciousness that arises there

他在那里的结生心

will be the resultant first jhana form-sphere resultant consciousness

就是色界初禅果报心

so in the same way, if the person gets the second, third, fourth and fifth jhana

同样,如果他获得二、三、四、五禅

and he dies with the jhana intact

他的死心是这些禅那心

and he will be reborn as a brahma

他就会投生为梵天

and the first type of consciousness that arises in that life will be the resultant of these jhanas

他的结生心就是这些禅那的果报心

so these five jhana consciousness produce five identical results

所以,这五个禅那心产生相同的果报心

and these five vipāka or resultant consciousness can be experienced only in the world of brahmas

这五个果报心只能在梵天心里生起

now the first five can be experienced in the human world and in the world of devas

第一组五个心可以在人间和欲界天生起

but the five vipāka consciousness can be experienced only in the brahma world.

但是五个果报心只能在梵天生起

and the third group kriyā citta, rūpāvacara kriyā citta, or form-sphere functional consciousness

第三组唯作心,或色界唯作心

can be experienced in the world of human beings in the world of devas in the world of brahmas

可以在人间、欲界天、梵天生起

they are experienced by buddhas and arahants

他们属于佛陀和阿罗汉

whenever you see the world kriyā, you remember buddhas and arahants mostly

当你看到唯作心,大多数情况就要想到佛陀和阿罗汉

so when a person becomes an arahant

所以当一个人成为阿罗汉

and then he practices samatha meditation and he gets jhana

他修止禅,获得禅那

so when he gets jhana, then his jhana consciousness is said to be functional,

当他获得禅那后,他的禅那心就是唯作心

because even though that is the jhana consciousness, it has no potential to give results

因为即便是禅那心,它也没有造业的可能

simply because he has eradicated the root of existence

仅仅因为阿罗汉已经断尽了轮回的根源

which are ignorance and craving

就是断尽了无明和贪爱

so an arahant has no more rebirth in the future,

所以阿罗汉不会再投生

so whatever he does constitute just doing and there are no results

不管他做什么,只是纯粹做不会产生业果

so the form-sphere consciousness consists of five wholesome five resultant and five functional

所以色界心包括五个善心,五个果报心,五个唯作心

and they are not difficult to remember

记起来也不难

because just first jhana, second jhana, third jhana, fourth jhana and fifth jhana

因为仅仅是初禅、二禅、三禅、四禅、五禅

now please

现在请

you have the sheet with the title factors in jhanas

你们有那张禅支的资料

now you will see the heads fivefold method fourfold method and factors

你会看到标题:五分法、四分法、禅支

now in the sutta discourses

在经藏里

four jhanas are always mentioned not five

经常提到的是四禅那,而不是五禅那

it is very rare that we find five jhanas mentioned in the discourses or in the suttas

我们很少看到经文里提到五禅那

even then not expressly with the name five jhanas

即便是五禅那这个名字,也没有明确提出

but we infer from the words used by the buddha

但是我们从佛陀的法语推导

as to mean five jhanas

得出五禅那

so almost always in the sutta pitaka we find mention of only four jhanas

所以在经藏里,我们只能找到四禅那

but in abhidhamma

但是在阿毗达摩里

jhanas are mentioned as four and also as five

提到四禅那,也提到五禅那

so we have these fivefold method of jhanas and fourfold method of jhanas

所以我们有对禅那的五分法、四分法

now in the suttas we find fourfold method of jhanas,

在经文里,我们看到禅那的四分法

and in abhidhamma we find both fivefold and fourfold

在阿毗达摩里,两种都可以看到

now why are there four jhanas and five jhanas

为什么有四禅那和五禅那两种?

it maybe confusing

可能让人困惑

why not they have the four jhanas or five jhanas only?

为什么不只有这二者中的一种?

now it depends on the ability of the yogi

其实这取决于瑜伽士的能力

now some yogis some meditators have so high standard of intelligence

有些禅修者的智力很高

or high standard of understanding

或者理解力很强

that they are able to get rid of the two jhana factors at one time

他们能够一次性舍弃两种禅支

now there are five jhana factors: vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha, ekaggatā五个禅支是:寻伺喜乐一境性

there are meditators who can get rid of vitakka and vicāra at just one time

有的禅修者可以同时舍弃寻伺

so for them there are only four jhanas, not five

对于他们而言,只有四禅那,不是五个

but for those who can get rid of the jhana factors just one by one

但是对于那些一个一个舍弃禅支的

there are five jhanas

就有五个禅那

so that is why jhanas are described four or five

所以这就是为什么有四个或五个禅那的方法

so when jhanas are described as four we call it fourfold method

所以当分为四个禅那时我们就称之为四分法

and when they are described as five we call it fivefold method

当分成五个,就称为五分法

the first jhana in fivefold method is the first jhana in fourfold method

五分法的初禅就是四分法的初禅

there is no difference here

这个没有区别

but the second jhana in fivefold method has no corresponding jhana in fourfold method

但是五分法的二禅在四分法里没有对应的

the third jhana in fivefold method corresponds to second jhana in fourfold method

五分法里的三禅对应四分法的二禅

and the fourth jhana in fivefold method correponds to third jhana in fourfold method

五分法的四禅对应于四分法的三禅

then fifth jhana in fivehold method correponds fourth jhana in fourhold method

五分法的五禅对应于四分法的四禅

so first jhana in fivehold method has five factors: vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha, ekaggatā所以五分法的初禅有五禅支寻伺喜乐一境性

second jhana, first jhana in fourhold method has the same number of factors

四分法的初禅跟五分法初禅一样的禅支

but the second jhana of fivefold method has four jhana factors

五分法的二禅有四个禅支

and the third jhana of fivehold method

五分法的三禅

and the second jhana of fourhold method

和四分法的二禅

has the same number of jhana factors they are: pīti, sukha, ekaggatā有相同禅支:喜乐一境性

fourth jhana of fivehold method and third jhana of fourfold method have two jhana factors: sukha and ekaggatā五分法的四禅和四分法的三禅有两个禅支:乐、一境性

and the fifth jhana of fivefold method and fourth jhana of fourfold method have upekkhā and ekaggatā五分法的五禅和四分法的四禅都有:舍、一境性

so

所以

if we understand the fivefold method we can easily understand the fourfold method

如果我们了解五分法也就很容易了解四分法

we skip the second jhana in fivefold method

也就是忽略五分法的二禅

and go to the third jhana as second in fourfold method and so on

直接跳到三禅,与四分法的二禅对应,以此类推

so, we should be familiar with both the fivehold method and fourfold method

所以,我们要熟悉这两种分法五分法和四分法

and these jhanas are also called attainment or samāpatti

这些禅那也被称为”等至“

now we will come to that later when we start with formless jhanas also

我们讲无色界禅那时会讲到

now these jhana factors have their opposites

这些禅那有其对抗之法

and we should understand these opposites too

我们也要了解这些对抗之法

it is said that vitakka is the opposite of thina-and-middha that is sloth-and-torpor

寻是对治昏沉睡眠的

now sloth-and-torpor are called hindrances

昏沉睡眠被称为“盖”

there are five hindrances, so sloth-and-torpor is one hindrance

盖有五种,昏沉睡眠是其中之一

so vitakka is the opposite of sloth-and-torpor,

寻对治昏沉睡眠

sloth-and-torpor simply means sleepiness

昏沉睡眠就是爱睡觉

so when you have so much thought, you can not go to sleep

当你有许多思虑,就无法入眠

sometimes you can not go to sleep because you are thinking too much

有时候,你想的太多,就无法睡眠

so that means vitakka is at work and so it drives away sloth-and-torpor or sleepiness

就是说“寻”在起作用赶走了昏沉睡眠

and vicāra is the opposite of doubt, vicikicchā or doubt

伺对治疑

now vicāra is keeping the mind on the object for some more time

伺就是让心在目标上保持更长时间

and so when mind is on the object for some long time, it is able to discard doubt of the object

当心能在目标上保持更长时间,就能够消除疑

so vicāra is said to be

所以说伺

the opposite of vicikicchā or doubt

是对治疑的

and pīti is the opposite of ill will

喜对治嗔恨

pīti is opposite of anger,

喜是愤怒的对治法

and sukha, happiness is the opposite of restlessnes and remorse

乐对治掉举与恶作

so when a person is in happiness, there is no restlessness in mind there is no remorse

所以当一个人快乐时,心里就没有掉举和恶作

now remorse means regret about some bad thing done in the past

恶作意思是对过去不好的事情后悔

and regret about some good thing that one did not do in the past

或者对过去没做的好事感到后悔

and then upekkhā is also the opposite of restlessness and remorse

舍也是对治掉举与恶作

the last one ekaggatā is the opposite of kāmacchanda or sensual desire

最后一个一境性对治欲欲

so when we know the oppoistes of these jhana factors

所以当我们知道这些禅那的对抗之境

we can do something if we want to get rid of or if we want to diminish these mental hindrances

如果我们想消除五盖,就可以有所作为

suppose we want to develop samadhi or ekaggatā假设我们想开发一境性

now the opposite of samadhi is sensual desire

它的对抗之境是欲欲

so if you want to develop samadhi then you should avoid sensual desires

所以如果你想开发禅定就要避免欲欲

if you’re indulging sensual desires at the same time you want to get samadhi

如果你沉浸于欲欲,又想获得禅定

if may not get samadhi

那是不能成功的

simply because you have not got rid of the opposite

因为你没有处理掉它的对抗之境

so understanding of these can help us

所以明白这些可以帮助我们

to get rid or to diminish these mental hindrances

对治或消除心中诸盖

the factors of jhana

禅支

are able to inhibit these mental hindrances

就可以制服这些盖

and so long as these mental hindrances are subdued, there is jhana

只要五盖被镇服,禅那就会生起

now when they arise again, jhana will disapear

如果五盖生起,禅那就会消失

so it is important that we understand the opposites of jhana factors

所以理解禅支的对抗之境很重要

here they are given as vitakka is opposite of sloth-and-torpor and so on

这里寻对治昏沉睡眠等等

because these five jhana factors are the opposites of sloth-and-torpor and so on

因为这五禅支对治昏沉睡眠等等

they alone are called jhanas

它们就被称为禅那

although there are some other mental factors that arise with jhana consciousness

所以有其他心所也随着禅那心生起

now it is not on the sheet

不过资料上没有写

we must understand three things: jhana, jhana factor, jhana consciousness

我们需要知道三件事:禅那、禅支、禅那心

jhana, jhana factors, jhana consciousness

禅那、禅支、禅那心

the name jhana is the collective name for the five factors

禅那是对于五禅支的统称

vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha, ekaggatā these are collectively called jhana

寻伺喜乐一境性一起被称为禅那

so when we say jhana we mean these five or four or three mental factors or jhana factors

当我们说禅那的时候我们指五个或四个或三个禅支

and when we say jhana factor we mean these individual factors

当我们说禅支的时候,指单独的一支

if may be just vitakka, it may be just vicāra and so on

可能指寻,也可能指伺等等

and jhana consciousness means consciousness that is accompanied by these jhana factors

禅那心指被这些禅支伴随的心

so we need to understand these three things clearly

我们需要清楚地了解这三者

jhana, jhana factors and jhana consciousness

禅那、禅支、禅那心

if wen want to be precise we should follow these division or difference

如果我们想准确,就要这样区别

but sometimes when talking not seriously, we may use a word jhana meaning jhana consciousness

但有时候,在不严谨的情况下我们可以用禅那指禅那心

but it is good to understand the terms used in abhidhamma as they are taught in abhidhamma

但是最好了解这些词在阿毗达摩里的用法

and so we must understand precisely what each term represents

我们必须准确理解每个名相的内涵

so here these three terms jhana, jhana factors and jhana consciousness, these three are different

所以,这个三词:禅那、禅支、禅那心他们是有区别的

when we say jhana we mean these five or four or three factors together

当我们说禅那的时候我们指五禅支、或者四禅支、或者三禅支

so they are called jhana

他们被称为禅那

and jhana factors means these individual members of the jhana

禅支是指禅那里的单独某一个

and jhana consciousness means consciousness associated with or accompanied by these five four three two factors

禅那心指具有这些禅支的五个、四个或者三个的心

these 15 types of consciousness are called form-sphere consciousness

这15个心被称为色界心

so five wholesome five resultant and five functional

五个善心、五个果报心、五个唯作心

and these types of consciousness arise in human beings arise in celestial beings also

这些心生起于人间,也生起于欲界天

and they arise frequently in the form-sphere realms

它们经常在色界天生起

so they are 15 form-sphere consciousness 15色界心

they are called jhana consciousness because they contemplate the object closely

它们被称为禅那心,因为他们密切地念虑所缘

and also they burn up the mental hindrances

同时也烧尽心中诸盖

ok, tomorrow we will continue our study of the types of consciousnesses

明天我们继续学习其他种类的心

so formless, [inaudible] jhana text, ok, tomorrow we will continue

明天我们继续

now we have question time, we have five minutes for questions, anybody?

现在是五分钟的问答时间,有人问吗?

student: venerable sir, just one, i think i have two questions,

学生:尊者,我想我有两个问题

the first question is that, does nimitta or bright sign have to arise before you actually continue practice to attain jhana

第一个,当你禅修真正获得禅那之前,是不是需要生起明亮的禅相?

ok that the first queston

这是第一个问题

second question is that how deep the concentration is needed that [means still??] require to reach jhana in order to do vipassana

第二个问题需要多深的禅定,来获得禅那以便进行观禅?

or is it a normal nimitta when we do vipassana?

当我们修观禅的时候,是需要一个普通的禅相吗?

sayadaw: in order to get jhana you need to get nimitta, nimitta means a sign

尊者:为了获得禅那,你需要得到禅相

let us say you practice the kasiṇa, or disk meditation

例如你修基础遍相,或者说用圆盘作为修定的目标

so when you have memorize the disk in your mind and you can see it even with your eyes closed

当你在心里默念这个圆盘你闭着眼睛都可以看到它

and that is one sign one nimitta

这是一个禅相

and when that sign becomes a mental image

当这个禅相成为你心里的一个形象

when that mental image becomes more and more refined and it is like a polished mirror

当这个心里的形象变得越来越精细,就像一面光亮的镜子

then it is call a counterpart sign, patibhāga-nimitta

它就被称为:似相

so in order to get jhana you need to get the counterpart sign

为了获得禅那,你需要获得“似相”

so the first sign is called, it is translated as learning sign

第一个相被称为:学习之相

but I don’t like that translation, the pali word is uggaha nimitta

我不喜欢这个翻译

now uggaha means it can mean learning also uggaha也可以指学习

but I think here it is not learning sign the sign which has been grasped

但是我认为不是学习之相,应该是被抓取的相

the sign which has been taken up something like that

就是被获取的相,类似的意思

so first that is uggaha nimitta the sign let us say memorized sign

所以,首先是“默念的相”

and then the second one is called patibhāga-nimitta or counterpart sign

然后是“似相”

that is polished or refined image of the kasina disk

这就是遍相圆盘的精细光亮形象

so only after getting the counterpart sign can one reach jhana

只有获得“似相”,才能获得禅那

and then practice of vipassana

然后修观禅

now a person can practice samatha meditation and gets jhana

一个人可以修止禅,获得禅那

so after getting the jhana he may take that jhana as the object of his vipassana meditation

获得禅那之后,他可以用那个禅那作为他修观禅的所缘

he may take the factors of jhana as the object of his meditation

他可以将禅支作为禅修的所缘

he will contemplate on these factors as impermanent, suffering, and non-soul

他省思这些禅支:无常、苦、无我

so a person can change to vipassana after getting jhanas

当获得禅那之后,可以去修观禅

that is one way of the practice of vipassana

这是修观禅的一个方法

first samatha meditation and then change to vipassana

先修止禅,然后修观禅

and the other method is

另外一个方法是

just practice vipassasna meditation without practice of samatha meditation

不修止禅,直接修观禅

so there are two ways of the practice of meditation taught in the text and also in the commentaries

根据经文和注释书,有这两种禅修的方法

so you can follow any path you like

你可以选择任何你喜欢的方法

you may practice samatha mediation first and then change to vipassana meditation

你可以先修止禅,再修观禅

or you may practice vipassana meditation in the outside

也可以直接修观禅

student: sayadaw just now you want us to practice about using this small card

学生:刚才你让我们作卡片练习

and you asked us there are how many citta or so called consciousness associated with joy,

你问我们有多少悦俱的心

but this card I counted there are 18,

我数了这张卡片,是18个

but just you mentioned about 30, so which are accurate?

但是你说是30个,哪个正确?

[sayadaw laughs] maybe

可能

student: because all the red one i counted it only have 18

学生:我数了所有的红点,只有18个

sayadaw: 18, ok, maybe I made a mistake

尊者:18个,好,可能我讲错了

you get only 18, yeah, ok

你只找到18个,好

student: good evening, venerable sir can you elaborate again on receiving consciousness and investigating consciousness?

学生:尊者,晚上好你能将领受心和推度心再讲讲吗?

is this subset of mind consciousness or

它们是意识的子项吗?

sayadaw: they are different types of consciousness

尊者:它们是不同的心

receiving consciousness is one type of consciousness and investigating consciousness is another type of consciousness

领受心是一种心推度心是另外一种心

as the name implies, receiving consciousness means receiving the objects

根据它的名字可知领受心就是领受目标

the object is presented to the senses

目标呈现于诸根

and then the senses experience the object

诸根体验到目标

after the experience the object is received or accepted by the mind

体验到目标之后,心就领受目标

and then after receiving it the mind investigate this object

领受之后,就推度目标

whether it is desirable or undesirable and so on

是令人愉悦还是让人难受等等

so they are two different types of consciousness

所以它们是两种不同的心

these two types of consciousness arise through five sense doors

这两种心通过五根门生起

so they are different, distinct types of consciousness

所以它们是不同的心

with different functions

有不同的作用

so receiving is one function, investigating is another function

领受是一种作用,推度是另外一种作用

but in the thought process, it does not stop there

但是在心路过程里,这并不是终点

after investigating will come determining

推度心之后,是确定心

so after determining there will come the full experience of the object

确定心之后,就是对目标完整的体验

so we study the thought process, we have to explain this

所以等我们学习心路过程时,会解释这些

so you wait until we come to the thought processes

所以你等到我们学心路过程时

no more questions, shall we call it a day, please rise

提问到此结束,请起立

disk01track07

yesterday we finish the study of form-sphere consciousness

昨天我们学习了色界心

so today we will study the formless-sphere consciousness

今天我们学习无色界心

i hope you remember the formless-sphere

我希望你们记得无色界

among the 31 planes of existence

在31生命界里

there are 4 planes, the 4 highest planes that are called formless-sphere

有4个最高的界,被称为无色界

formless means immaterial, so in that world there is no rupa no matter

无色界意思是非物质性的在那个世界没有色法

these beings are only citta and cetasikas

这些众生只是心和心所

so bodiless beings we may call them

所以我们可以称他们为无身体的众生

so only mind exists in these realms

所以这些界地只有名法

and there are types of consciousness

有些种类的心

that lead to the rebirth in these realms

会让人投生到这些界

and also the same types of consciousness that arise in arahants

这些心也会在阿罗汉心里生起

so the formless sphere consciousness is divided into three wholesome, resultant and functional

所以,无色界心被分为三种:善心、果报心、唯作心

and the wholesome consciousness of formless sphere are four

无色界的善心有四个

the first is first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

首先是第一个无色界禅那心

now the pali name of this is long and it is difficult to remember

此心的巴利名字很长,很难记

it is ākāsānañcāyatana

是空无边处心

so we may just call the first citta, first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

我们可以称它为第一心第一无色界禅那心

and then the word infinite space is remind you these types of consciousness

“空无边”这个词提醒你们这种心

has infinite space as object

的所缘是:无限的空间

or these consciousness takes the infinite space as object

或者这些心以无边的空间为目标

now in order to attain the arūpāvacara jhana or formless jhana

为了获得这种无色界禅那

a person must has already attained the five form jhanas the five rūpāvacara jhanas

一个人必已获得五个色界禅那

now after getting or attaining the fifth rūpāvacara jhana

获得色界五禅之后

he wanted to go on

他想继续

now in his case he first tries to see fault in the physical body

于是他就努力找出色身的过患

so he thinks that because people have physical bodies

他想,因为人有色身

they come to blows they come to killing each other and so on.

他们就互相争斗、杀戮

if there were no physical body there would be such suffering in the world

如果没有色身,世间就不会有这种痛苦

so he hates matter or material body and so he practices meditation with that disgust for matter.

所以,他厌恶色身,所以他带着这种对色身的厌恶禅修

now when he practices meditation to attain the formless jhana first he enters the fifth jhana

当他禅修要获得无色界禅时首先他要进入第五禅

and then getting out of that jhana he takes the object of that jhana

然后他从第五禅出来将它作为所缘

now the object of fifth jhana is the counterpart sign

现在第五禅的所缘就是似相

if he begins his practice with the earth kasiṇa the earth disk

如果他开始修的是地遍,也就是泥巴做的圆盘

then the mental image of that earth disk is the object of his fifth jhana

所以这个泥盘的在心中的形象就是第五禅的所缘

now he takes that mental image of the disk

他将这个圆盘在心中的形象

as the object of his meditation

作为禅修的所缘

and he tries to expand that object to as much as he likes

他尽量将这个所缘扩大

even to the end of the world

甚至扩大到世界的边缘

and then after expanding that mental image in his mind

然后当他已经将这个心中的形相扩大

he just stops paying attention to that image

然后他停止对这似相作意

instead he pay attention to the space touched by or occupied by that image

去注意该似相所占有的空间

so when he does not pay attention to the counterpart sign or mental image

当他不注意这个似相的时候

then that mental image disappears and only the space remains and he dwells on that space

这个似相就消失了,只剩下空间他就安住于这个空间

as space space or infinite space infinite space many times

空间,空间,空无边,空无边这样重复很多次

and when his meditation become mature and he will attain the first arūpāvacara of formless jhana

当他对这种禅修熟练之后他就获得第一个无色界禅

or a type of consciousness will arise in his mind and that type of consciousness will take that infinite space as object

就会生起一种心,这种心以无边空间作为所缘

so this is how a person practices meditation to attain the first formless jhana

这就是禅修者获得无色界第一禅的方法

now the second one is second arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

第二个无色界禅心

now after attaining the first arūpāvacara jhana he wants to go on

获得第一个无色界禅心后,想继续

so he tries to practice meditation again,

所以继续禅修

and this time he takes the first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness as the object of his meditation

此时,他将第一个无色界禅心作为他禅修的所缘

so he takes the first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

所以他缘取第一个无色界禅心

and contemplates on it as infinite consciousness, infinite consciousness, infinite consciousness and so on

专注于该心为“识无边,识无边”

that consciousness is said to be infinite because it takes the infinite space as its object

这个识之所以无边,因为它的所缘是无边的空间

so in the case of second arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

所以对于第二种无色界禅心

the object is infinite consciousness or the first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

所缘是无边之识,或者说是无色界第一个禅心

after getting the second arūpāvacara jhana consciousness he continues his meditation

获得无色界第二禅心后,继续禅修

and he reaches the third arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

就会获得第三个无色界禅心

in order to gain third arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

要想获得第三个无色界禅心

he takes the absence of first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness as object.

就要将第一个无色界禅心的“不存在”作为所缘

now when he gets the second arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

当他获得第二个无色界禅那心时

that is no first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness, it has disappeared

第一个无色界禅心就消失了

so when he practices meditation to gain the third arūpāvacara jhana

当禅修者获得第三个无色界禅心

he takes that absence of the first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness as object

他将第一个无色界禅心的不存在作为所缘

that absence is a concept it is called nothingness

这种不存在是个概念,被称为“无所有”

so nothingness of the first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

就是第一个无色界禅心的“无所有”

that nothingness or that absence he takes as the object of his meditation

这种“无所有”或“不存在”被用来作为禅修的所缘

so he may take that object as meditation and say to himself

他可以用这个所缘禅修,并对自己说:

nothing, there is nothing, there is nothing, something like that

无所有,无所有,诸如此类

and so when his meditation becomes mature

当他这样禅修,熟练后

he gains the third arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

就获得第三个无色界禅心

again he goes on practicing meditation for attaining the fourth arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

然后他继续禅修,想要获得第四个无色界禅心

when he practices meditation for the fourth arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

当他为获得第四个无色界禅心禅修

he takes the third arūpāvacara jhana consciousness as object

他将第三个无色界禅心作为所缘

so he takes third arūpāvacara jhana as object and he contemplates on it

他将第三无色界禅心作为所缘,专注于它

as it is peaceful it is sublime, it is peaceful it is sublime and so on

安宁庄严,安宁庄严,诸如此类

and when his meditation becomes mature then he reaches the fourth arūpāvacara jhana

当他的禅修熟练后就获得第四个无色界禅那

or fourth arūpāvacara jhana consciousness arises in his mind

或者说心中生起第四个无色界禅心

so in this way a yogi attains the jhanas that are called arūpāvacara

禅修者就是这样获得无色界禅那

because the attainment of these jhanas were enable him to be reborn in the arūpāvacara realms or formless-sphere realms

获得这种禅那,可以让他投生到无色界天

now the fourth is called neither perception nor non-perception

第四个就是非想非非想处

the names of these, long names in pali and also the meaning is not easy to understand

这些名字的巴利语都很长它们的意思也不是很容易理解

the first arūpāvacara jhana is called ākāsānañcāyatana

第一个无色界禅那被称为空无边处ākāsa means space

空,意思是空间ākāsānañca means infinite space

空无边,意思是无边的空间

so the object of the first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness is the infinite space

所以第一个无色界禅心的所缘就是无边的空间

infinite space means the counterpart sign of the fifth jhana consciousness

空无边,指第五禅心的似相

he takes the infinite space which is obtained by removing the counterpart sign

除去似相之后,缘取无边空间

regarding the first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

对于第一个无色界禅心

when he practices meditation and he stops giving attention to the counterpart sign

当他禅修时,不再注意似相

and then contemplating on the space occupied by the counterpart sign as infinite space

专注于似相所占据的空间:

空无边,空无边

he is said to remove the counterpart sign

这样就移除了似相

so removing the counterpart sign means just not paying attention to it

移除似相,就是不再注意它

and instead paying attention to the space occupied by that sign

去注意似相所占据的空间

so that is called removing in abhidhamma term

在阿毗达摩里称为“移除”

the commentaries explain to us that removing does not mean like rolling the carpet

注释书说“移除”不是像卷起地毯

or removing the pancake from the pan and so on

也不是像在锅里拿起煎饼等等

so here removing means just not paying attention to that object and instead paying attention to the space

这里的“移除”是说不注意似相,注意空间

and that space is called infinite space

这个空间就是“空无边”

since space has no existence of its own, it is a concept

因为空间自身并不存在,只是个概念

we call space to be void place we call space

我们称没有东西的处所为空间

and so that infinite space a concept

所以,空无边只是个概念

and the first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness takes that infinite space which is concept as object

第一个无色界禅心将无边空间这个概念作为所缘

but the second arūpāvacara jhana consciousness takes the first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness as object

第二个无色界禅心将第一个无色界禅心作为所缘

so here the object of the first and second are different

这里第一个禅心和第二个禅心的所缘是不同的

so the object of the first is infinite space

第一个的所缘是无边的空间

the object of the second is the first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

第二个的所缘是第一个无色界的禅心

and the object of the third arūpāvacara jhana is absence of the first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

第三个无色界禅心的所缘是第一个无色界禅心的“不存在”

again this is a concept

这同样是个概念

or nothingness of the first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

或者说是第一个无色界禅心的“无所有”

and the fourth arūpāvacara jhana consciousness takes the third arūpāvacara jhana consciousness as object

第四个无色界禅心将第三个无色界禅心作为所缘

now when it reaches the fourth stage it becomes so subtle

心达到第四个阶段,就变得很微细

that it is very difficult to say that there is mental activity at all

所以很难说心的活动是否存在

there is no apparent mental activity

此时心没有明显的活动

when a yogi reaches the fourth arūpāvacara jhana

当禅修者获得第四个无色界禅那

but still there is a very subtle residual of mind or mental activity

仍然有非常微细的心理活动残余

that is why this fourth jhana is called neither perception nor non-perception

所以,第四个禅那被称为:非想非非想

perception here means not just perception but also all mental activities

“想”并不是只是指“想”也指其他心理活动

so it means neither mental activity nor non-mental activity

意思是,不能说有心理活动,也不能说没有

and it is explained with the simile in the commentaries

在注释书里有一个寓言来阐释

there were a monk and a novice

一个和尚和沙弥

and there was some oil in the bowl of the monk very little oil

在和尚的钵里有一点点油

when the monk asked the novice to give him the bowl, the novice said, bhante there is oil in the bowl

当和尚让沙弥把钵拿给他沙弥说:尊者,里面有油

now the monk thought that there was much oil in the bowl, so he said that

和尚以为钵里有很多油,他说

ok, bring it to me i want to fill my oil tube

拿过来,我想给我的油筒加油

then the novice said, bhante there is no oil

随后,沙弥说:尊者,没有油

because there is not enough oil to fill the tube in the bowl

因为钵里并没有足够的油给油筒加油

so first he said there is oil in the bowl and next he said there is no oil in the bowl

开始沙弥说有油,然后又说没油

so in the same way, there is some kind of mental activity in this fourth arūpāvacara jhana

同样,在第四个无色界禅那里有某些心理活动

but it is so subtle it is almost no existent

但是很微细,几乎是不存在

so this fourth arūpāvacara jhana is called neither perception nor non-perception

所以第四无色界禅那被称为非想非非想

oh here perception is used in the sense of all mental activities not just perception

这里“想”指所有心所,并不是专指“想”

these four are called wholesome, because they are accompanied by wholesome mental factors

这四个被称为善心,因为伴随它们的心所都是善的

if a person get first arūpāvacara jhana and he dies with this first arūpāvacara jhana intact

如果一个人获得第一个无色界禅死亡的时候,这个禅那还没退失

and he will be reborn in the formless brahma world

他就会投生到无色界梵天

and the first consciousness that arises in that realm for him would be this first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

他投生到那一界的结生心就是第一个无色界禅那心

since it is the result of the wholesome arūpāvacara jhana consciousness it is called first resultant arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

因为它是无色界善心的果报所以被称为第一个无色界果报心

and if a person gets the second arūpāvacara jhana here and then he dies

如果一个人获得第二个无色界禅那,他死后

then he will be reborn in the formless brahma world

他会投生到无色界梵天

and the first consciousness he experiences in that life would be the second arūpāvacara jhana consciousness as a result

在那里的结生心就是第二个无色界果报心

if he gets third arūpāvacara jhana here

如果他在此世获得第三个无色界禅那

then he will be reborn in the formless brahma world

他就会投生到无色界梵天

and his first consciousness there will be the result of the third arūpāvacara wholesome consciousness here

他在那里的结生心就是第三个无色界果报心

and if he gets fourth arūpāvacara jhana here

如果他在此时获得第三个无色界禅那

then he will be reborn in the fourth formless brahma world

他就会投生到第四个无色界梵天

and the first consciousness will be the resultant of the fourth wholesome arūpāvacara jhana consciousness

他的结生心就是第四个无色界果报心

so corresponding to the four wholesome consciousness of formless sphere there are four resultant formless sphere

对应于四个无色界善心有四个无色界果报心

and if an arahant experiences these four arūpāvacara jhanas then they are called functional

如果一位阿罗汉获得此四个无色界禅那,那这些心就被称为唯作心

an arahant may attain any one of these jhanas or all four jhanas

阿罗汉可以获得此四个禅那之一或者全部

but for him these jhanas will not give results

但是对于阿罗汉,这些禅那不会造业

because he has eradicated ignorance and craving all together

因为阿罗汉已经断尽了无明和贪

whatever he does whatever an arahant does is just the doing, it has no karmic force, it does not give any results

无论阿罗汉做什么都是纯粹的作为,不会造业

so these same types of consciousness when they arise in the mind of an arahant,

所以,这些心,如果在阿罗汉心里生起

so they are called functional consiousness

它们被称为唯作心

so there are four functional consciousness of formless sphere corresponding to the four wholesome consciousness of formless sphere

所以对应于四个无色界善心就有四个无色界唯作心

now you may have notice that no jhana factor no factors of jhana is mentioned here

你可以注意到了,这里没有提到禅支

in the case of rūpāvacara jhanas in the case of material jhanas

在色界禅那里

you remember it’s said first jhana with vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha, ekaggatā你们记得初禅:寻伺喜乐一境性

but here no factors are mentioned instead the objects are mentioned

但是在这里没有提到禅支但是提到了所缘

the first is called the consciousness that has infinite space as object

第一个无色界心的所缘是空无边

the second is called consciousness that has infinite consciousness as object

第二个心的所缘是识无边

and the third is called consciousness that has absence of first arūpāvacara jhana consciousness as object

第三个是以第一个无色界心的“不存在”作为所缘

and the fourth is called consciousness that has the third arūpāvacara jhana consciousness as object

第四个是以第三个无色界心作为所缘

so with regard to formless-sphere consciousness the objects are mentioned, and not the jhana factors

所以,对于无色界心,提到的是所缘,而不是禅支

but a jhana must have jhana factors

但是禅那必定有禅支

because as i explained yesterday jhana means a group of the jhana factors

因为我昨天解释过,禅那指一组禅支

so how many jhana factors arise with these formless-sphere consciousness?

所以这些无色界心有多少禅支?

it is said that formless-sphere consciousness are similar to the fifth form-sphere consciousness

据说无色界心与色界第五禅的禅支类似

so you go back to fifth form-sphere consciousness and find out how many jhana factors arise with fifth jhana consciousness

所以回到色界五禅,看看有多少禅支

how many jhana factors? only two jhana factors

有多少禅支,只有两个禅支

and they are upekha and ekaggata

舍、一境性

so with regard to factors of jhana all these 12

所以这12个禅那的禅支

formless-sphere consciousnesses are accompanied by two jhana factors, they are:

无色界心有两个禅支,分别是:

upekkha or neutral feeling and ekaggata, one pointedness of mind

舍(中性感觉)、心一境性

now the difference between the form-sphere consciousness and formless-sphere consciousness

色界心和无色界心的不同是

is that in order to get the higher jhanas in form-sphere consciousness you have to

对于色界心,为了获得更高的禅那

overcome or surmount the jhana factors

你必须克服一个个的禅支

that means you have to eliminate the jhana factors

意思是你得舍弃禅支

so in order to get the second jhana you have to eliminate vitakka the first jhana factor

所以为了获得二禅你必须舍弃“寻”禅支

in order to get the third jhana you have to eliminate one more, vicara

为了获得三禅, 你需要再舍弃一个禅支:伺

and in order to get the fourth jhana you eliminate piti and so on

为了获得四禅,你要舍弃:喜诸如此类

so by eliminating the jhana factors you get the higher jhanas

所以,通过舍弃禅支,你就可以获得更高的禅那

and that eliminating is called surmounting in abhidhamma

这种舍弃,在阿毗达摩里称之为:克服

but in the formless-sphere consciousness

但对于无色界心

there are only two jhana factors every one of these 12 types of consciousness has two jhana factors

只有两个禅支,这12种心每个都只有两个禅支

and these two jhana factors can not be surmounted

这两个禅支是不能被克服的

so instead of surmounting the jhana factors here in the formless-sphere consciousness

所以,对于无色界心不是克服禅支

they are said to surmount the object

是要克服所缘

so every type of formless-sphere consciousness has two kinds of objects

所以每个无色界心都有两种所缘

objects taken and objects surmounted or objects transcended

缘取的所缘,克服的所缘

so at the bottom of the page you see those

你可以在该页的底部可以看到这些

so the object taken by first arūpāvacara jhana is infinite space

所以第一个无色界禅那的所缘是空无边

and the object it surmounts is the counterpart sign

它克服的所缘是似相

because the yogi does not pay attention to the counterpart sign and that

因为禅修者不注意似相

that means he has surmounted the counterpart sign

意思是他已经克服似相

now the second arupavacara jhana takes first arupavacara consciousness as object

第二个无色界禅那将第一个无色界心作为所缘

and it surmounts the infinite space

它克服空无边

and the third arupavacara jhana takes absence of first arupavacara jhana consciousness as object

第三个无色界心将第一个无色界心的“不存在”作为所缘

and it surmounts the first arupavacara jhana consciousness

它克服第一个无色界心

and the fourth arupavacara jhana consciousness takes

第四个无色界心的所缘是

the third arupavacara jhana consciousness as object

第三个无色界心

and it surmounts the absence of first arupavacara jhana consciousness

它要克服的是第一个无色界心的“不存在”

so there are two sets of four objects,

所以有两组所缘,每组四个

one set is the set of objects taken and the other is the set of objects that are surmounted

一组是要缘取的所缘,另一组是要克服的所缘

in order to get the arupavacara jhanas

以便获得无色界禅那

now it is said in our books those who attain arupavacara jhanas

根据佛经,获得无色界禅那的人

are those who hate matter who hate body

是厌恶色法,厌恶色身的人

and actually their view is not correct

实际上,他们的见地不正确

they think that because of this body we suffer

他们认为因为色身所以受苦

but even without the physical body there is still suffering

但是即使没有色身,也会受苦

because suffering means being oppressed by arising and disappearing

因为“苦”意即被生灭所压迫

now there is always arising and disappearing even though there is no matter and no body

即便没有色法和色身,生灭总是存在,

but these people think that

但是这些人认为

there will be happy they will experience happiness if they are without physical body

如果没有色身,就会快乐

but what about noble persons what about those who has obtained enlightenment

但是对于圣者而言,对于觉悟的人呢?

what about those who have become Sotapanna, Sakadagami, Anāgāmi, and Arahant

对于,初果、二果、三果圣人还有阿罗汉而言

they may also practice meditation to get these jhanas

他们也可能通过禅修获得这些禅那

since they are noble persons since they are already enlightened persons

因为他们已经是圣人已经是觉悟的人

they may not have that notion that

他们可能没有这样的观念

if they are without physical body there would be no suffering for them

不会觉得没有色身就不会有苦

this is not explained in the book

佛经里对此并没有解释

so i don’t know the answer to this problem

我不知道这个问题的答案

i think that

我认为

when noble persons try to get these jhana

当圣者要获得这些禅那

they try to get this jhana not for the sake of this jhana only, they have something higher than this in mind

他们并非为了禅那而修禅那他们心里有更高的目标

and that is what is called the attainment of cessation

这就是灭尽定

now attainment of cessation means attainment of cessation of mental activity altogether

灭尽定意思是所有的心理活动都消失了

in pali it is called nirodha-samāpatti

巴利语是nirodha-samāpatti and it is said that

据说

nirodha-samāpatti can be attained only by anāgāmis or non-returners and arahants

灭尽定只有三果圣者和阿罗汉才能修得

and those anāgāmis and arahants who have attained all rupavacara and arupavacara jhanas

这些三果圣人和阿罗汉获得了所有的色界无色界禅那

so when they attain this cessation then all mental activities are temporarily suspended

当他们获得灭尽定,所有的心理活动都会暂时停止

so during the attainment of cessation they maybe like statues

所以在灭尽定时,他们可能就像是雕像

they have no mental activity only the body goes on

他们没有心理活动,只有生理活动

but it is said that when they are without mental activity

据说当他们没有心理活动时

they have less suffering

苦迫就更少

so it is a kind of enjoying the peacefulness that that the non-returners or arahants get into this kind of attainment

当三果圣者和阿罗汉进入灭尽定时,好像在享受安宁

and this kind of attainment can be entered into only by those who have attained all nine jhanas

进入灭尽定的人必然已经证得了九个禅那

all five rupavacara jhanas and four arupavacara jhanas

也就是色界的五禅和无色界的四禅

i think it is for that purpose that the noble persons especially the non-returners and arahants

我觉得就是为了获得灭尽定,这些圣者,特别是三果圣者和阿罗汉

try to get the four arupavacara jhanas

就想获得四个无色界禅那

now we have studied the different types of jhana consciousness

我们已经学了不同的禅那心

form jhana and formless jhana, or material jhana and immaterial jhana

色界禅那,无色界禅那

the form jhana consciousness are 15 the formless jhana consciousness are 12

色界禅那心15个,无色界禅那心12个

and when we add these together we get 27

将这些加起来,一共是27个

and these 27 are called sublime types of consciousness in pali they are called mahaggata

这27个被称为广大心

later you will see the chart, now

稍后,你们会看表格,现在

the rupavacara jhanas, first jhana accompanied by what, what feeling?

色界禅那,初禅,伴随什么感觉?

rupavacara first jhana accompanied by joy

色界初禅伴随的是喜悦

and second jhana? same

二禅呢,同样

third jhana? same

三禅呢?同样

fourth jhana? same

四禅呢?同样

fifth jhana, by indifference or neutral feeling

五禅呢?舍受,中性感觉

then what about formless-sphere consciousness?

无色界心呢?

these formless-sphere consciousness

这些无色界心

since they resemble the fifth jhana

因为它们类似于色界五禅

they are all accompanied by neutral feeling

所以都是舍受

there is no formless-sphere consciousness that is accompanied by joy

所以无色界心没有悦俱的

if you look at the chart now rupavacara cittas 15

现在看表,15个色界心

so they are above shown in three columns

上面有三列

and the first four are colored red and the last one blue

第一列前四个是红色,最后一个是蓝色

so the first four are accompanied by joy

前四个是悦俱

the last ones are accompanied by indifference and neutral feeling

所有的最后一个都是舍俱

but all the 12 arupavacara cittas

但是所有的无色界心

or all the 12 formless sphere cittas are accompanied by neutral feeling or upekkha

所有的12个无色界心都是舍俱

and rupavacara cittas and arupavacara cittas

色界心和无色界心

are collectively called mahaggata or sublime cittas

统称为广大心

they are jhana cittas and they are higher than the kāmavacaracittas or sense-sphere consciousness

他们是禅那心,比欲界心高级

now up till now we have studied how many types of consciousness?

到目前为止,我们学习了多少心?

12 akusala consciousness 18 ahetuka or rootless consciousness 12个不善心,18个无因心

24 kamavacarasobhana or beautiful consciousness and then 24个欲界美心

rupavacara consciousness and arupavacara consciousness altogether 81

色界心,无色界心,一共是81个

now these 81 types of consciousness are called mundane in pali they are called lokiya

这81个心,被称为世间心

lokiya cittas mundane consciousness they belong to this world

世间心,属于这个世界

so there are 81 types of consciousness that belong to the world,

所以,这81个心属于这个世界

that belong to the world means that belong to the five aggregates of clinging

属于这个世界意思是属于五取蕴

now there are two more categories of consciousness

还有两类心

and these types of consciousness are called lokuttara cittas

它们被称为出世间心

lokuttara means loka means the world the world means the five aggregates of clinging, uttara means transcending loka意思是世间,五取蕴,

uttara意思是超越

so that which transcends the world of five aggregates are called lokuttara

超越五蕴之世间的,就是出世间

so there are eight lokuttara cittas and we will study these now

有8个出世间心,我们现在学习它们

and after we study all the cittas we will go back to this chart with dots

学习了所有的心,我们会回到带点的图表

find out the different types of consciousness accompanied by joy indifference and so on

找出不同的心,悦俱的,舍俱的,等等

so now we come to the lokuttara cittas

现在我们看看出世间心

so lokuttara cittas are called supramundane consciousness

出世间心被称为远离俗世的心

and there are only two categories in the supramundane consciousness,

出世间心只有两类

wholesome and resultant and no functional consciousness in this group

善心和果报心,没有唯作心

and there are four wholesome supramundane consciousness and four resultant supramundane consciousness

有四个出世间善心,四个出世间果报心

again supramundane means those that go beyond the world that are out of the world so to say

出世间,意思是超越世间,或者说在俗世之外

and they are number one first path consciousness in pali it is called sotapatti magga of the stream entrance

第一个须陀洹道心

this consciousness can be attained only by the practice of vipassana meditation

这个心只能通过修观禅获得

suppose a person practices vipassana meditation

假设一个人修观禅

and he will go through different stages of vipassana knowledge actually 10 or 12

经过不同的观智,实际上是10或12个

so he go through these stages of vipassana knowledge one by one

他通过这些观智,一个个

and when his vipassana becomes matured

当他的观禅修的很成熟时

then a type of consciousness will arise in his mind

就会生起一种心

and that type of consciousness is the one that he has never experienced before in his life

这种心他之前从未体验过

and that consciousness takes nibbana as object

这种心将涅槃作为所缘

and at the same time it eradicates some mental defilements

同时它断尽了一些心中之漏

and that type of consciousness is called path consciousness or in pali magga consciousness

这种心被称为道心

when a person reaches this stage he is called a stream entrant or sotāpanna

当禅修者达到这个阶段,就被称为入流,或者须陀洹

the state of a sotāpanna is called sotāpatti

须陀洹的状态称为须陀洹果

that means stream entering or stream reaching

意思就是入流

and the person is called sotāpanna stream entrant

这样的人被称为须陀洹,或者入流者

now here stream means the stream of the noble eightfold path

这里的“流”指八圣道之流

the noble eightfold path means the group of eight mental factors beginning with right understanding

八圣道是指一组心所,第一个是正见

i hope you all are familiar with the eight factors of the path

希望你们都能熟悉八正道的内容

these eight factors of the path that arise simultaneously with the path consciousness are called stream here or current

八正道的道支同时与道心生起,在此称为“流”

these eight factors of path are called stream

这八个道支被称为“流”

because once a person has got into this stream he is sure to reach nibbana

因为入流者必定证得涅槃

if something gets into the stream of a river or in the current of a river.

如果一个东西进入河流

and the current will carry it surely until it reaches the ocean

河流必定会带它到大海

so once a thing is the current

所以入流者

then it is sure to reach the ocean

必定抵达大海

in the same way once a person reaches the stream here the noble eightfold path

同样,一个人进入八正道之流

he is sure to get out the round of birth and death or to get out of the samsara

必定脱离生死轮回

so such a person is called a sotapanna

这样的人被称为须陀洹

and at the first stage of enlightenment

在觉悟的第一阶段

he eradicates two mental defilements, one is the wrong view the other is doubt

他断除了两个烦恼:邪见、疑

so a person who has reached the first stage of enlightenment

所以达到觉悟第一阶段的人

who has attained the first path consciousness

获得第一个道心的人

eradicates doubt and wrong view from his mind

在心里断除了疑、邪见

so that they do not arise in his mind anymore

它们不再在他心里生起

doubt means doubt about the buddha, doubt about the enlightenment of the buddha,

疑意思是对佛、佛陀觉悟的怀疑

doubt about the teachings doubt about the sangha doubt about the practice

对佛法、僧团的怀疑对修行的怀疑

dependent origination and so on so these are called doubt.

对缘起的怀疑,等等,都是疑

so a person who has reached the first stage of enlightenment

达到觉悟第一个阶段的人

we have no doubt about the buddha and so on

不会对佛陀等起怀疑

and also he is said to eradicate the wrong view, wrong view that there is a self. there is a body

他也断除了邪见,也就是我见、身见

so he is able to discard or he is able to eradicate these two mental defliments when he reaches the first stage of enlightenment

当他达到觉悟的第一阶段他能够舍弃或断除这两个烦恼

people talk about enlightenment very freely

人们非常随性地谈论觉悟

but i wonder if they really know what enlightenment is

我想他们是否真知道什么是觉悟

[inaudible] to say enlightenment enlightenment

不断说觉悟觉悟

according to the teachings of abhidhamma

根据阿毗达摩的说法

enlightenment means the arising of this path consciousness in the mind of the meditator

觉悟指禅修者心中生起道心

and the eradication of some mental defilements

并且断除某些烦恼

so if a person has kind enlightenment he must have eradicated some or all of the mental defilements

如果一个人获得某种觉悟,必定断除某些或者全部烦恼

so if a person claims to have attained any one of these stages of enlightenment

如果一个人声称达到觉悟的某个阶段

then he must have eradicated some mental defilements

他必须断除了一些烦恼

and when a person reaches the first stage of englihtenment

抵达第一个觉悟阶段的人

it is said that he will never break the five precepts

据说就不会再犯五戒

he will keep his five precepts pure

受持五戒清净

so we can judge from his sila

我们可以通过他的戒行来判断

that whether he is a real sotapanna or not

他是不是真的初果圣人

if he is still capable of breaking any one of the five precepts

如果他还犯五戒

then we can conclude that he is not yet a sotapanna

我们可以得出结论:他并不是初果圣人

so it is mentioned in the books that a sotapanna keeps the five precepts intact

所以在经论里提到:须陀洹保持五戒具足

even at the risk of his life

甚至不惜生命

he would avoid break these rules

避免毁犯五戒

even if he is reborn he is a child he would not kill any living beings

即便他投生之后是个小孩也不会杀生

even if he is given two fishes, one alive one dead he will pick up the dead one not the alive one for eating

如果给他两条鱼,一条活的,一条死的他也只会拿死鱼去吃

so a person who has become a sotapanna

所以称为须陀洹的人

is said to keep his moral precepts pure

持戒清净

and he has eradicated the two mental defilements: doubt and wrong view

他断除了心中的两种烦恼:疑和邪见

now with regard to what are called fetters he eradicates the wrong view about rites and rituals or about the practices of some creatures

这些烦恼被称为“结”他断除了关于戒禁取的邪见

now during the time of the buddha there are people who believe if they behave like animals

在佛陀时代,有些人相信如果学习动物的行为

and they will get free from mental defilements

他们就会从烦恼中解脱出来

so they would go like a dog

所以他们就像狗一样行走

sleep like a dog eat like a dog and so on

像狗那样睡觉,吃东西等等

so there were many such people during the time of buddha

所以在佛陀时代,有很多这样的人

and some believe that if he behave like cattle

有些人相信,如果他们像牲口那样

if they behaved like an ox and so on they will get from from mental defilements

如果像牛那样,就会从烦恼中解脱

and they practice or they behave in that way

他们那样修行

eating like cattle or sleeping like cattle and so on

像牲口那样吃东西、生活

so these called in pali sīlabbata

这用巴利语叫做:戒禁取

Sīla means, you can call it habit sila意思是戒律,你可以称之为习惯

so the habit or the behavior of living style of some animals

就是一些动物的生活习惯

so if a person believes

如果一个人相信

that by behaving like a dog

像狗那样生活

he can attain enlightenment by behaving like an ox

他就可以获得觉悟,像牛那样生活

he can attain enlightenment then he has these kinds of wrong view

他就可以获得觉悟,这些都是他的邪见

a sotapanna has eradicated these kinds of wrong view

须陀洹断除了这些邪见

so a sotapanna will never take those practices

所以须陀洹就不会这样去修行

to be a way to gain enlightenment to be a way to get out of these samsara

不会将这些修行作为解脱的方法

so the abandoning of the belief and rites and rituals means

所以断除戒禁取见意思是

abandoning the notion that leads practices will lead to freedom from mental defilements and freedom from suffering

舍弃以上这些观点,即认为这些行为可以导致解脱

now what about just by practicing dana

如果认为通过布施

we can attain enlightenment, if we believe in this way what will it be?

就可以获得觉悟,如果这样认为,怎样?

say we believe just by practicing dana we can attain nibbana

我们相信,只要通过布施,就可以获得涅槃

just by practicing sila we can attain nibbana

只是通过持戒,就可以获得涅槃

it maybe that kind of wrong view

这可能也是那样的邪见

because by dana alone we can not attain nibbana

因为仅仅通过布施,是无法获得涅槃的

and by sila alone we can not alone attain nibbana

仅仅通过持戒,也是不能获得涅槃的

only by practice of vipassana meditation can we attain nibbana

只有通过观禅,才能获得涅槃

so if you think that dana alone can get you to nibbana

所以,如果你觉得仅靠布施可以让你获得涅槃

then you have this kind of wrong view

你就有这样的戒禁取见

although practice of dana is encouraged in the teachings of the buddha and practice of sila also

虽然布施和持戒都是被佛陀鼓励的

there are some practices that people think are the rites and rituals

还有一些人们认为是仪式

now when you do some meritorious deeds don’t you pour water?

当你做一些善事的时候你不难道不洒净吗?

and some people said this is also sīlabbata, so you don’t do it

有些人认为,这也是戒禁取见,不能做

but i don’t think so

但是我不这样认为

if you think that this is the real way to nibbana, this may be the wrong way for you

如果你觉得这样做可以导致涅槃这样对你可能就是邪见

but if you don’t think it’s a way to nibbana, but it just a symbolism

如果你不觉得这可以导致涅槃它不过是一种形式

that you follow when you do meritorious deeds, that’s ok

如果你做善事的时候,这样去做,就没问题

and then there are some people think that chanting parittas and so on are also sīlabbata

有些人觉得唱诵护卫经也是戒禁取

but i don’t think so, i chant everyday

但是我不这样认为,我每天都唱诵

i chant everyday for the protection and for my peace of mind

我每天唱诵,为了得到护卫并且为了我的心得到安宁

i don’t take it to be the way to nibbana

我并不将它作为到达涅槃的方法

so i think it is alright to do the chanting or to listen to the chanting

我觉得唱诵经文,听这些唱诵是没有任何问题的

ok a sotapanna

好,这是须陀洹

can or does eradicate this kind of wrong view

他断除了这些邪见

now after becoming a sotapanna he may be satisfied with just that attainment and he may not practice any more

成为须陀洹后,他可能满足于现状,不再修行

if he does not practice any more and remain a sotapanna and then

如果他不再修行,保持须陀洹

he will be reborn in this samsara for how many lives?

他会投生到轮回几次?

at the maximum of seven lives so

最多投生七次

in the seventh life he will surely become an arahant

在第七世他必定成为阿罗汉

so he has only seven more lives to go that means if he does not practice more

所以他最多只有七世意思是,如果他不再修行

if he stops with the attainment of stream entry

如果他止于入流果位

but after becoming a stream entry he practices meditation again, and he reaches the second stage

如果他成为入流之后,继续修行他就可以达到第二个阶段

so in order to reach the second stage he has to practice vipassana meditation again

要达到第二个阶段,他要继续修观禅

and he will go through the different stages of vipassana knowledge

他会经过不同的观智

and when his vipassana becomes mature then a second path consciousness will arise in his mind

当他的内观成熟,就会生起第二种心

so when that second path consciousness arises in his mind, he is said to have reached the second stage of enlightenment

当生起第二种心时他就达到了觉悟的第二阶段

and he is called a once-returner

被称为一来果

that means he will come back to this human life only once

意思是他只来人间一次

and that means if he does not practice more and reaches the third stage or fourth stage

即,如果他不再修行,不再修三果,或者四果

so if he remains as a once-returner, then he will be reborn in the world of devas once time

如果他保持一来果,他会投生为天人一次

and then he will come back to this human world

然后再来人间

that means he will be reborn again in this human world

意思是他会投生到人间

and then he will attain arahantship in that life

在此世成就阿罗汉果

so once-returner he goes to by way of rebirth

所以,一来果表示投生一次

he goes to another life or another world and then comes back here and he reaches arahantship in that life

投生到其他世界,再回来一次然后就成为阿罗汉

once-returner does not eradicate mental defilements

一来果不会断除烦恼

but he attenuate it he makes weaker the remaining mental defilements

但是他会减弱剩下的烦恼

now there are mental defilements that can lead one to rebirth in four states of misery

有些烦恼会让人投生到四恶趣

rebirth in hell, rebirth in animal kingdom and so on.

投生到地狱,投生到畜生道,等等

and there are other mental defilements

还有其他烦恼

that do not lead to rebirth in these woeful states

不会导致投生到这些恶趣

but that give results during lifetime

但是会在现世产生果报

unhappy, or displeasurable results during lifetime.

不开心的,不愉悦的现世果报

now a sotapanna the first person

初果须陀洹圣人

a sotapanna eradicates doubt and wrong view but what about other defilements?

须陀洹断除了疑、邪见那么其他烦恼呢?

he eradicates the other mental defilements that can lead him to rebirth and four states of misery

他断除了能让他投生到四恶趣的烦恼

although he does not eradicates the other mental defilements all together.

虽然他没有把其他所有烦恼都断除

he eradicates the potential of these the mental defilements that can lead to rebirth in four woeful states

他断除了这些可能导致他有投生到四恶趣可能性的烦恼

now a once-returner can further weaken these mental defilements

一来果可以进一步减弱这些烦恼

now for example, a once-returner still has dosa

例如一来果圣人仍然有嗔

but his dosa may be very mild not like our dosa

但是他的嗔,很淡,不像我们的嗔

our dosa may lead us to the rebirth in four woeful states

我们的嗔可能会导致我们投生到四恶趣

but the dosa of the once-returner or even the dosa of the stream entrant will not lead him to rebirth in four woeful states.

但是一来果,甚至是入流果的嗔心都不至于让他们投生到四恶趣

there are not strong enough to lead them to rebirth in four woeful states

这些嗔的强度不足以让他们投生到四恶趣

although once-returner does not eradicate any more mental defilements

虽然一来果没有断除更多的烦恼

he makes the remaining mental defilements weaker

但是他将这些烦恼减弱了

and he has only two more rebirths

而且他只会投生两次

once-returner means he goes to another life, another rebirth and then comes back to this rebirth

一来果,他投生到其他地方然后再回来

so actually he has two more rebirths

实际上是两次投生

and if he practices again

如果他继续修行

then he will reach the third state of enlightenment

就会达到觉悟的第三阶段

or the third path consciousness will arise in him

或者说生起第三个道心

and that third path consciousness when it arises takes nibbana as object

这第三个道心以涅槃为所缘

and eradicates some more mental defilements

断除更多的烦恼

now at the third stage

在第三个阶段

he is called a non-returner, so a non-returner eradicates sensual desire

他被称为不来果,不来果圣人断除了欲贪

and ill will or anger all together

也断除了嗔恚

he has no more desire for sense objects

他没有任何感官欲望

he has no more desire to enjoy the human pleasures or or heavenly pleasures

没有享受人天之法的欲望

and also he has no anger, so he will never get angry

他也没有嗔恚,永不生气

and since fear is included in anger he would not fear anything

因为恐惧也包括在嗔里所以他不惧怕任何东西

and he is called non-returner because he will not come back by way of rebirth to this world

他被称为不来果,因为他不会再投生到这个世界

suppose a person reaches a third stage of enlightenment

如果一个人达到觉悟的第三阶段

and when he dies he will not be reborn again in this world

当他死亡后,他就不再投生到这个世界

but he will be reborn in the world of brahmas

但是他会投生到梵天

the world of brahmas called pure abodes, that means the abode of pure beings

梵天被称为净土,因为那里都是纯洁的众生

so a non-returner eradicates some more mental defilements

所以不来果断除了更多的烦恼

now what are these? sensual desire, ill will and anger.

什么烦恼:欲贪和嗔恚

now although he has eradicated sensual desire, he still has some desires left

虽然他断除了欲贪,他还剩下一些欲望

desire for rebirth in the brahma worlds he has not eradicated that desire

他没有断除投生到梵天的欲望

that is why after death he is reborn in the world of brahmas

所以他死后,投生到梵天

and if he re-practices again

如果他继续修行

and when his vipassna becomes mature then

当他的内观成熟了

he will gain the fourth stage of enlightenment or the fourth path consciousness will remain in his mind

他就获得觉悟的第四个阶段或者说生起第四个道心

and at that time he is called an arahant

他就被称为阿罗汉

now arahant means a person who is worthy to accept offerings

阿罗汉意思是应供

or an arahant is a person who has eradicated all mental defilements

或者断除了所有烦恼的人

so when a person becomes an arahant he eradicates all the remaining mental defilements

当一个人成为阿罗汉就断除了所有剩下的烦恼

so no mental defilements remain uneradicated

没有任何烦恼没有断除

an arahant is totally free from mental defilements

阿罗汉从所有烦恼中解脱

so an arahant is incapable of being attached to anything

所以阿罗汉不可能再贪执于任何东西

incapable of desire for anything, incapable of getting angry

不可能有任何欲望,不可能生气

incapable of jealousy, envy and so on

不可能再嫉妒等等

so the mind of an arahant is totally pure from mental defilements

所以阿罗汉的心从烦恼中解脱,清净无碍

and these mental defilements will not arise in his mind anymore

这些烦恼不再在他们心里生起

now buddhas also eradicates mental defilements

佛陀也断除了烦恼

buddhas are also persons who have eradicated all mental defilements

佛陀也断除了所有烦恼

what is the difference between eradication of mental defilements of arahants and the buddha

在断除烦恼上,佛陀和阿罗汉有什么区别

there is difference, it is said that when arahants eradicate mental defilements

是有区别的,对吧?所以据说当阿罗汉断除烦恼之后

they are not able to eradicate what is called habit in pali it is called vāsanā他们还不能断除习气

so that habit it is not real mental defilements

习气不是真正的烦恼

but some effects of mental defilements

只是烦恼的某些作用

so such habits sometimes they may be bad habits

所以这些习气,有时候可能是不好的习气

the arahants are not able to eradicate, only buddhas are able to do that

阿罗汉不能断除,只有佛陀才能断除

so when a person becomes a buddha, he is able to eradicate mental defilements

所以成佛后,能断除烦恼

and also the habits and all that are all that are connected to mental defilements

也能断除习气

but an arhant although he eradicates all mental defilements

但是阿罗汉,虽能断除所有烦恼

he is unable to eradicate that habit, habitual behavior or something like that.

但是不能断除习气之类的

so that is the difference of eradication of mental defilements between arhants and the buddhas

这就是在断除烦恼上阿罗汉和佛陀的不同

but both are totally free from mental defilements

但是两者皆从烦恼中解脱出来

so these are the four types of path consciousness

这就是四种道心

and these path consciousness arise at the moment of enlightenment

这些道心在觉悟的时候生起

so enlightenment means the arising of any one of these four path consciousness and then eradication of mental defilements

所以觉悟就是指生起这四种道心,并且断除烦恼

ok, we have a break

好,现在休息

disk01track08

so corresponding to the four wholesome supramundane consciousness

对应于四个出世间善心

there are four resultant supramundane consciousness

有四个出世间果报心

they’re called fruit consciousness or fruition consciousness

它们被称为果报心

in actual occurrence

在实际情况下

fruit consciousness immediately follows the path consciousness

果心是立刻出现在道心之后

so there is no time interval between the path consciousness and its corresponding fruit consciousness

在道心和它相应的果心之间没有时间间隔

immediately

是立刻发生的

after the cessation of the first path consciousness

当第一个道心灭去时

the first fruit consciousness arises

第一个果心生起

and immediately after the second path consciousness has ceased

当第二个道心灭去,随即

then the second fruit consciousness arises and so on

生起第二个果心,等等

and the names are the same as the path consciousness and so

它们的名字,跟道心一样,所以

stream entrant once-returner non-returner and arahant

入流、一来、不来、阿罗汉

the function of the wholesome supramundane consciousness is

出世间善心的作用是

to eradicate the mental defilement

断除心中的烦恼

the function of the resultant supramundane consciousness is to further tranquilize the mental defilements

出世间果报心的作用是进一步镇服烦恼

wholesome supramundane consciousness is like putting out the fire

出世间善心的作用就像是灭火

and the resultant supramundane consciousness is like pouring water onto the already extinguished fire

出世间果报心的作用是在已经熄灭的火上浇水

so that it can not burn again

使之不能复燃

so there are only wholesome supramundane consciousness

所以只有出世间善心

and resultant supramundane consciousness

和出世间果报心

now on the first day i gave you the example of akaliko, the attribute of the dhamma

在第一天,我给你们举例akaliko

法的一个特性

that if you do not understand abhidhamma you do not understand the significance of the word akalika

说明如果你不了解阿毗达摩,就不理解akalika的意义

so akalika means no time akalika意思是:没有时间

no time in giving results

产生果报不需时间间隔

that means it does not wait for five days seven days or whatever

就是说不需要等待五天或七天等等

but it gives results immediately

它立刻产生结果

immediately means immediately after it ceases

立刻意思是当它消失后,立刻

so here is the example of that

这就是例子

first path consciousness is the wholesome or result-producing consciousness

第一个道心是善心是产生果报的心

and the first fruit consciousness is the result consciousness

第一个果心,就是它的结果

so the results follow the result-producing immediately without any intervention of time between them

所以果心紧随道心之后,没有时间间隔

that is why when we say dhamma is akalika

所以说:法没有时间性

dhamma has no delay in giving results

法立刻产生结果

we mean the four path consciousness, all the four path

我们这里指四个道心

now there are ten dhammas

法有十种

ten units of dhammas

法有四个构件

four path four fruit

四个道,四个果

nibbana and the scriptures

涅槃、经教

so when we say dhamma

所以当我们提到法的时候

for example we say dhammam saranam gacchami

例如我们说:皈依法

then we take refuge in ten kinds of dhamma

我们就是皈依这十种法

four paths four fruits nibbana and scriptures

四道四果,涅槃和经教

but when we say dhamma is akaliko

当我们说:法是没有时间性的

we mean only the paths

这里的法只是指道心

not fruits not nibbana not scriptures

不是指果心、涅槃也不是指经教

so when you recite the formula svakkhato bhagavata dhammo and so on

当你念诵:法乃世尊所善说诸如此类的课诵

and when you say svakkhato it means all ten kinds of dhamma included

这里的法,就包括所有十种法

svakkhato bhagavata dhammo sanditthiko that means

法乃世尊所善说,自见……意思是

nine supramundane dhamma without the scriptures

九种出世间法,不包括经教

that means four paths four fruits and nibbana

就是四道四果、涅槃

but when we say dhamma is akaliko you mean only the paths and not the fruits and not nibbana

当你说:法没有时间性只是指道心,不是果心,也不是涅槃

and here in the supramundane types of consciousness

在这里出世间心,

there are no functional consciousness

没有唯作心

only wholesome and resultant

只有善心和果报心

but in the sense-sphere consciousness

但是在欲界心

in the form-sphere consciousness and formless-sphere consciousness

色界、无色界心里

we have three categories

我们有三种心

wholesome resultant and functional

善心、果心、唯作心

but here there is no functional supramundane consciousness

但是在出世间心里,没有唯作心

the reason is given below the resultant consciousness

理由在果报心下面有介绍

so there is no functional consciousness in supramundane consciousness

在出世间心里,没有唯作心

because path consciousness occurs only once

因为道心只生起一次

path consciousness occurs only once for a given person

道心在一个人心里只生起一次

if arises in his mental continuum only once

在他的心相续里只生起一次

it never repeats itself, it never arise in his mind again

它不会再生起,没有第二次

so because path consciousness occurs only once

因为道心只生起一次

there is no functional consciousness in supramundane consciousness

所以在出世间心里,没有唯作心

in the sense-sphere form-sphere and formless-sphere consciousness

在欲界、色界、无色界心里

you may have noticed that

你们可能注意到

the functional consciousness is actually just a repetition of the wholesome consciousness

唯作心仅仅是善心的重复

the same wholesome consciousness when it arises again in the mind of an arahant

当善心重复在阿罗汉心里生起

it is called functional consciousness

它就被称为唯作心

but here path consciousness does not arise again it arises only once

这里道心不再生起,仅仅一次

that is why there is no functional consciousness in supramundane consciousness

所以出世间心里没有唯作心

if it were to occur more than once

如果它出现多次

if the path consciousness were to arise more than once

如果道心生起不止一次

it would be possible to say that there is functional consciousness in supramundane consciousness

在出世间心里就有可能出现唯作心

because if it arises again it arises in the mind of an arahant

因为如果它再生起,出现在阿罗汉心里

it might be called functional consciousness but it does not arise

就可能被称为唯作心但是它没有生起

but path consciousness does not occur again in those who have reached any of the four stages of enlightenment

但是道心在觉悟四个阶段的修行者心里不会重复生起

because just as a lightening can destroy a tree by hitting it only once

因为闪电一次就可以将大树劈倒

so path consciousness can accomplish its function

所以道心就完成了它的功能

which is the total eradication of mental defilements just by occurring once

一次就可以将烦恼全部断除

so that there would be nothing for it to accomplish

所以它不能再做任何事情

even if it will to occur again

即使再生起一次

now path consciousness has the power to eradicate mental defilements just by arising once

道心只需要生起一次就能将烦恼断除

even if it arises again it has no function to do

即使它再生起,也没有作用可以发挥

so that is why it does not arise again

所以道心不能重复生起

it compares to a lightening destroying a tree

以闪电劈树为例

so when a tree is struck by lightening it will never live again it is totally destroyed

当一棵树被闪电击中就不会再存活,完全被摧毁了

so in the same way path consciousness when it arises like lightening it eradicates mental defilements all together

同样,道心像闪电一样生起断除所有的烦恼

so even if it were to arise again

所以即便再生起

it will have no function to do

也没有什么用

that is why it does not arise again

所以这就是道心不会重复的原因

then for living happily in this life by letting it occur again and again

为了在此世幸福生活不断幸福

there is a fruit attainment in the form of successive moments of fruit consciousness to undertake this job

就让果心完成这个任务

now after you gain jhana

当你获得禅那之后

you can enjoy the jhana by entering into it

你可以进入禅那,享受它

when you are in jhana for a long time you are relatively free from suffering

当你长久在禅那之中你相对地,就从烦恼中解脱出来

so here also why can not a person who has gain enlightenment get into that path consciousness again

所以这也是觉悟的人不能再进入道心的原因

so as to experience or enjoy the peacefulness of path consciousness

不能再经历或享受道心的静美

it is because there is fruit consciousness

就是因为有果心

to take that undertaking to do that job

来完成这个任务

so that means after becoming enlightened persons

意思是觉悟之后

when they want to enjoy the peacefulness of enlightenment

如果他想享受觉悟之安详

then they will enter into what is called phalasamāpatti fruit consciousness again and again

他就可以一次次进入果定,或称为果心

so instead of path consciousness arise again

所以道心不会再生起

fruit consciousness arises again

果心会重复生起

and that fruit consciousness can arise for many times

果心可以生起很多次

at the first arising, fruit consciousness will arise for two times or three times only

在初次生起时,果心只生起两次或三次

but when a person who has gain enlightenment

但是当一个人获得觉悟

enters into that phalasamāpatti or attainment of fruit consciousness again

再次进入果定

there the fruit consciousness can arise for billions of times

果心可以重复几十亿次

as long as he wishes

愿意生多少次都可以

one hour two hour or one day two days and so on

一个小时、一天或两天等等

so for enjoying the peacefulness of enlightenment

享受觉悟的安详

there is fruit consciousness

因为有果心

that is why path consciousness does not arise in a person

所以道心不会再生起

since path consciousness arise only once, there is no functional consciousness in the supramundane consciousness

因为道心只生起一次,所以在出世间心里没有唯作心

so there are only 8 types of supramundane consciousness

所以只有八种出世间心

four path consciousnesses and four fruition consciousnesses

四种道心四种果心

i feel more comfortable using pali words than the english

较之英语,我比较喜欢用巴利语

saying consciousnesses consciousnesses

心,心

consciousness is an uncountable word it has no plural

心这个词在英语里是不可数,没有复数形式

so if you write consciousnesses and you spell check it and then it will say you are wrong

如果你写了一个复数在电脑上作拼写检查,就会说你写错了

but when i say consciousnesses i mean consciousness is one unit

但是当我用复数的时候,是把心作为可数名词

so i think we can use consciousnesses also

我想我也可以用它的复数形式

the same with knowledge sometimes we use knowledges

同样“知识”也是这样的,有时候也用复数形式

ok so

the supramundane consciousness consists of only two categories wholesome and resultant

出世间心只包括善心和果报心

now what feeling do they arise with

伴随这些心的是什么感受

no color there?

没有颜色?

i put both colors

我涂了两种颜色

so they can be accompanied by joy or accompanied by indifference

可以是悦受,也可以是舍受

so when we count all 89 or later 121 types of consciousness especially 89 types of consciousness

当我们数这89或121种心,特别是89种心

we can say that all 8 types of the supramundane consciousness are accompanied by joy or accompanied by indifference

所有这些出世间心都是悦受、舍受

the parentheses are meant to be not parentheses actually

那些括号并不是真正的括号

i do not know how to put color half red half blue

我不知道怎么涂一半红色一半蓝色

so i use the parentheses

所以我就使用括号表示

the left parentheses should be red and right should be blue

左边的括号应该是红色,右边的蓝色

they can be either accompanied by joy or indifference

它们可以是悦俱,或者舍俱

that will become clear when we study farther how the 8 supramundane of consciousness become 40 types of consciousness

当我们学习8个出世间心怎么成为40个时,就清楚了

but before we go there i would like you to look at the sheet

在此之前,先看资料

with the name two kinds of jhanas

题目是:两种禅那

now so far

到目前为止

we have studied the jhana consciousnesses

我们学习了禅那心

and we use the word jhana in its technical sense with just one meaning that is rupavacara jhana and arupavacara jhana or form jhana and formless jhana

我们将禅那这个词专用于色界禅那、无色界禅那

but the commentaries sometimes they want to give us more information

但是注释书有时候想给我们更多的信息

and that makes us confused

让我们感到困惑

so the use of jhana can be confusing

禅那这个词的用法可能造成困惑

because commentaries said that there are two kinds of jhanas

因为注释书说有两个类型的禅那

that which examines closely the object that is one kind of jhana

一个是密切地观照所缘,这是一种

it is in pali it is called ārammaṇupanijjhāna. it’s a long name

巴利语是个很长的词

and then there is another jhana which examines closely the characteristics

还有一个是“观照相”的禅那

that means the nature dukkha and another nature of things

即:苦相等等

so there are two kinds of jhanas

所以有两种禅那

one that examines the objects closely

一个是密切地观照所缘

that mean that dwell on the object firmly and closely

意思是牢固密切地专注于所缘

and there is another kind of jhana that examines the characteristics

另外一个禅那是观照特相

the impermanence suffering and no-soul nature the characteristics closely

无常相、苦相、无我相密切地观照

so there are two kinds of jhanas

所以有这两种禅那

but the 8 attainments, that means four rupavacara jhanas arupavacara are called ārammaṇupanijjhānas

这八种禅那,即色界4种,无色界4种,称为所缘禅那

because they examine closely the object of earth kasina and so on

因为它们密切地观照所缘,如地遍等等

this is the usual jhana we understand

这是我们通常所理解的禅那

so when we say we almost always mean rupavacara or arupavacara jhana

所以当我们说禅那时,我们通常指:色界或无色界禅那

and they are called jhana because they examine closely the object of, earth kasina water kasina and so on

之所以称为禅那,是因为它们密切地观照地遍、水遍等等

but what is confusing is

但是让人困惑的是

the statement that vipassana, magga and phala are also called jhana

有人说内观、道、果也被称为禅那

they are called lakkhaṇupanijjhāna

它们被叫做:观相禅那

lakkhaṇa means characteristics, upanijjhāna means examining closely lakkhaṇa指特相,

upanijjhana意思是密切观照

so vipassana is called lakkhaṇupanijjhāna

所以内观被称为观相禅那

or in short vipassana is also called jhana

或者将内观简称为禅那

magga is also called jhana phala is also called jhana

道也被称为禅那,果也被称为禅那

so in this extension of meaning everything can be jhana

所以从广义上来说,它们都被称为禅那

the usual 8, 4 rupavacara, 4 means actually 5

通常四个色界,实际上是五个

4, or 5 rupavacara jhanas, and 4 arupavacara jhanas are jhanas

四个或五个色界禅那,四个无色界禅那,都是禅那

and also vipassana magga and phala can be called jhana

还有内观、道、果可以被称为禅那

now vipassana is called jhana because it examines closely the characteristics of impermanence and so on

内观被称为禅那,因为它密切地观照无常相等等

and magga is called jhana because the work done by vipassana comes to be accomplished through magga

道心被称为禅那,因为内观的成果通过道心得以完成

so when one reaches the magga closely examining the characteristics

当一个人获得道心,密切地观照诸相

it’s accomplished or it comes to an end

这就是成就,就是终结

so magga is also called jhana

所以道心也被称为禅那

and phala is also called jhana because it examines closely the truth of cessation that means nibbana

果心也被称为禅那因为它密切地观照寂灭的真理(涅槃) it takes nibbana as object and so it examines closely the truth of nibbana or cessation

它将涅槃作为所缘,它密切地观照涅槃或寂灭

so phala can also be called jhana

所以果心也被称为禅那

so according to this commentary

所以根据注释书的这个说法

there are many kinds of jhanas

有很多种禅那

the usual jhanas we understand, and also vipassana magga and phala jhanas

通常意义上的禅那还有内观、道、果

now some people

所以有些人

wanted to know whether there is jhana in vipassana

想知道内观里有没有禅那

to answer this question first we must ask again: what you mean by jhana?

想回答这个问题,你必须问他:你这里的禅那是什么意思?

if you mean just examining closely as jhana

如果禅那的意思是密切地观照

then vipassana is also jhana

那么内观也是禅那

magga is also jhana, phala is also jhana

道、果都是禅那

but if you mean jhana as a technical term for rupavacara jhana and arupavacara jhana

如果你将禅那专用于色界禅那、无色界禅那

then there is no jhana in vipassana

内观里就没有禅那

because

因为

the jhana as a technical term for rupavacara and arupavacara jhana

禅那专指色界和无色界中的禅那

takes the object like kasina object as object

将遍禅中的目标作为所缘

but vipassana takes the five aggregates of clinging or nama and rupa as object

但是内观是将五取蕴和名色作为所缘

and magga and phala take nibbana as object, so they’re different

道、果也将涅槃作为所缘所以它们是不同的

now

现在

in the abhidhamma itself in the commentaries

根据阿毗达摩,或者注释书

the supramundane cittas are described as jhanas also

出世间心也被称为禅那

that means they’re not real jhanas as the rupavacara and arupavacara consciousness

意思是它们不是像色界心和无色界心那样的禅那

but they resemble the rupavacara jhana and arupavacara jhana in having the same number of jhana factors

只是在禅支数量上类似于色界和无色界禅那

now you have not studied the second chapter of this book

你们还没有学习第二章

so you do not know the mental factors that arise together with a sudden given citta

所以突然提到一个心的时候你们还不知道伴随这个心的心所

now when magga consciousness, when the path consciousness arises

当道心生起时

it is said that 36 mental factors also arise

据说36个心所也会生起

among the 36

这36个心所之中

there is vitakka vicara piti and sukha as vedana and also ekaggata

有寻伺喜乐一境性

so that path consciousness

所以道心

resembles the first jhana

类似于初禅

because it has five jhana factors arising with it

因为有五个禅支伴随它生起

so in this way the path consciousness, the first path consciousness can be divided into five jhana consciousness

这样第一个道心可以分成五个禅心

not real jhanas but resembling the jhana consciousness

不是真正的禅那,只是说类似禅心

so first path consciousness is divided into

所以第一个道心分成

first jhana first path consciousness, second jhana first path consciousness, third jhana first path consciousness,

初禅、二禅、三禅之第一道心

fourth jhana first path consciousness and fifth jhana first path consciousness

四禅、五禅之第一道心

so in this way first path consciousness can be expaned into five types of consciousness

这样第一道心可以扩展为五种心

first jhana, second jhana, third jhana, fourth jhana and fifth jhana

初禅、二禅、三禅、四禅、五禅

the second path consciousness again can be divided into five

第二道心也可以分为五个

third path consciousness five, fourth path consciousness five

第三道心五个,第四道心五个

and so, when expanded

这样扩展之后

there are twenty wholesome supramundane consciousness or there are twenty path consciousness

就有20个出世间善心即20个道心

and the resultant consciousnesses are the same

果报心也是同样的

so there is first jhana first fruit consciousness

初禅第一果心

second jhana first fruit consciousness and so on

二禅第一果心等等

fifth jhana first fruit consciousness and so on

五禅第一果心等等

so there are twenty fruit consciousnesses

所以有20个果心

and when we call them jhanas

当我们称之为禅那时

we do not mean that they are real jhanas like rupavacara jhana and arupavacara jhanas

我们不是说它们像色界、无色界禅那那样

but there are like the rupavacara and arupavacara consciousness

它们之所以像色界无色界心

because they have the same number of jhana factors as those jhanas have

因为它们的禅支数量是相同的

so in this way we get 40 supramundane types of consciousness

这样我们就得到了40个出世间心

20 wholesome or 20 magga consciousnesses and 20 fruit consciousnesses 20个善心或者道心,

20个果心

the difference between the jhanas, rupavacara jhanas and arupavacara jhanas

这些禅那:色界、无色界禅那

and the supramundane jhanas is given in manual

出世间禅那的区别在概要精解里都有介绍

so it says whereas the mundane jhanas take as their objects some concepts, such as sign of kasina

书里说,世间禅那的所缘是概念例如遍禅的禅相

the supramundane jhanas take as their object nibbana

而出世间禅那的所缘是涅槃

mundane jhanas and supramundane jhanas

世间禅那和出世间禅那

mundane jhanas take kasina objects or other concepts as objects

世间禅那将遍禅目标或其他概念作为所缘

because when you practice meditation to reach jhanas

因为当你禅修获得禅那

you take the kasina objects or some other objects as objects

你将遍禅目标或者其他目标作为所缘

but supramundane jhanas: magga and phala

但是出世间禅那:道、果

supramundane jhanas take nibbana as the object

出世间禅那将涅槃作为所缘

so as to the objects they are different

所以从所缘上看,它们不同

the mundane jhanas take most concepts as objects

世间禅那大多将概念作为所缘

and supramundane jhanas take nibbana as objects

出世间禅那将涅槃作为所缘

and second whereas the mundane jhanas merely suppress the defilements

第二:世间禅那只是暂时镇服烦恼

while leaving their underlying seeds intact

所以诸烦恼还是潜伏性地存在

the supramundane jhanas of the path eradicate defilements

而出世间禅那断尽烦恼

so that they can never arise again

使烦恼不再生起

now mundane jhanas can suppress the mental defilements

世间禅那可以镇服烦恼

suppress means they can not destroy them altogether

镇服意思是它们不能彻底消除烦恼

so these mental defilements that are suppressed by the mundane jhanas

所以这些被世间禅那镇服的烦恼

may come back

可能会卷土重来

but the supramundane jhanas especially of the paths eradicate mental defilements

但是出世间禅那,特别是道心,断尽烦恼

so they can never arise again

那些烦恼就不会重生

so the eradication is absolute

所以这种断除是彻底的

and third while the mundane jhanas lead to rebirth in the fine-material world

第三:世间禅那会导致投生到色界天

and thus sustain existence in the round of rebirth.

因此延长了生死轮回

now mundane jhanas can lead you to rebirth in the brahma world

世间禅那可以导致投生到梵天

that means it sustains the existence in the round of rebirth

意思是延长了生死轮回

but the jhanas of the path cut off the fetters binding one to the circle and thus

但是出世间禅的道则斩断把人紧缚于轮回之诸结

issue in liberation from the round of birth and death

因而导向解脱生死轮回

that means supramundane jhanas can take you out of the round of birth and death or out of the samsara

意思是出世间禅那可以让你脱离生死轮回

so mundane jhanas lead to rebirth

所以说世间禅那导致轮回

supramundane jhanas lead to no rebirth

出世间禅那导致脱离轮回

and finally whereas the role of wisdom in the mundane jhanas is subordinate to that of concentration

最后,在世间禅里,慧次要于定

in the mundane jhanas concentration is more important than knowledge or understanding

对于世间禅那,定比慧更加重要

because only when you have strong concentration can you get jhana

因为只有你获得强大的定力你才能获得禅那

but in the supramundane jhanas wisdom and concentration are well balanced

但是在出世间禅那里,慧与定很好地得到了平衡

so at the moment of enlightenment at the moment of the realization of truth

所以在觉悟那一刻

both wisdom and concentration must be balanced

慧和定需要得到平衡

so any one of them must not in excess of another

任何一个都不能超过另外一个

so in the supramundane jhanas wisdom and concentration are balanced

所以,在出世间禅那里,慧和定达到平衡

concentration fixing the mind on the unconditioned element or on nibbana

定把心专注于无为界,即涅槃

and wisdom fathoming the deep significance of the four noble truths

而慧则知见四圣谛之奥义

now concentration keeps the mind on nibbana finally

最终,定让心专注于涅槃

and wisdom or understanding goes deep into the significance of four noble truths

而慧则知见四圣谛之奥义

so this is the difference between mundane jhanas and supramundane jhanas

所以,这就是世间禅那和出世间禅那的区别

it’s given in the comprehensive manual of abhidhamma on page 73

在《阿毗达摩概要精解》第73页有解释

so now we have 40 supramundane types of consciousness

我们知道了40种出世间心

now we have 81 mundane consciousness 81种世间心

81 plus 8 supramundane consciousness 81加8种出世间心

we have 89 types of consciousness

一共是89种心

but if we expand the 8 supramundane consciousness consciousness into 40

如果将8种出世间心扩充为40种

we get 121 types of consciousness

就获得了121种心

so the chart shows 121 types of consciousness

所以表格显示了121种心

if you want to see 89 types of consciousness

如果你想看89种心

then we will take the five path consciousnesses as one path consciousness

就要将五个道心看成一个

and five fruit consciousnesses as one fruit consciousness

五个果心看成一个

so in that case, the first column is sotapatti magga the first magga

这样,第一列须陀洹道心,第一个道心

and next second magga, next third magga, and next fourth magga

第二个道心,第三个道心,第四个道心

and then the second group

然后是第二组

the first column is sotapatti phala fruit consciousness

第一列是须陀洹果心

and second sakadagami third anagami and fourth arahatta phala consciousness

第二组是斯陀含,第三阿那含第四是阿罗汉果心

so when we take the five as one

当我们将五个看成一个

we get 89 types of consciousness

就是89种心

and when we take them as 20 i mean 40

如果将它们扩展成40个

we get 121 types of consciousness

就有121种心

so these 121 types of consciousness are taught in the first book of abhidhamma

所以这121种心是在第一部论书里得到讲解

called Dhammasangaṇī即《法聚论》

it is important to remember all these types of consciousness

记住所有这些心很重要

89 and 121 89种和121种

because when you come to the second chapter and so on

因为当你学第二章或之后的章节

they will be referred to again and again

这些心会被反复提到

so if you do not remember you will lost interest in the book

如果你不记得这些心,就会对这本书丧失兴趣

so please try to remember the 89 types of consciousness

所以尽量记住这89种心

with the help of the chart or the card given to you

借助给你们的表格和卡片

so let us do some exercises

现在做一些练习

now the first column

第一列

the first column is, what?

第一列,什么心?

akusala citta

不善心

unwholesome consciousness

不善心

and how many of them there?

有多少个?

12, and the first are? 12个,第一类是?

rooted in attachment

以贪为根

and then the two green ones are rooted in ill will and the last two in delusion

然后两个绿色嗔根心,最后两个痴根心

and

然后

among these 12 how many are accompanied by joy?

这12这种,悦俱心多少个?

4 how many by indifference? 6

舍俱心多少个?6个

how many by displeasure? 2

忧俱心多少?2个

very good

很好

so go to next

下一个

now the first dot, what is that?

第一个点,是什么?

eye consciousness, right?

眼识,对吧?

so, eye consciousness and then

眼识,然后

you go down, second dot

往下,第二个点

ear consciousness

耳识

third dot, nose consciousness

第三个点,鼻识

fourth dot, tongue consciousness

第四个点,舌识

and then green cross

然后绿色十字

body consciousness

身识

and then the below, receiving consciousness

然后下面,领受心

and the last one investigating consciousness

最后一个?推度心

so they are the results of what?

这些是什么心的果报?

wholesome or unwholesome?

善心还是不善心?

unwholesome, they are the results of unwholesome consciousness or unwholesome kamma

不善心,这些是不善心的果报

and when do these types of consciousness arise?

这些心什么时候生起?

when you experience some desirable or undesirable objects?

当你体验到一些愉悦的还是不愉悦的所缘?

undesirable objects

不愉悦的所缘

so when you see something ugly and so on

当你看到一些丑陋的事物等等

now let us go to the second column

现在看第二列

the first one, again eye consciousness, ear consciousness, nose tongue

首先,也是眼识,耳识,鼻识

and then red cross, body consciousness

然后是红色十字,身识

and then the blue one, receiving

然后是蓝色,领受心

and the red one, investigating

红色,推度心

and blue one, investigating, so there are two investigating consciousnesses

蓝色,推度心,有两个推度心

and these columns is the result of what?

这些列是什么的果报?

wholesome kamma

善业

so when you experience something pleasant, when you see something beautiful and so on

所以当你体验到愉悦,看到美丽的东西等

the consciousness belongs to this group arise in arises in the mind

生起的心就属于此组

and then the last column

最后一列

the last column are called functional, functional consciousness

最后一列被称为唯作心

so the one, the first is what?

第一个是什么?

five-sense-door-adverting

五门转向心

that means at that moment the mind turns to the object presented to it

意思是此时心转向于呈现给它的所缘

and the second one is mind-door-adverting

第二个是意门转向心

so when you do not use five senses but you use your mind

当你不用五根,用你的意

when you think of something when you remember something and so on

当你思虑,或者回忆某事等等

then the second one mental adverting will turn your mind to the object

第二个,意门转向就将心转向于所缘

and the last the red one

最后一个红色的

smile producing and it arises only in the mind of arahants or buddhas

生笑心,只在阿罗汉和佛陀的心里生起

and these three columns are called ahetuka cittas

这三列被称为无因心

ahetuka means rootless

无因即是无根

so they do not arise or roots do not arise with these cittas

也就是说心生起的时候没有根伴随着它

and do you remember what roots are?

你们记得有哪些根吗?

greed, hatred, delusion, non-greed, non-hatred, non-delusion

贪嗔痴、无贪无嗔无痴

so these 18 arise with none of these hetus or none of these roots

这18个心生起,没有这些根

so they are called ahetuka, or rootless consciousness

所以它们被称为无因心

12 akusala cittas and 18 ahetuka cittas together, 30 12个不善心,18个无因心一起是30个心

these 30 are called what?

这30个心被称为什么?

non-beautiful, non-beautiful consciousness

不美心

so 30 non-beautiful consciousness 30个不美心

now among the 18 ahetuka citta, how many are accompanied by joy?

这18个无因心,悦俱多少个?

only two

只有两个

the investigating and the smile producing

推度心和生笑心

how many are accompanied by indifference?

舍俱的多少个?

14 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12,and then 1, 2, 14

一共是14个

so 14 are accompanied by indifference

所以14个是舍俱的

and one is accompanied by pain

一个是苦受

and one is accompanied by pleasure

一个是乐俱

ok, the next group the three columns

好,下一组三列

they are called kamavacara sobhana

被称为欲界美心

sense-sphere beautiful consciousness

欲界美心

and the first column is what?

第一列是什么?

wholesome, kusala

善心

and second column, resultant, so they are results

第二列是果报心

and the third column, functional, they arise in buddhas and arahants only

第三列,是唯作心,只在阿罗汉和佛陀心里生起

and among them four are accompanied by joy and

其中四个是悦俱

the first column, the four are accompanied by joy

第一列,四个悦俱

and the other four are accompanied by indifference

其他四个舍俱

the same with the eight resultant consciousnesses and with functional consciousnesses

八个果报心和唯作心是相同的

so these 24 types of consciousness are called kamavacara sobhana beautiful consciousnesses

这24个心被称为欲界美心

now look at the first column of these kamavacara sobhana

这些美心的第一列

they are kusala

它们是善心

wholesome consciousness

善心

wholesome consciousnesses are result producing, right?

善心是能产生果报的,对吧?

so wholesome consciousness produces results

所以善心产生果报

and these 8 can produce identical results as well as non-identical results

这8个可以产生相同的果报也可以产生不同的果报

so which are the identical results of these eight?

哪些是与这8个相同的果报?

the middle column, eight resultant consciousnesses

中间一列,8个果报心

and which are the non-identical results of these eight, among the ahetukas?

哪些是与这8个不同的果报?无因果报心之中

because these eight are the results of the eight wholesome beautiful consciousnesses

因为这8个是8个美心的果报

but they are not identical

但是与它们不相同

so the wholesome beautiful consciousness can produce both identical and non-identical results

所以美心可以产生相同或者不同的果报心

let’s go back to akusala

回到不善心

akusala can produce results because akusala is also result-producing

不善心可以产生果报,

and which are the results of these 12 akusalas?

哪些是这12个不善心的果报

the seven of the first column of ahetuka cittas

无因心第一列的七个

so they are also non-identical results

它们也是不一样的结果

so 12 akusala cittas, 18 ahetuka cittas and 24 kamavacara sobhana cittas

所以12个不善心,18个无因心

24个欲界美心

all together make 54 cittas

一共是54个心

they are called sense-sphere citta or kamavacara citta

它们被称为欲界心

how many are accompanied by joy?

有多少是悦俱?

1, 2, 3, 4, 6 plus 12, 18 6加12,18 18 are accompanied by joy 18个是悦俱

and how many are accompanied by indifference?

多少是舍俱?

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6 again, 6 again, and 2, 20, 20 plus 12, 32

三十二个是舍俱

so 32 are accompanied by indifference

所以32个是舍俱

and 1 is accompanied by pain again and 1 is accompanied by pleasure

一个是苦受,一个是乐受

and then we go to rupavacara

我们再看色界

form-sphere consciousness

色界心

the first column

第一列

there are five jhanas, first second third fourth and fifth

五禅,初禅、二三四五禅

so first to fourth jhanas are accompanied by joy and the fifth is accompanied by indifference

一至四禅是悦俱五禅是舍俱

the same with the resultant and the same with the functional consciousness

它们的果报心和唯作心也是如此

so among the rupavacara cittas 15 rupavacara cittas

所以色界15个心中

how many are accompanied by joy? 12

多少是悦俱?12个

and how many are accompanied by indifference? 3

多少是舍俱?3个

and we go to arupavacara

再看无色界心

there is no variety

这些没有不同

so all are accompanied by indifference

都是舍俱

now

现在

we need to put one name and rupavacara and arupavacara that is mahaggata

色界心和无色界心有一个名字这就是广大心

now

现在

if you have the chart, you may write that down

如果你们有表格,就记下来

like kamavacara cittas, 54

例如欲界心,54个

you may draw a line under rupavacara cittas and arupavacara cittas, one line

你们可以在色界心和无色界心下划一横线

and then under the line you write m-a-h-a-g-g-a-t-a

然后在线下面写下mahaggata mahaggata

广大心

and then in the parenthesis, 27

打个括号,写上27个

so 15 rupavacara cittas and 12 arupavacara cittas are collectively called mahagatta citta 15个色界心和12个无色界心统称为广大心

now please remember these names because when we want to refer to these 27 as a whole we will say 27 mahaggata cittas

请记住这些名字,当我们要作为整体提到这27个心时,我们就说27广大心

so among the 27 mahaggata cittas

这27个广大心中

12 are accompanied by joy and 15 are accompanied by indifference 12个是悦俱,15个是舍俱

now kamavacara cittas 54 plus mahaggata 27 make 81 cittas

欲界心54个,加上27个广大心一共是81个心

these 81 cittas are called lokiya cittas, mundane cittas

这81个心被称为世间心

that means belonging to the world of five aggregates, five aggregates of clinging

意思是它们属于五取蕴的世界

and the next group is called lokuttara cittas, supramundane consciousness

下一组叫做出世间心

so there can be 8 or 40

它们是8个或者说40个

so let us take 40

就算是40个吧

now the first group 20 are what cittas?

第一组20个是什么心?

path, path cittas

道心

and the second group are? fruit cittas

第二组?果心

in pali the first are called magga, the second group is called phala

第一组巴利语叫magga

第二组叫phala and the first column of the first group is citta of the stream entrant

第一组第一列是入流果心

and the second column, of once-returner, third column, of non-returner, and fourth column of arahant

第二列一来果,第三列不来果,第四列阿罗汉

the same with the fruit consciousness

果报心也是同样的

and the first four of the stream entrant are accompanied by joy

第一组四个属于入流果,悦俱

and the last one accompanied by indifference

最后一组是舍俱

so out of 20 path consciousnesses

所以这20个道心

how many are accompanied by joy? 16

多少是悦俱?16个

so 16 are accompanied by joy and 4 are accompanied by indifference 16个悦俱,4个是舍俱

the same with the fruit consciousness

果心也是一样的

so when we add up 81 mundane consciousness and 40 supramundane consciousness we get 121 types of consciousness

所以我们将81种世间心和40种出世间心相加,一共是121种心

but if we take supramundane consciousness to be 8 then we have 89 types of consciousness

如果我们将出世间心算成8个那么就有89种心

so out of these 89 types of consciousness

在这89种心中

how many can arise in our minds?

我们心中能生起多少种?

not many

并不多

the first column can arise in our minds, the second column? yes, third column? yes

第一列可以在我们心中生起第二列,可以,第三列,可以

fourth column? without the last one

第四列?最后一个除外

and then kamavacara sobhana

然后是欲界美心

the first column? yes, there is possibility

第一列?是,有可能

second column, yes but no third column

第二列,可以,但第三列不行

and then rupavacara cittas, the first column

色界心,第一列

only if we get jhanas, if we do not get jhanas they are out of reach for us

只有当我们获得禅那才可以否则,我们就不能获得这些心

the same with other types of consciousness

其他类型的心也是如此

so these are the 89 or 121 types of consciousness

所以,这89或121种心

and these are the basis for the further study of abhidhamma

是继续学习阿毗达摩的基础

and these types of consciousness are given in the first book of abhidhamma along with mental factors arise with each of these cittas

《法聚论》介绍了这些心还有伴随这些心的心所

so in the second chapter, we will study the mental factors one by one

所以,在第二章,我们将一个个学习心所

and then we will study the combination of cittas and cetasikas, ok

然后我们将学习心和心所的组合

now it’s time for questions

现在是提问时间

student: venerable sir

学生:尊者

the difference between the arahant and the buddha, you said that arahant has these habits

你说阿罗汉和佛陀的区别就是阿罗汉还有习气

if they don’t get rid of these habits, they will never become buddha or they will eventually become buddhas also?

如果阿罗汉不断习气,他们最终会不会成佛?

sayadaw: according to theravada teachings, arahants will never become buddhas

尊者:根据上座部传统,阿罗汉永远不能成佛

because there are different path different ways

因为有不同的道路,不同的方法

so an arahant has reached the highest point of his way

阿罗汉用自己的方式达到最高点

and so according to theravada teachings arahant will not become a buddha

所以根据上座部传统阿罗汉不会成佛

student: thank you

学生:谢谢

any more questions?

还有问题吗?

ok, there are no more questions we will call it a day

好,没人提问,今天到此结束

please rise put the palms together

请起立合掌

disk01track09

up till now

到目前为止

we have studied the first ultimate reality which is consciousness

我们学习了第一类究竟法:心

so now we know that consciousness is divided into 89 or 121 types

我们知道心被分成89或121种

today we will study the second ultimate truth which is the mental factors

今天我们学习第二种究竟法:心所

so i hope you remember that mental factors are called cetasika in pali

希望你们记得心所的巴利语是什么

and cetasika means those that depend on the citta to arise

心所是依靠心生起的

and cetasikas or mental factors have four characteristics

心所有四相:

and there are one: arising simultaneously with citta

一、与心同生

two: perishing or disappearing simultaneously with citta

二、与心同灭

and three: having the same object as citta

三、与心缘取同一目标

and four: having the same base as citta

四、与心拥有同一依处

since mental factors accompany or associate with consciousness

因为心所是和心相伴的

consciousness and mental must take the same object

所以心和心所缘取同一目标

so it can never happen that citta takes one object and the mental factors take another object

心缘取的目标不能和心所相异

so since they arise together they take the same object

它们同时生起,缘取同一目标

and also they depend on the same base

也有同一个依处

now base means eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body and the heart

“依处”指眼耳鼻舌身、心脏

so mental factors are those that make cittas different from one another

心所使得心彼此不同

now citta by definition is the awareness of the object

心的定义就是对目标的觉知

since it is just the awareness of the object

因为它仅仅是对目标的觉知

it is neither good nor bad

所以心非好、非坏

it is neither wholesome nor unwholesome

非善、非不善

but when citta arises together with wholesome mental factors

当心与善心所一起生起时

and that citta is called an wholesome citta

就被称为善心

and when it arises with unwholesome mental factors

当心与不善的心所生起

the citta is called unwholesome citta

就被称为不善心

so cetasikas are those that differentiate citta from one another

所以心所让心彼此能够区分

and actually these cetasikas are not easy to see for ourselves

实际上对于我们而言,并不容易看清这些心所

once king milinda asked the venerable nagasena

有一次弥兰王问那先比丘

bhante, did buddha do something that is difficult

尊者,佛陀做过很难的事吗?

and the venerable nagasena said, yes great king, buddha had done very difficult thing

那先比丘说:是的,大王佛陀做过很困难的事情

and what is the difficult thing that buddha had done? the king asked

弥兰王问:佛陀做过困难的事是什么

and venerable nagasena said

那先比丘说:

the difficult thing done by the blessed one

世尊做过的困难的事情

was the proclamation of the defining of the immaterial states of consciousness and its concomitants

就是宣讲:心、心所的定义

which arise on a single object or on the same object

心所和心缘取同一个目标

thus this is contact, this is feeling, this is perception, this is volition

例如:此是触、此是受、此是想、此是思

this is consciousness and so on

此是心等等

that means cittas and cetasikas are immaterial states

意思是心和心所是非物质的状态

so the cittas and cetasikas arise together and they take the same object

所以心、心所同生缘取同一目标

so it is very difficult to separate cittas and cetasikas

所以很难将心与心所分开

and also to understand or see the different cetasikas arising at the same time with citta

理解、观察与心同生的诸心所,也很困难

and point out that this is one cetasika that is another cetasika and so on

区分不同的心所也很困难,等等

so the venerable nagasena said it is very difficult

所以那先比丘说,这是很难的事情

difficult thing the buddha had done, the king asked

虽然困难,佛陀还是宣讲了弥兰王问了这个问题

the venerable nagasena to give him a simile

那先比丘给了他一个譬喻

and the venerable nagasena gave this simile

那先比丘举了这个例子

suppose there is a man he was going in a boat in a great ocean

假设一个人坐船出海

and he would take the water from the ocean in his hand

他将海水掬在手里

and then he would taste it with his tongue

然后用舌头尝试

and he would know this the water from the river ganga

他知道这是恒河的水

this is the water from the river yamuna and so on

那是亚穆纳河的水等等

it would be possible for a man to say, to pick up the water from the ocean and to say this is the water from this river this is the water from another water and so on

在大海里分别不同河流的水对于这个人,是可能的

but it is more difficult to say or to define the immaterial states of consciousness and its concomitants

但是分辨心、心所的各种状态却是更加困难的

which arise on the same object pointing them out

例如:缘取同一个目标的,指出来

there like this is one cetasika this another cetasika this is the consciousness and so on

指出各种心所、心等等这是非常困难的

so today we are going to follow the buddha doing this difficult thing

今天我们追随佛陀,做这件困难的事情

so in abhidhamma

在阿毗达摩里

there are taught 52 mental factors

讲了52个心所

so 52 cetasikas and 52 mental factors 52个心所

so these are mental states that arise with consciousness

这些心所伴随心生起

in practice it is very difficult to differentiate them

但是在实践中,是很难区分的

because they arise together and they seem to be not so different from one another

因为它们同时生起看起来彼此没什么不同

now the cetasikas are first divided into ethically variables unwholesome, beautiful

心所首先分为:通一切心所、不善心所、美心所

broadly the cetasikas are divided into three divisions or three categories

大体上,心所分三类

so the first is in english the first is called ethically variables

第一种是:通一切心所

now it is the loose translation of the pali word aññasamāna

是对巴利语aññasamāna

不精确的翻译

now añña means other, and samāna means common añña意思是“其他的”

samāna意思是“共有的”

so aññasamāna means common to other

所以这个词意思是:与其他共有的

common to other means common to either wholesome or beautiful

与其他共有意思是:与善、美共有

these 13 ethically variable mental factors

通一切心所有13个

can arise with wholesome cittas or beautiful cittas

可以伴随善心、美心生起

so they are ethically neutral

所以它们在品德上是中性的

and when they are arising with unwholesome citta

当它们伴随不善心生起

they are said to be common to the beautiful cittas

则美心就是“其他的”,这些心所与美心“共有”

that means they can arise with beautiful citta at another time

意思是在其他时候它们也可以伴随美心生起

so these 13 called aññasamāna in pali

所以这13个被称为通一切心所

they can arise with unwholesome cittas or beautiful cittas

它们可以伴随不善心、美心生起

and these 13 are sub-divided into two divisions

这13个可以继续分两类

and the first division is called universals

第一类叫:遍一切心心所

universals means they are common to all types of consciousness

遍一切意思是一切心皆有

so they arise with all types of consciousness

所以它们伴随所有的心

there are 89 or 121 types of consciousness

心有89或121种

and these 7 will arise with every one of these 89 or 121 types of consciousness

这7个心所在89或121之中的任何心里都存在

so every arising of consciousness

只要心生起

is associated with these 7 mental factors

就必定与这7个心所相关

and the next sub-division is called occasionals

另外一类是杂心所

that means they do not arise with all 89 or 121 types of consciousness

意思是,它们并非伴随所有89或121种心

they will arise with some of them

它们伴随其中的某些

so they are called occasionals in english

所以被称为杂心所

now the universals

现在讲遍一切心心所

the first one mentioned under the head universals is contact

“遍一切心心所”标题下面第一个是:触

and in pali it is phassa

巴利语是phassa now ph in pali should be pronounced pa ph在巴利语里念p and not as f in english 不要按照英语发音f now phassa means touching phassa意思是触碰

so here contact means touching

这里“触”意思是“触碰”

and contact does not mean physical contact it is mental contact

触碰不是指身体上的触碰是指心理上的接触

suppose there is something to see and it comes into the avenue of your eye, and then there is the seeing consciousness

如果色所缘进入眼根,就生起眼识

so when there is seeing consciousness

如果有眼识

the eye and the object to be seen

眼、色所缘

then contact also arises

触也会生起

so when these three comes together, these three means

但这三者一起出现,这三者意思是

the eye, the visible object and seeing consciousness come together

眼、色所缘,眼识

then contact also arises

触也生起

so contact it is not just contact it is a mental state

所以触是一种心理状态

that connects the mind with the object

将心和目标联系起来

and this contact is as i said mental contact not physical

这里的触指心理上的触不是身体上的触

that can be contact with the mind

就是心的接触

sometimes we see something very fearful

有时候我们看到恐怖的东西

then we have fear

很害怕

sometimes we fear something in our heart

有时候我们心里害怕某事

when we see a man walking on a tight rope

例如我们看到一个人走钢丝

so such feelings actually caused by this contact

这种感觉就是“触”产生的

so this one mental factor arises when an object comes into the avenue of the senses

这个心所就是当目标出现于诸根时产生的

and there arises corresponding consciousness like seeing consciousness and hearing consciousness and so on

对应于心,就产生触例如眼识、耳识等等

and the second one is feeling

第二个是:受

now these are all mental states

这些都是心理状态

not the act of feeling, but something that feels

不是指感情,而是感受

and feeling means experience of the object

“受”意思是对目标的体验

when we come across an object we experience it

当我们遇到所缘,我们体验它

and that experience is called experiencing the taste of the object

这种体验就是体会目标的“滋味”

actually the taste and the object are the same

实际上“滋味”和目标是一样的

so experience of the object is called feeling here

对目标的体验被称为“受”

so feeling is one mental state, one mental state among the universals

所以“受”是遍一切心心所之一

and there are different kinds of feelings

有不同形式的“受”

and you will study about the feelings at the third chapter also

在第三章你们也会学到“受”

so pleasurable feeling, displeasurable feeling and neutral feeling

乐受、苦受、舍受

so whatever the feeling is, feeling means the experience of the object

不管受是哪种,都是对目标的体验

experience of the taste of the object

体验目标的“滋味”

now it is compared to a king who enjoys the taste of the food fully

它被比成一个国王完全享受食物的味道

now the cook who cooks for the king also has the taste of the food

而御厨也能尝到食物的滋味

but his taste is very small very little

但是御厨只是尝到一点点

but when he put the food in front of the king, the king enjoys the food fully

当御厨将食物放在国王面前国王就可以完全享用

so in the same way other mental states also experience the object

同样,其他心所也能体验到目标

but their experience is not as intense

但是它们的体验没有这么强烈

as the experience of these mental states which is called feeling

没有“受”这个心所这么强烈

so feeling is one mental state that experience the taste of the object

所以“受”是体验到目标“滋味”的心所

number three is called perception

第三个是:想

the pali word for perception is saññā巴利语是:saññā

so i want you to be familiar with pali word also not just english translation

我希望你们不仅要熟悉英语也要熟悉巴利语名称

because sometimes we may have to go back to the pali words

因为有时我们还是要回到巴利语

so feeling is called vedanā, and perception is in pali saññā受、想的巴利语分别vedanā、saññā

actually perception here means making a mark

实际上“想”这里指做记号

so whenever we see a object we experience an object

当我们看到一个目标我们就体验到目标

our mind makes a mark of it

我们的心就给它做一个记号

making mark is for recognizing it later

以便下次能够认出它

so when we see somebody

当我们看到某人

then our mind makes a mark of that person

我们的心给他做个记号

say, he is tall, or he is short, or he is fat or thin and so on

例如,是高是矮,是胖是瘦等等

so that when we see this person again we recognize it

当我们再次看到这个人,就能认出他

so saññā is like that

所以这就是“想”

saññā makes a mark of every object we experience

“想”对我们经历的任何目标标记

it is a mental state

“想”这个心所

and it is compared to carpenters making marks on the wood

可以比成木匠在木材上作记号

so when making something they may make mark on the wood

在制造之前,他们先在木材上作记号

so that he knows where to put the wood, when they put together make a table or build a house

这样他就知道怎么组合这些木材,制作桌子或房子

so these marks help them to recognize later

这些记号让他们以后能认出这些木材

and so they know where to put that piece of wood

这样就知道它们的位置应该在哪里

so in the same way perception makes marks of objects in our minds

同样,“想”也在心里给目标作记号

and so when we experience it later at another time we recognize it

当我们以后体验到它,就能认出它

and perception can be right or wrong

“想”可能对,也可能错

so it is very important that we have right perception of things

所以对事物有正确的“想”很重要

once we have wrong perception of things

如果我们对事物的“想”是错误的

it is very difficult to remedy it

就很难修正

it is very difficult to get rid of that wrong perception

改正那个错误的“想”很困难

now when you go to other places and when you reach the place at night

当你晚上去某地的时候

you may not know which direction you’re going

你可能不知道方向

not only may you not know, but you may have a wrong perception of the directions

不仅可能不知道方向你还可能搞错方向

although you are going north, you may think you are going south

虽然你朝北走,但你可能认为是朝南走

or although you are going west, you may think you are going east

虽然你朝西走,但你可能觉得是朝东走

that happens very often to those who travel a lot

经常旅行的人常常碰到这种事

and especially when you reach the place at night in an airplane

特别是乘飞机在晚上抵达

recently i went to Canada

最近我去了加拿大

to Montreal for a retreat

去蒙特利尔指导禅修

and they took me to a retreat place about 100 kms

他们带我去100公里外的禅修地

and i thought we are going north

我以为是朝北走

but they said no, we are going east, something like that

但是他们说不是,我们是朝东走,等等

although i later know that it is east, i cannot get rid of the notion that i’m going to the north

虽然我后来知道真是朝东走但是向北的想法仍然挥之不去

because i have a wrong saññā wrong perception of the direction

因为我有一个错误的“想“对方向有错误的认知

so it is very difficult to get rid of this

所以修正非常难

sometimes you may think that the direction you are going is east or west

有时候你可能觉得是东方或者西方

suppose you think that you are going west but in the morning you see the sun rising from the other direction

假设你觉得你是向西走,但是早晨你发现太阳从另外一个方向升起

so you know that you are wrong, but still you cannot get rid of the knowing that it is west or it is east

那你就知道你是错的,但是你还是分不清东西

so i have a friend, who never can make out what direction he was going when he was in Yangon

我有一个仰光的朋友,总是分不清方向

so he said

所以他说

he lost sense of direction so much that

他没有任何方向感

at one time, he was on the side of one road

有一次,他在路边

so on the, let us say, on the west side of the road

就先假设他在路西边吧

he had the correct perception of the directions

这时候他还是知道正确方向

but once he crossed the road and reached the other side of the road

当他穿过公路,到达另一侧

it was the opposite of what the true direction

就是之前方向的对面

so he was upset with himself

他就很沮丧

and so he said next time he cross the road slowly looking at the direction and saying: south, south, south

他说,下次他要很慢地过马路,看好方向,嘴里一直念:南方,南方

but the moment he reached the other side it was north for him and not south

但是当他到达另一边的时候,就是北方,不是南方了

so the wrong perception can persist

所以错误的“想”很顽固

and it may not be serious

这件事可能不重要

but if we have wrong perception about the dhamma

如果我们对佛法有错误的“想”

it will be very serious

那就严重了

so perception is very important

所以“想”很重要

you need to get a good perception of things you need to make correct mark on the things

你需要对事物有好的“想”对事物进行正确的标记

so that you do not misunderstand

这样就不会产生误解

so perception when we say perception we mean that mental state or that mental factor that makes marks of the objects

所以,我们提到“想”时,意思是这个心所,它对目标进行标记

so making marks

做记号

and number four is cetanā in pali and it is volition in english

第四个是:思,巴利语是cetanā

now cetanā is something that urges the concomitant to do their work or to do their function

“思”促使各相应法去行动并发挥功能

so cetanā is compared to a chief pupil in a class

所以“思”有如课堂上的班长

so the chief student does his work and also he encourages other students to do their own work

班长不但自己完成功课也鼓励其他同学完成功课

this is what we call cetanā, volition

这就是“思”

and this cetanā is an important mental factor, because what we call kamma is this cetanā这个“思”是个重要的心所因为我们称之为业的就是“思”

now buddha expressly said that monks cetanā is what i call kamma

佛陀明确地说:诸比丘,我称业为思

as a student of abhidhamma

学习阿毗达摩

you should understand this

你要理解这点

because sometimes when we ask people what is kamma

因为有时候,我们问大家:什么是业

so they may say kamma is good or bad deed, good or bad action

他们可能说:业是善恶的行为

but strictly according to abhidhamma

但是严格按照阿毗达摩

kamma is not good or bad action

业不是善恶行为

but the volition or cetanā that accompanies consciousness when we do good or bad action

而是做善恶行为时,伴随心的“思”

but that cetanā arises always in connection with good or bad deeds

但是“思”的生起总是与善恶行为相关联

so that we transfer the name to good or bad deed and we say

所以我们将善恶行为的名称让渡了

kamma is good or bad deed or good or bad action

把业等同于善恶的行为

so if we are not serious, we may say kamma is good or bad action

在不严谨的情况下我们可以说业就是善恶的行为

but if we want to be precise

如果我们要想准确

then we should say kamma is the volition or cetanā我们就应该说业是“思”

that accompanies the consciousness when we do something good or bad when we do some good action or bad action

是当我们做善事恶事时伴随心产生的心所

and this cetanā is different from other mental states

“思”与其他心所不同

now as mental states they arise and they disappear

心所生起,然后灭去

immediately after they arise they disappear

速度很快

so mental states last for only one thought moment which is shorter than a nine nine billion of a second

心所持续的时间只是一个心识刹那比90亿分之一秒还短

but cetanā is different

但是思心所不同

as a mental state it arises it disappears

思心所生起,灭去

but when it disappears it leaves the potential to give results in the mental continuum of beings

但是当它灭去的时候,它在心相续里留下造业的能力

that is why when the circumstances are favorable for it to bring out results the results are produced

所以当条件成熟时,就会产生果报

so that is why cetanā or volition is important

这就是“思”之所以重要的原因

and when we say kamma we mean this mental factor which is called cetanā我们说的业就是指“思”心所

and this cetanā urges other concomitants to do their own function

这个“思”促使其他相应法发挥功能

and at the same time it does its own function like a chief student in the class

同时履行自己的功能就像班长

and number five is one-pointedness of mind

第五:一境性

or in pali ekaggatā巴利语是ekaggatā

one-pointedness of mind really means mind having one object only

心一境性实际指心只有一个所缘

so when we practice meditation

当我们禅修时

we try to keep our mind on the meditation object

我们尽量将心放在禅修所缘上

on our breathing, or on rising and falling of the abdomen or on other objects

关注呼吸、腹部起伏或其他目标

so when mind stays on the object

当心专注于所缘

and it does not go to other objects

就不会跑到其他目标上

we say that is concentration

我们就说这是:定

so one-pointedness of mind is another name for concentration

所以心一境性就是“定”的另一个说法

and this concentration is common to all types of consciousness

这种“定”为所有种类的心共有

so whatever consciousness arises

当心生起的时候

there is a kind of concentration or one-pointedness of mind

就会有某种形式的“定”,即心一境性

although it may not be strong

虽然可能并不强烈

even if it is not strong still there is a kind of one-pointedness of mind with every type of consciousness

虽然不是很强烈心一境性仍然伴随每个心而生起

and this one-pointedness of mind or concentration

这种心一境性(定) when it becomes strong it can develop into what are called jhanas

当变得强烈时,就发展成禅那

and number six is life faculty

第六:名命根

or in pali jīvitindriya the faculty of life

名命根的巴利语是:jīvitindriya faculty of life means making the concomitants alive supports the concomitants

名命根意思是维持相应名法之命

and life faculty is the life or mental life faculty

这里的命,指:名法之命

now among the 28 material properties there is another life faculty and that is material life faculty 28色法里面有一个命根色那是色法

so this is mental life faculty

但是这个名法命根

and it keeps other mental concomitants alive

它维持相应名法的存在

it is because of this that other mental concomitants stay alive

因为有这个心所,其他心所得以存在

and it is asked if it keeps other mental concomitants alive

有人就问:如果这个心所维持其他心所存在?

what keeps it alive?

是什么维持它自己存在?

the answer is it keeps itself alive

答案是,它自己维持自己的存在

at the same time it keeps others also alive

同时它维持其他心所存在

and the simile is given here to understand this, a boatman

为了理解,这里举了一个船夫的例子

so a boatman will take other people to the other shore

船夫渡人过河

when taking the other people to the other shore he takes himself also to the other shore

当船夫渡人过河时他自己也过了河

so in the same way the life faculty keeps itself alive and also keeps other mental concomitants alive

同样,名命根,维持自身也维持其他心所的存在

that is also one mental factor or mental state

这也是一个心所

and number seven is called manasikāra in pali

第七个:作意

and it is translated as attention

作意

now manasikāra means doing in the mind

这个词意思是:心里的作为

it is paying attention to the object

将注意力投向所缘

so whenever an object comes into the avenue of the senses

当目标出现于诸根门

then we pay attention to the mind

我们就作意

that means we direct the mind to the object

意思是我们将心转向目标

so this is the direction to the object and

这种对目标的导向

it is compared to the rudder of a ship

比喻成船里的舵手

so when there is a rudder of a ship then the ship goes to the destination straight forwardly

当船里有一个舵手船就能直接向着目标航行

so attention is like that

作意就是这样

directing the mind to the object

将心导向目标

that is why when we have no attention

所以如果我们不作意

we are not aware of the object

就不会觉知到目标

even though the big object may pass in front of our eyes

即便是很大的目标经过眼前

if we do not pay attention and we will not see it

如果不作意,我们就看不到

so attention is also important mental factor

所以作意也是个重要的心所

and it is one of the universal mental factors

也是遍一切心心所之一

so that every mental activity has some kind of attention with it

所以每个心的活动都有某种程度的“作意”

so these seven are called universals

这七个被称为遍一切心心所

or in pali sabbacittasādhārana, common to all cittas

意思是:与所有心共有

and they arise with every one of the 89 or 121 types of consciousness

这些心所与89或121个心的任何一个相伴随

now we come to the occasionals

现在讲杂心所

so these six do not arise with every type of consciousness

这六个不是伴随每一种心

they will arise with some types of consciousness only

只是伴随其中某些心

for example, the first one, vitakka in pali, initial application in english

例如,第一个,“寻”

will arise with 55 types of consciousnesses

伴随55种心

now the first one vitakka is translated as initial application

“寻”翻译成英语是:第一个应用

that means initial application of the mind to the object

意思是第一次将心应用到目标

the pali word vitakka means simply thinking vitakka这个词意思就是:想

but here thinking means actually putting the mind on the object

这里的“想”实际上就是将心投向目标

it takes the mind and it puts the mind onto the object, that is the function of the initial application or function of vitakka

将心导向目标,这就是“寻”的作用

so because there is this vitakka our mind reaches the object or our mind is put on the object

因为有这个“寻”我们的心就能抵达目标

it is compared to a man who is taken to the king by another man

被比喻成一个人被另外一个人带到国王那里

suppose there is a man who comes from the districts he has not been to this city

假设有一个人从乡下来从未来过这个城市

i think it is different here

我想这里情况有所不同

Singapore is a city country ok

新加坡是个城市国家

suppose a person has not been here before

假设一个人从未来过这里

so he doesn’t know how to reach the common place

他不知道怎么去某个地方

then his friend who is the native of this place

他的朋友是本地人

takes him to that place

将他带到那个地方

and so he reaches that place

所以他就去了那个地方

so in the same way the initial application takes the mind to the object, puts the mind onto the object

所以同样地,“寻”将心导向目标

that is the function of the initial application of vitakka

这就是寻心所的功能

although vitakka means literally thinking, it is not deliberate thinking

虽然vitakka字面意思是思考但是它不是有意的思考

its function is to put the mind on the object

它的作用就是将心导向目标

but there are some types of consciousness that are not accompanied by initial application

但是有些心并没有“寻”的伴随

as i just said, initial application arises with only 55 cittas

我刚说过,“寻”伴随55个心

so there are other cittas

所以还有其他心

how do the objects without initial application to put them onto the objects

如果没有“寻”这些心怎么被导向目标

for example seeing consciousness does not need vitakka, or vitatkka does not arise with seeing consciousness

例如,眼识不需要“寻”也就是“寻”不伴随眼识

there are the object and the senses come

目标和诸根出现

the impact is great so that the consciousness does not need vitakka for it to go to the object or to be on the object

作用很强烈,所以心不需要“寻”来导向目标

and also there are jhana consciousnesses that are not accompanied by initial application

同样有些禅心也不需要“寻”

and they can be onto the object by experience

它们可以通过经验专注目标

the consciousnesses have experience in going to the object when there is initial application with it

通过“寻“的导向之后心就有投向目标的经验

and so by experience of that even though there is no initial application the jhana consciousness can reach the object

有了这样的经验,即便后来没有“寻”禅心也可以抵达目标

but for other types of consciousness initial application is necessary for these types of consciousness to be on the object

但是对有些心来说,要投向目标,“寻”是必要的

and the second one is called sustained application and in pali it is vicāra

第二个是:伺

sustained application of mind on the object

将心维持在目标上

first the initial application put the mind on the object

寻将心投向目标

and sustained application keeps the mind on the objected, engaged

伺将心维持在目标上

so these two are different

这两个是不同的

the first one takes the mind and put it on the object

第一个将心投向目标

and the second one keeps it there

第二个将心维持在那里

there are many similes to explain the difference between the vitakka and vicara

有很多比喻解释寻、伺的区别

actually you met vitakka and vicara yesterday, or the day before yesterday

实际上,昨天还是前天,我们碰到过寻、伺

when we studied the jhana cittas

就是学习禅那的时候

now the first jhana is accompanied by five jhana factors

初禅有五个禅支

among them there are vitakka and vicara, right

里面就有寻、伺,对吧

it is explained that vitakka is the first impact of mind

根据解释,寻是心的第一个作用

in the sense that it is gross, and it runs in front of vitakka, it foreruns vitakka

开始心是粗的,是寻的先驱

it is like a striking of a bell

就像敲钟

so when you strike a bell there is a sound

敲钟的时候,就有声音

so that striking of the bell is like vitakka

所以敲钟就像是“寻”

and vicara is subtle more subtle than vitakka

而“伺”比“寻”更细微

and it keeps the mind anchored to the object

让心固定在目标上

and it is explained as similar to the sound of the bell after its first strike

钟敲响之后,发出的声音就被比喻成“伺”

so you strike a bell, then there is a first sound there is vitakka

当你敲钟,第一声就是“寻”

and then the how do you call that

然后,那个,怎么说呢

the sound follows so that following sound is compared to vicara

随后的声音,就被比喻成“伺”

and also they are compared to a bird

它们也被比喻成鸟

spreading out its wings when it is about to soar into the air

要飞向天空时,鸟展开翅膀

so that is vitakka is compared to that

这个就被比喻成“寻”

and the

然后

vicara is compared to that bird when it reaches a certain altitude it will spread out its wings and soar into air

“伺”就是当鸟达到一定的高度展开翅膀翱翔于天空

so we may say that taking off of the airplanes and then reaching the cruise altitude

还可以说飞机起飞,达到巡航高度

so the airplane soar into the air with force is like vitakka

在动力带动下飞机起飞,这是“寻”

and then when it reaches the cruising altitude it flies smoothly so that is like vicara

达到巡航高度,顺利航行这就像是“伺”

and it is also compared to a bee

也可以比喻成蜜蜂

diving toward the flower or lotus vitakka is like that

奔向花朵或者荷花,这就是”寻“,

and vicara is like the bee buzzing above the flower

而”伺“就是在花丛嗡嗡飞舞

and also vitakka is compared to the hand

寻也被比喻成一只手

which firmly grips the tarnished metal dish

牢牢地抓取一只脏铁盆

and vicara is like the other hand that rubs with powder or oil or with the woolen pad to clean it

伺就像另外一只手,用洗涤剂和擦布来清洗它

so vitakka is the gripping hand vicara is the rubbing hand, something like that

寻是握盆的手,伺是擦洗的手差不多就是这样

or again

还有

vitakka is compared to the supporting hand of a potter when he spins its wheel with the stroke on the stick

寻被比喻成陶匠固定陶器的手另外一只手转动轮盘

now when they make pot they use a wheel they turn the wheel

当制作陶器的时候,他用轮盘,转动轮盘

so the supporting hand of the potter is like the vitakka

陶匠固定陶器的手就像是寻

and vicara is like the hand that moves back and forth

伺就是另外那只前后移动的手

and also it is compared to two pins when you draw a circle

它们也被比喻成画圆时使用的两根针

so when you draw a circle you have one pin in the center

当你画圆时,在中心放一根针

and the other pin revolving around it

另外一根针绕着它转

so the center pin is like vitakka

中心的针就像是寻

and the outer pin is like vicara

外面的针就像是伺

so vitakka and vicara are different mental states arising at the same time

所以寻、伺是不同的心所它们同时生起

doing their respective functions

但是发挥不同的作用

so vitakka is putting the mind on the object

所以寻就是将心导向目标

and vicara is keeping the mind there

伺就是维持心在目标上

that is why venerable nagasena said buddha did a difficult job when he described different mental states that arise at the same time taking the same object

所以那先比丘说佛做了甚难之事,因为他讲了同时生起同一所缘的心、心所

now number…among the six number three

六个中的第三个

from the beginning number ten

从最开始数就是第十个

is called decision or adhimokkha

胜解

it is a firm decision of some objects

对目标的决意

adhimokkha literally means releasing mind on to the object

胜解字面意思是:把心放开,让它进入目标

so there is some kind of decision when we experience any object

当我们体验目标时,就有某种决定

so that is called adhimokkha or decision

就被称为胜解

and next one is energy or vīriya, effort

下一个是精进

here effort means mental effort because it is a mental state here

这里的精进指心理上的精进,因为它是一个心所

there is physical effort also but here mental effort is meant

也有身体上精进,但是这里指心理上的

so in the mental activities there is involved this effort

所以在心理活动里,涉及到这种精进

now to be mindful we must make mental effort

要保持正念,我们要做这种心理上的努力(精进) if we do not make mental effort we can not be mindful we can not practice meditation

如果我们在心理上不努力,我们就不能有正念,不能禅修

and when we read a book

当我们读书时

then we need to concentrate on the book and so there is energy that helps concentration

我们需要专注于书本这也是精进,帮我们专注

so the energy or effort is a valuable or beneficial mental state even for everyday life

所以即使在日常生活中努力、精进也是很有价值、很有益处的心所,

and this energy is compared to heat in the books

在书里,这种精进被比喻成热量

now

现在

heat can heat up things

热量可以加热事物

and burn them

可以让它们燃烧

in the same way energy can heat up and burn the mental defilements

同样,精进可以烧毁烦恼

if we do not make effort we will not be able to get rid of mental defilements

如果我们不精进,就不能断除烦恼

so the effort or energy is compared to heat, or heat of the sun or heat of the fire

所以,精进被比喻成热量,太阳的热量,或者火的热量

and number 12 is pali pīti

第十二个:喜

and it is translated as zest

被翻译成:热情

it is also translated as joy, happiness, rapture and pleasurable interest

也被翻译成:愉悦、幸福、狂喜、愉悦的兴趣

pīti is defined as something that refreshes piti的定义是:清新

so when we experience pīti we are refreshed

所以当我们经历“喜”时我们感到清新

so pīti is defined as something that refreshes

所以“喜”就是令人清新

and this characteristic is endearing

这个特征是讨人喜欢的

or to refresh both body and mind

让身心感到清新

or it pervades the body and the mind

遍布身心

so it is a kind of pleasurable

所以它是一种愉悦的

it is not feeling, it is difficult to translate

它不是感受,很难翻译

a mental state which is refreshing which is endearing

这种心所清新,让人喜欢

when you practice meditation you will experience this pīti

当你禅修时,你就会体验到这个“喜”

you feel good about this you feel good about the practice

你感觉很好,喜欢修行

and you may have goose bumps on your skin and like that

你身上可能起鸡皮疙瘩等等

so piti is said to be of five kinds

喜分为五种:

now the first one is called minor piti

第一种称为小喜

and this small piti can cause the hair stand on end like goose bumps or gooseflesh

这种小喜能使身上的毛发竖立就像起鸡皮疙瘩一样

and the second is called momentary piti

第二种是剎那喜

it is like lightning, once it strikes you and then it’s gone

如同电光刹那生起,灭去

and the third one is called showering piti

第三种是继起喜

it is like the waves breaking on the shore

犹如海岸激荡的波浪,

and the fourth one is called uplifting piti

第四个是踊跃喜

through that piti the body may be uplifted

这种喜可踊跃其身

it may be elevated sometimes as the result of this uplifting piti

可能到达跃入空中的程度。

your body may move, even if you are sitting your body may move to another place

你的身体会移动,即使你坐着你的身体也会移动到别处

and then the last one is called pervading piti

最后一个是遍满喜

and that means when you experience that piti you are like a cotton ball soaked in water or oil

意思是当你体验到这种喜时你就像棉花团浸入水中或油中

so the whole of your body is pervaded by this kind of piti

你的整个身体都被这种喜所遍布

although it is a kind of good feeling it is not included in feeling

虽然喜是愉悦的感受,但是不包括在“受”里

now it is included in the aggregate of mental formation the fourth aggregate

喜为行蕴所摄

now among the five jhana factors

在五禅支里

we have piti and sukha put together

有喜、乐在一起

vitakka, vicara, piti and sukha

寻伺喜乐

now sukha is a feeling, pleasurable feeling

乐为受蕴所摄,愉悦的感受

so sukha is pleasurable feeling

乐是愉悦的感受

and it is pleasing

让人愉悦

and it is called sukha because it devours the affliction of the body

被称为乐,是因为它吞没了身体之苦

that means it consumes or it removes affliction of body and so on

意思是乐移除了身体的苦恼

these two are very similar

这两种很类似

piti and sukha, it is very difficult to differentiate between the two

喜和乐,很难区别这两者

so the commentaries give similes to understand the difference between piti and sukha

注释书给了比喻来理解区分喜、乐

and piti is described as contendedness as getting a desirable object

喜被描述为获得可喜目标时的满足

and sukha is explained as actual experiencing of it when you get it

乐被描述为对这个可喜目标的实际体验

now suppose you are going on a journey in a desert

假设你在沙漠旅行

and you are exhausted, you are weary

十分疲惫

then somebody may come the opposite way and tell you that

有人迎面而来告诉你

about a mile from here there is a pond

一里之外有一个水池

and there are fruit trees and so on

还有果树等等

so when you hear this and also when you approach the pond and see the pond and fruit trees

当你听到之后,当你靠近水池,看到水池和果树时

you have a kind of piti there

这就是“喜”

you have not experienced the pond, the water in the pond you have not experienced the fruit

你还没有体验到池水,也没吃到水果

but you have seen them so you have some kind of mental state

但是你已经看到它们了,你就生起了某种心所

and that kind of mental state is called piti

这种心所就是:喜

but when you get to the pond and you make use of the water

当你使用池水的时候

and you bathe in the water and you eat the fruit and you sit there comfortably

你用水洗澡,吃水果很舒服地坐在那里

then you are experiencing what is called sukha

你就体验到:乐

so piti is something that precedes the actual experiencing of the object

所以喜是体验之前的东西

so when we hear about something when we see something

当你听到或者看到

something desirable

非常美好的东西

and there is a kind of mental state

就有某种心所生起

we are pleased with the object and so that being pleased with the object is what we called piti

你对目标感到愉悦,这种愉悦就是喜

and when we really experience or enjoy the object then there is sukha

当你真正体验到目标,享受它这就是乐

so piti and sukha are different mental states

所以喜、乐是不同的心理状态

now sukha is one of the feelings, so it is included in the feeling

乐是为受所摄,是种感受

and wherever there is piti there is sukha

当出现喜时,必定有乐

but wherever there is sukha there is not necessarily piti

当出现乐时,不一定有喜

if you remember the jhana cittas

如果你记得禅那心

now the first jhana cittas

初禅心

is accompanied by how many jhana factors? five

有几个禅支?五个

vitakka, vicara, piti, sukha, ekaggata

寻伺喜乐一境性

so the first jhana has both piti and sukha

初禅有喜、乐

and the second jhana also, both piti and sukha

二禅也有喜、乐

third jhana also both piti and sukha

三禅也有喜、乐

fourth jhana no piti but sukha

四禅没有喜,但有乐

and fifth jhana no piti and no sukha

五禅无喜、无乐

so

所以

whenever there is piti there is sukha

只要有喜,必定有乐

but whenever there is sukha there may or may not be piti

但是如果乐存在,喜可有可无

so it is one difference between them

这就是它们的一个区别

and piti is included in saṅkhāra aggregate

喜为行蕴所摄

aggregate of mental formations

被包括在行蕴里面

and sukha is included in feeling aggregate

乐为受蕴所摄

so they are different mental states, belonging to different aggregates

它们是不同的心理状态,属于不同的蕴

now the next one is chanda, desire

下一个欲

it is also translated as conation

被翻译成:意欲

it is the desire for the object

就是对目标的意欲

but it is not desire which is lobha

但不是贪嗔痴的“贪”

although we may use the word desire for it

虽然也是欲望

chanda is not lobha

但是这个欲与lobha不同

chanda can be unwholesome or wholesome

这个欲可善可不善

according to what type of other mental states arise with it

它的善不善根据其他相伴的心所而定

so although we may translate it as desire it is not desire like attachment or craving

虽然也被翻译成欲,但是不是贪欲的意思

it is mere desire for the object, mere desire to do

这是对目标的意欲,欲行动

so sometimes it is translated as the will to do

所以有时候被翻译成:行动的意欲

just the will to do without attachment

行动的欲望,没有贪执

and it is compared to an archer picking the arrows

它被比喻成弓箭手拾取箭支

so when an archer wants to shoot the arrow, he would pick up the arrow

当弓箭手要射击时,就要拾取箭支

when he picks up the arrows, he has no attachment to arrows, he just wants to pick them up and to shoot something

当他拾取箭支的时候,只是想拾取箭支射击没有贪执于箭支

so chanda is like that, just the will to do, just the desire to take the object

所以“欲”就是这样,只是意欲,获取目标的意欲

and not necessarily attached to the object

并不必然贪执于目标

so these six are called occasionals

这六个被称为杂心所

because later on we will study with how many cittas each of these cetasikas arise

因为今后我们要学习这些心所和心的搭配

so when you study these you will understand why they are called occasionals

当你们学习的时候,就知道为什么这些被称为杂心所了

each one of them is not common to all 89 or 121 types of consciousness

这些杂心所并不与所有89或121心共有

and they arise with just say 55, 66 and so on of the types of consciousness

它们与其中的

55、66个等等相随

now the universal 7 and occasional 6 are called ethically variables 7个遍一切心心所和6个杂心所统称为通一切心所

they can arise with unwholesome mental states and beautiful mental states

它们可以与不善心所和美心所一起生起

sometimes they may arise with unwholesome mental states sometimes they may arise with wholesome mental states

有时候它们可能与不善心所生起有时候可能与善心所生起

and so they are called ethically variables or in pali they are called aññasamāna

所以它们被称为通一切心所

so they are 13 aññasamāna mental factors

这就是13个通一切心所

and 7 of them are universals or sabbacitta-sādhāraṇa and 6 of them are called occasionals or pakiṇṇaka in pali 7个遍一切心心所,6个杂心所

and the next group is in pali akusala and in english unwholesome

另外一组是不善心所

now you are familiar with the word unwholesome

你们对不善这个词很熟悉

you have already studied the unwholesome types of consciousness

你们学习了不善心

and all these unwholesome types of consciousness have some of these mental factors arising with them

这些不善心,就有这些不善心所伴随它们

and so

所以

now we will study these 14 unwholesome types of mental factors

我们现在学习14不善心所

ok, i think we will have a break now

好,我们先休息一下

disk01track10

ok, we will continue our study of mental factors

好,我们继续学习心所

so second group of mental factors is called unwholesome or akusala

第二组心所是不善心所

you’re familiar with the word akusala or unwholesome

你们熟悉不善这个词

and so there are bad mental factors

它们是不好的心所

and these are to facilitate referring to these mental factors later

这些涉及到的心所

they are grouped like unwholesome universals, greed triad and so on

被分为通一切不善、三贪因等等

the groups are not given these names in the manual

概要精解里给的名字有所不同

but our teachers especially in Myanmar gave these names to these mental factors three or two or four

但是我们的老师,特别在缅甸按照三、二、四这样起名

because when we make ourselves familiar with the details of the mental factors

因为当我们熟悉这些心所的详情

and their combination with different types of consciousness

它们与不同心的组合

then we have to use some short terms

我们就需要用简称

instead of of saying, greed, wrong view and conceit we will just say greed triad, something like that

我们不说贪、邪见、慢,我们称之为:三贪因,等等

now the first group is unwholesome universals

现在第一组是通一切不善

that means these four will arise with every type of akusala consciousness

意思是这四个伴随一切不善心

every one of twelve unwholesome consciousness

伴随所有12不善心

and the first of them is moha or delusion

第一个是:痴

now this moha is synonym of avijjā这个“痴”是“无明”的同义词

you may be familiar with the word avijjā if you have read the dependent origination

你们可能熟悉无明这个词如果你们知道十二缘起的话

so avijjā means not knowing

无明意思是:不知道

and moha means delusion and so on

痴就是迷惑,等等

so they mean the same thing

所以说它们的意思是一样的

and sometimes moha is translated as ignorance

有时候“痴”被翻译成“无明”

so ignorance of the four noble truths, ignorance of the dependent origination and so on

对四圣谛无明,对缘起无明,等等

and this is actually not knowing

这就是:不知道

so it is a mental blindness

所以是心之盲

not knowing things correctly

不能正确认识事物

and maybe knowing things incorrectly also

或许错误地认知事物

and this is one of three unwholesome roots you have met when you study the unwholesome types of consciousness

当你学习不善心时,痴就是三不善根之一

now among the twelve unwholesome types of conscious

在12种不善心之中

the first 8 are accompanied by or rooted in let’s say lobha, attachment

前八个以贪为因

and the 2 are rooted in dosa and the last 2 are rooted in moha

有两个以嗔为因,最后两个以痴为因

now i did not tell you at that time that moha is common to all 12 types of unwholesome consciousness

我当时没有告诉你们,痴通一切不善心

although the first 8 are called rooted in attachment

虽然前八个心被称为贪根心

actually they are rooted in delusion also

实际上它们也是以痴为根

and the two that are called rooted in ill will are also rooted in delusion

两个嗔根心,实际上也是痴根心

only the last two are rooted in delusion only

只有最后两个是单纯以痴为根的

so now you see that moha or delusion is the unwholesome universal mental factor

所以现在你们知道痴是通一切不善心的心所

that means moha arises with every type of unwholesome consciousness

意思是“痴”伴随每一种不善心

the next one is ahirika or shamelessness

下一个是无惭

and the next one anottappa fearlessness of wrong doing

下一个是对错误的行为无愧

now shamelessness means shamelessness in doing misconduct

无惭意思是:不为自己的恶行感到羞耻

bodily misconduct or verbal misconduct or mental misconduct

身语意的恶行

so this is

所以

when you do something wrong you are not ashamed to do it

当你做了恶行,你并不为此感到羞耻

so that shamelessness is one mental factor when you do something wrong or when you have unwholesome consciousness

所以无惭是当你做了坏事时的一种心理状态

and fearlessness of wrong doing means you’re not afraid of doing wrong things, you’re not afraid of doing misconduct, so that is fearlessness

所以无惭就是你不害怕做错事,不害怕恶行

shamelessness is compared to a village pig

无惭被比喻成一头猪

that is not disgust of excrement

对脏东西不感到恶心

and fearlessness is compared to a firefly

无愧被比喻成一只飞蛾

that runs into the fire

扑向火苗

now you may have seen the fireflies that just run into the flame

你们可能看到飞蛾扑火

they’re not afraid of the flame

它们根本不怕火

so in the same way, shamelessness or ahirika is not ashamed of doing misconduct

所以同样,无惭就是不对恶行感到羞耻

and anottappa or fearlessness is not afraid of doing misconduct

无愧就是不害怕恶行

and the last one of the four is in pali uddhacca

最后一个是:掉举

and it is translated as restlessness

被翻译成:不稳定

or sometimes it is translated as agitation

有时候也被翻译成:扰动

so it is disquietness

是一种不安宁的状态

like water whipped up by the wind

如同水面被风吹皱

so when there is wind water is quiet

如果没有风,水面就是平静的

but there is wind, the water becomes shaky

风吹来了,水面也就动荡起来

so that is compared to uddhacca or restlessness or agitation

这就被比喻成掉举

and it is also compared to a banner that flutters in the wind

掉举也被比喻成风中飘动的旗帜

now you have met restlessness when you studied the unwholesome types of consciousness

当你们学习不善心时,也遇到过掉举

i think it is the last of the twelve

应该是12不善心的最后一个

so uddhacca is shaking above the object

掉举就是在目标上晃动

i told you this when i talked about akusala cittas

讲不善心的时候,我告诉过你们

so it is mind shaking above the object and so it is not stuck to the object

心在目标上晃动,没有专注于目标

you do not see the object clearly when there is uddhacca in the mind

如果心中有掉举,就不能清晰地观照目标

so that is called restlessness or agitation

这就被称为掉举

and these four accompany every type of unwholesome consciousness

这四个心所伴随所有不善心

the next sub-group is called greed triad or in pali lobhatika

接下来一组被称为三贪因

so greed triad are greed, wrong view and conceit or in pali lobha, iṭṭhi and māna

三贪因指:贪、邪见、慢

now greed here covers desire, longing, attachment and clinging and craving and so on

贪在这里包括:欲望、渴求、执着等等

and this lobha is actually attachment to the object

贪实际上就是对目标的执着

now you come cross some object especially a desirable object

当你遇到目标,特别是如意的目标

and you are attached to it

你执着于它

now that is lobha arising in your mind

这时候心里就生起贪

and this lobha is compared to a kind of what do you call it? sticky substance

这种贪被比喻成粘性物质

that comes out of a tree

从树身上渗出来的

now there are some trees there is sticky substance come out the tree like gum

有某种树会产生这种粘性物质如同胶水

and when you touch that sticky substance

如果你摸这种粘性物质

then your hand is stuck to it, it’s difficult to take the hand from that sticky substance

你的手就被粘住了,很难脱落

now it is described in the texts there is a monkey

在经典里有记载,一只猴子

and he sees this sticky substance in the sun and so it is shinning

它看到这种粘性的东西在阳光下闪闪放光

so he put his one hand on the sticky substance and it is stuck and he couldn’t remove it

所以它将它的一只手放上去,结果被粘住了

then he put the other hand and then both hands are stuck

然后他又将另一只手放上去结果两只手都被粘住

then he put his one foot and the other foot his all four stuck to the substance

然后他依次将双脚放上去所有四肢都被粘住了

and then he tried to free himself

然后它尽力想挣脱

putting his face to the substance and so he stuck to it with all his limbs

将脸也凑上去,结果整个肢体都被粘住了

so lobha is like that so when we have lobha we are stuck to this object

所以贪也是如此,如果我们有贪我们就会被目标粘住

if i like this then my mind is stuck to this object

如果我喜欢这个,那么我们的心就被这个目标粘住

i can not take my mind away from it

我们不能将心移开

that is why lobha is compared to that sticky substance that come out of trees

所以贪就被比喻成这种树上的粘性物质

so in this modern times, you may say what do you call that?

在现代社会,你们怎么称呼那个?

glue stick, right?

胶棒,对吗?

in the united states there is glue stick

在美国,有这种胶棒

you can use it as a glue or gum

可以当做胶水使用

so this is lobha

这就是贪

so lobha includes all shades of greed

贪包括各种形式的贪婪

like longing, attachment, clinging, craving

期望、执着、贪执、欲望

and the next one is diṭṭhi, wrong view

下一个是:邪见

now the pali word diṭṭhi means just view

这个词的巴利语意思就是:见解

but if it used alone, it almost always means wrong view

如果单独使用,总是指:邪见

if you want to say right view we use sammā-diṭṭhi

如果你想说:正见,前面要加个“正”

we use the word sammā in front of it, and so sammā-diṭṭhi means right view

前面加个“正”才是正见

and if you want to be sure that we may use micchā-diṭṭhi for wrong view

如果你想特地强调,也可以在前面加一个“邪”,特指邪见

so when there is a word micchā in front of it then it is wrong view

所以,前面加个“邪”特指:邪见

and there is no other word but just diṭṭhi wrong view is also meant

如果单纯只是ditthi,也是指邪见

so diṭṭhi is wrong view, wrong view is seeing things wrongly

邪见就是对事物有错误的认知

seeing things wrongly means taking wrong things to be true

错误的认知就是说认错为真

now buddha taught that things are impermanent

佛陀教导:事物是无常的

but if we think things are permanent then this is one wrong view

如果我们认为事物是恒常那么这就是邪见

buddha said there is no soul no self

佛陀说:无我

and if we think that there is a self or soul this is also a wrong view

如果我们认为有我,也是邪见

and if we think that there is no kamma, or results of kamma

如果我们认为无业亦无报

whatever you do is just doing and things happen without any cause and so on

不管做什么,仅仅是行为万事的发生没有原因,等等

so these shades of views are called wrong views

这些观点,都是邪见

and the third one is māna, conceit or pride or haughtiness

第三个是:慢

so we often take pride in ourselves in our nation in our country and so on

我们经常骄慢于自身、种族、国家等等

so when there is māna in our mind we think I, I, this is I

当我们心中有慢,我们总是:我我

so māna is compared to a banner

慢就比成旗帜

it is always on top so

总是高高在上

it wants to be on top always

它总是想在高高在上

and it is like flying in the air

例如在空中飘舞

so that is called māna or conceit

这就被称为:慢

so these three arise with the 8 types of unwholesome consciousness accompanied by greed or lobha

这三个与八个不善的贪根心同生

so we will come to the details later

稍后我们讨论细节

next is the group of four

接下来一组是四个

so we say hatred quartet

所以我们说四嗔因

[dosaggi dukkha??]

嗔火之苦

now these four arise with two types of consciousness accompanied by dosa

这四个与两个嗔根心同生

the green ones

绿色的

now the first one is hatred or dosa

第一个是嗔

here also dosa means aversion, ill will, anger, irritation, annoyance

这里的嗔意思是:反感、恶意愤怒、激怒、烦恼

all these things are included in dosa or hatred here

所有这些都被包括在嗔里面

and also fear is included in dosa

同样,恐惧也属于嗔

so anger is aggressive anger and fear is passive anger

愤怒是激进的愤怒,恐惧是被动的愤怒

not getting angry but your mind is not as it was before

不是愤怒,但是你的心已经不像之前那样

and so the fear is also included in dosa

所以恐惧也被包括在嗔里面

so when you’re afraid of something when you fear something

当你害怕或者恐惧的时候

then one of the two types of consciousness accompanied by ill will arises in your mind

两种嗔根心的一种就生起了

the next one is envy or issā接下来是嫉妒

it is jealous of other people’s success

就是嫉妒别人的成功

if other people are rich then we don’t like it

如果别人富裕,我们就不高兴

if other people are more educated than ourselves we don’t like it something like that

如果别人更有教养,我们也不高兴,诸如此类

so that’s called issā it’s translated as envy

这就成为嫉妒

so envy takes other people’s success as object

嫉妒以别人的成功为所缘

so we see other people success and then we are jealous of them, that’s issā我们看到别人成功,就嫉妒

the next one is macchariya, avarice

下一个是悭

now macchariya is a little difficult to understand

悭有一点难理解

mostly we think that macchariya is stinginess

大多数时候,我们觉得“悭”是吝啬

but stinginess is attachment to one’s own property

但是吝啬是执着于自己的财产

say, I’m stingy i don’t want to part with it

例如,我很吝啬,我不想失去那个东西

I don’t want to give anything to anybody because I’m stingy, that’s stinginess

我不想给任何人任何东西因为我很吝啬,这是吝啬

but macchariya is not stinginess

但是悭不是吝啬

macchariya is intolerance of one’s possessions being common with others

悭是不想让自己的东西与别人共有

for example this is my watch

例如这是我的手表

if somebody makes use of this, I don’t like it

如果别人拿去用,我就不高兴

i can not bear sharing this with other people

我不能忍受与别人分享

that is what is called macchariya and it is translated as avarice

这就是悭

that is why it is included in these four that are common to two types of consciousness accompanied by ill will

所以悭也被包括在四嗔因里四嗔因伴随两种嗔根心

macchariya is not concomitant with eight types of consciousness rooted in lobha

悭不伴随八贪根心

so

所以

macchariya arises only with two types of consciousness rooted in dosa or ill will

悭只伴随两种嗔根心

so macchariya has this characteristic

所以悭就有这种特相

that is intolerant of one’s possessions being common with others

不能忍受别人分享自己的东西

and the last one is called kukkucca or remorse

最后一个被称为恶作

here remorse means two things

这里恶作有两个意思:

we regret because we did something wrong in the first

我们后悔,因为我们起初做了错事

we did something wrong and then we are remorseful for having done wrong

我们做了错事,所以我们为此感到后悔

sometimes we did not do something good and then we regret for not having done the good thing

有时候,我们没做某件好事然后我们就为此后悔

that is also called remorse

这也称为恶作

so remorse has two objects

所以恶作有两种所缘

something wrong that we did in the first and something good that we did not do in the past

过去做的错事,过去没做的好事

so we can have the remorseful feeling regarding both of these actions

对于这两种行为,我们都有恶作的感受

these four arise with the two types of consciousness accompanied by ill will

这四种伴随着两种嗔根心

and then we will the dyad, sloth dyad, that means sloth and torpor

接下来是二有行:昏沉和睡眠

sloth is defined as sluggishness or dullness of mind, that means dullness of consciousness

昏沉是心的沉重、呆滞

and torpor is the sluggishness of cetasikas or mental states

睡眠是指心所的沉重

so sloth is the dullness of consciousness and torpor is the dullness of mental factors

所以昏沉是心的呆滞睡眠是心所的呆滞

and these two arise always together

这两者总是一起出现

because consciousness and mental states always arise together

因为心和心所总是一起生起

and so these two also arise always together

所以这两者总是一起出现

and when we are sleepy we say we say I am

当我们很困的时候,我们说

inflicted by sloth and torpor or sloth and torpor has come to me and say i’m under their influence

我们被昏沉和睡眠所影响

so when we feel sleepy just we say sloth and torpor or in pali thina and middha

当我们困的时候,就是昏沉和睡眠

now

现在

in some schools of thought in buddhist schools of thought

有些佛教思想门派

middha is taken to be matter

认为睡眠是色法

they said, there are two kinds of middha, one mental and one material

他们说,有两种睡眠一种是名法,一种是色法

but that is rejected in theravda buddhism

上座部反对这种说法

so in theravada buddhism middha is always mental and not material

所以上座部佛教认为睡眠永远是名法,不是色法

I will not going to teach you about this

所以我不会这样教你们

now the last one is doubt vicikicchā最后一个是疑

here doubt means indecision

疑意思是不能抉择

now doubt and wrong view are different

疑和邪见不同

with regard to wrong view, you have to make some decision

对于邪见而言,你得作抉择

say this is permanent, this is self or soul, you have to make a decision and that is wrong

此是常,此是我你得作抉择,错误的抉择

but doubt is not like that, doubt is indecision you can not decide between these two

但是疑不是这样,疑是无法抉择

you do not know whether one is right or the other is right

你不知道哪个正确

you are at the cross road and do not know which road to take

你站在十字路口,无所适从

that is a kind of doubt

这就是疑

doubt is the translation of the pali word vicikicchā疑的巴利语是:vicikiccha and vicikicchā is explained as vi and cikicchā这个词由vi 和 cikiccha组成

cikicchā means cure, cure of knowledge, and vi means difficult or devoid of cikiccha意思是解决方案

vi的意思是缺乏

say devoid of cure of knowledge, devoid of cure of wisdom

缺乏解决方案,缺乏智慧的方法

that means when, so long as you are in doubt

意思是当你疑的时候

you can not come to understanding, you can not come to acknowledge the true knowledge of the thing

你就无法理解,不能了知事物的实相

so it is called vicikicchā or doubt

这就被称为疑

and here doubt means doubt about the buddha, the dhamma, the sangha

这里疑指对佛法僧怀疑

doubt about the dependent origination doubt about four noble truths and so on

对缘起和四圣谛有疑心

and when you practice meditation, doubt is a great hindrance

当你禅修时,疑是一个很大的障碍

because when doubt comes, you cannot carry on meditating

因为当疑升起时,你就无法继续禅修

so you have eliminate it you have to deal with it efficiently

所以你要断除它,有效地处理它

when you are in the real practice you just be mindful of it or you make mental notes of it to get rid of it

在实际修行中,你要对其保持正念在心里对它做标记,来处理它

so now we finish the 14 unwholesome mental factors

我们完成了14个不善心所的学习

beginning with moha and so on

以痴为首的不善心所

now how many of them have you met

我们之前碰到过多少?

you have met with lobha you have met with ditthi you have met with mana

贪,见过,邪见,见过慢,见过

not yet

慢,之前没见过

and you have met with dosa, issa, macchariya

见过:嗔、嫉妒、悭

kukkucca? no?

恶作?没见过?

and thina middha?

昏沉和睡眠?

maybe not

可能没见过

and doubt? yes

疑呢?见过

so there are five hindrances

还有五盖

regarding the meditation

与禅修有关

and all five hindrances are from among these unwholesome mental factors

所有五盖都从不善心所而来

now the first of the mental hindrances is

第一个盖是

sensual desire so that is lobha

and the second ill will now dosa

第二个嗔

and then sloth and torpor

然后是昏沉和睡眠

and then

然后

uddhacca and kukkucca so that means restlessness and remorse

掉举和恶作

and the last is doubt vicikiccha

最后一个是疑

so the mental hindrances that we have to overcome

所以这些盖都是我们要克服的

in order to get concentration and see the truth, nature of things

这样就能专注,看到实相

are all included in these unwholesome mental states

这五盖都包含在不善心所里

that is why so long as we are not able to subdue the mental hindrances

所以只要我们不能降服五盖

we cannot get concentration

就不能专注

because unwholesome mental states and wholesome mental states cannot co-exist

因为不善心所、善心所不能共存

when there are unwholesome mental factors in our mind

当心里有不善心所时

there can be no wholesome mental factors

就不能有善心所

and samadhi or concentration is regarding the meditation a wholesome mental state

禅修中的定就是善心所

so wholesome mental states will arise and stay only when there are no unwholesome mental states in our mind

只有心里没有不善心所善心所才会生起

but if we have mental hindrances in our mind

如果心里有诸盖

then the concentration which is here a wholesome mental state cannot arise

作为善心所的“定”就不能生起

that is why the subduing of mental hindrances is very important in the practice of meditation

所以镇服五盖对于禅修非常重要

so now we have these 14 mental factors that are called akusala or unwholesome

我们学习了14个不善心所

so as the name implies

不善心所这个名字就表明

they will associate themselves only with the unwholesome types of consciousness

它们只会伴随不善心生起

now the next group is called beautiful mental factors

下一组是美心所

sobhana cetasikas and there are 25 of them 25美心所

so we have more beautiful mental factors than unwholesome mental factors

所以美心所比不善心所多

and the first one of them is faith or saddhā第一个是:信

now saddhā or faith is not blind faith it is faith founded upon understanding

信是基于理解基础上产生的,不是迷信

this is having faith after coming to firm decision

坚固的抉择之后就有信

so faith in the buddha, faith in the dhamma and so on

对佛法僧等等的信

now the second one is mindfulness, you’re all familiar with mindfulness, sati

第二个是:念,你们对正念都很熟悉

now pali word sati comes from a root called sar that means to remember

巴利语念的字根意思是:忆念

but sati is not just remembering, sati is actually the full awareness of the object

但是“念”不仅是忆念,还是对所缘的完全觉知

sometimes we use sati for remembering

有时候我们用sati这个词表示忆念

but in the practice of satipatthana meditation sati does not mean remembering

但是在念处禅修中,“念”意思不是:忆念

sati means full awareness of the object that we call mindfulness

念指对所缘的完全觉知,我们称之为正念

and mindfulness if it is to be mindfulness must be thorough-going

正念,必须是彻底的

the characteristics of mindfulness is described as not floating on the surface

正念的特点是:不漂浮在表面

so when you practice mindfulness mindfulness must go deep into the object

当你修习正念的时候,正念需要贯彻到所缘深处

the commentaries say that

注释书说

it is not floating on the surface like the dry fruit that floats on the surface

不是像干果子一样飘在水面

we may say a ball on the surface of the water will go with the waves

我们可能会说飘在水面的球会随波逐流

but mindfulness must not be like that

但是正念不是那样的

it must be like a rock that sinks into the water

正念就像一块石头沉入水底

so when you practice mindfulness, your mind must as it will sink into the object

当你修习正念时,你的心必须沉入所缘

your mind should be fully engaged with the object

你的心必须完全沉浸到所缘里

so that is what is mindful means

这就是正念的意思

so there can be no superficiality regarding mindfulness

所以对正念而言,没有任何浅薄

and next is shame and the next is fear of wrong

下一个是惭,然后是愧

these two are the opposite of the ones among the 14 unwholesome mental factors

这两个是与14个不善心所里的无惭无愧对立面

and these two are described by the buddha as the guardians of the world

世尊称此二者为世间的守护者

now so long as these two qualities are in the minds of people

只要人们心中有这两个品质

the world will be a good place to live in

这个世界就是个值得生活的好地方

so they protect the world from falling into wide-spread immorality

惭愧守卫这个世界,免于邪恶盛行

when you have shame, that means shame in doing unwholesome deeds shame in doing misconduct then you’re not doing

当你对恶行感到羞耻,就会停止作恶

if you have fear of the consequences of doing misconduct then you will not do it

当你对恶行的后果感到恐惧你就不会去作恶

so shame and fear are two good qualities

所以惭、愧是两种美好的品质

that protect the world from becoming immoral

守卫这个世界,避免它堕落

that is why buddha described them as guardians of the world

所以佛陀说它们是这个世界的守护者

and the next one is non-greed alobha

接下来是:无贪

sometimes this is translated as absence of greed

有时候它被翻译成贪的缺乏

but that is not good

这种翻译不是很好

because it is a positive state actually

因为无贪实际上是个积极的状态

and not absence of greed

不等于是贪的缺乏

it is a positive state or a mental factor that is not attached to any thing

是积极的状态,没有任何执着

so it is translated as non-greed here

所以,被翻译成无贪

now when a drop of water falls on a lotus leaf

当一滴水掉在荷叶上

it will not stick to the leaf it will fall off the leaf

它不会执着于荷叶,会掉下去

so in the same same when there is alobha the person is not attached to anything

同样,无贪的人没有任何执着

so it is not just absence of greed, it is non-greed

所以它不仅仅是贪的缺乏,它是无贪

and the next one is non-hatred, again it’s not the absence of hatred

下一个是无嗔,不等于嗔的缺乏

but it is a positive state which is non-hatred

这也是积极的状态:无嗔

it can be developed taking the all beings as object

可以发展到将所有众生作为所缘

and then it is called metta or loving-kindness

所以就被称为:慈

so adosa or non-hatred and loving-kindness can be synonyms

所以无嗔和慈可以被看成同义词

but not all non-hatred is loving-kindness

但并非所有无嗔都是慈

only when we take all beings as object and wish for the welfare can it become loving-kindness

只有将所有众生当成所缘希望他们幸福,才是慈

at other times when we pay homage to the buddha, when we offer things to the sangha or to the buddha

当我们礼敬佛、供养僧或者佛

there is non-hatred in our mind

心里生起无嗔

but that non-hatred it not loving-kindness

但是这种无嗔不是慈

so loving-kindness is only when we take all beings as object and wish for their welfare wish for their happiness

只有我们将所有众生作为所缘,希望他们幸福,才是慈

so non-greed, non-hatred

无贪、无嗔

now the next one is the neutrality of mind

接下来是:中舍性

now the pali name for this is tatramajjhattatā巴利语是:tatramajjhattatā

majjha means middle majjha 意思是:中

majjhattatā means to be in the middle

这个巴利词意思是:位于中间

and tatra means in those mental concomitants tatra 就是位于这些心所之中

so

所以

to be in the middle among those mental concomitants

在这些心所之中,保持中舍

and it is translated as neutrality of mind

翻译成:心的中舍性

now this is one mental state

这是个心所

that keeps other mental states do their own function

让其他心所发挥各自的作用

it is compared to a charioteer

被比喻成车夫

driving a chariot drown by say four horses or six horses

驾着马车,马车由四或六匹马牵引

when the horses are running properly the charioteer has not to worry about the running of the carriage

当这些马行走正常,车夫就不需要担心

and so the charioteer just looks on when the horses are running properly

所以车夫只需要照看这些马使之正确行进

so in the same way when the other mental states are functioning, doing their function properly

同样,当其他心所正常发挥作用

this neutrality of mind just looks on

心的中舍性只是观看

this neutrality of mind is often called upekkhā这种中舍性经常被称为upekkha whenever you see the word upekkhā please be careful

不管什么时候你看到upekkha这个词,得小心

it can mean indifference feeling

它可以指:舍受

or it can mean this mental factor, neutrality of mind or tatramajjhattata

也可以指这个心所:中舍性

you are familiar with the four brahmaviharas

你们熟悉四梵住

the noble abidings, metta, karuna, mudita, and the last one upekkha, right

四梵住:慈、悲、喜、舍

so that upekkha is not feeling upekkha

这种舍不是:舍受

that upekkha is this tatramajjhattata upekkha

是心的中舍性

so when you develop upekkha which is one of divine abidings

当你开发四梵住中的“舍”

you try to be impartial toward all beings

你尽力对所有众生不偏不倚

you do not try to wish happiness for beings

你不去试图希望众生幸福

you do not try to sympathize with them

你不去同情他们

you do not try to be happy with them

不去随喜他们

but you just look on without being affected by the condition of beings

你只是观照,不被众生的境遇所影响

either they are prospering or they’re suffering

不管他们是幸福还是受苦

that is what we call upekkha among the four divine abidings

这就是四梵住里的“舍”

and it is also translated as equanimity

它也被翻译成:平和镇定

next come the pairs, tranquility of mental body, tranquility of consciousness

接下来是六对:身轻安与心轻安

in the pali the word kāya, kāya-passaddhi

巴利语是:kāya-passaddhi kāya normally means the physical body kāya 一般指肉体

but actually kāya means just a group, a body

但是实际上kāya指“聚集”、“体”

and here it means not the physical body but mental body

这里不是指肉体,而是指:名身

mental body really means these mental factors

名身实际就指这些心所

so the kāya-passaddhi means tranquility of cetasikas mental factors

所以身轻安,就是指心所轻安

and citta-passaddhi means tranquility of consciousness citta-passaddhi意思就是心轻安

when there are defilements such as restlessness, and remorse or worry

当出现掉举、恶作、忧愁等烦恼

there is stress in the mind so the mind is tranquil at that time

心就有压迫,这样心就不轻安了

so when the mind is free from restlessness and worry, and mind is said to be tranquil or peaceful

当心没有掉举、忧愁心就是轻安的

so the tranquility of the cetasikas is called tranquility of mental body

所以心所的轻安被称为:身轻安

and tranquility of consciousness is called citta-passaddhi in pali, tranquility of consciousness

心的轻安被称为心轻安

and the next group is lightness of mental body and lightness of consciousness

下一个是:身轻快性与心轻快性

when you have sloth and torpor

当你昏沉和睡眠

your mental states your mental factors are not light, they’re kind of heavy

你的心所就不是轻快的,它们很沉重

and your mind your consciousness is also not light

你的心同样也不是轻快的

but when the consciousness is free sloth and torpor

当你的心没有昏沉和睡眠

and there is heaviness in the consciousness or in the mental factors

心、心所就不沉重

and so these two are called lightness of mental body and lightness of consciousness

所以这两个就被称为:身轻快性与心轻快性

and it is also explained that when there is lightness of mental body and lightness of consciousness

也可以解释说:当你的心所和心具有轻快性

then you don’t have many moments of bhavaṅga between active thought moments

在活跃的心识刹那之间就没有很多有分心

now there are type of consciousness called bhavaṅga

有一种心被称为有分心

bhavaṅga is translated as life-continuum

被翻译成:生命的持续

they are the inactive thought moments

有分心在心路中是不活跃的

now all through our lives

我们一生之中

inactive thought moments and active thought moments arise one after another

不活跃的和活跃的心识刹那此起彼伏

so there are inactive thought moments and then there are active thought moments

心路中,有不活跃的心,也有活跃的心

and then again inactive thought moments and so on

然后又是不活跃的心等等

inactive thought moments always intervene between two sets of active thought moments

不活跃的心,总是在彼此活跃的两组心之间

and those inactive moment can be many

这种不活跃的心可以很多

or they can be just a few

也可以很少

so when the active thought moments are intervened by just a few inactive thought moments

当活跃的心之间只有很少不活跃的心

and mind is said to be light

心里就很轻快

consciousness and mental factors are said to be light

心和心所就很轻快

then that happens when mind is free from sleepiness or sloth or torpor

这样心里就没有昏沉和睡眠

and also at other times

同样有时候

now the next group is malleability of mental body and of consciousness

接下来一组:身柔软性和心柔软性

this is a difficult word

这个词很难

the pali word, what is pali word for malleability?

对应的巴利语是什么?

mudutā, now the meaning of the word mudu means soft

是mudutā,

mudu的意思是:柔软

so we may translate softness of mental body and softness of consciousness

我们也可以用英语“柔软”来翻译

now softness here means it is not rigid

柔软就是不僵硬

so you can manage it

你可以调配它

when it is rigid, it is difficult to manage

当它僵硬的时候,就难调配

so it is manageability

所以说是:可调配性

when there is wrong view and when there is conceit

如果有邪见、慢

mind is said to be rigid

心就僵硬

but these types of mental factors do not arise together with wrong view or conceit

但是这些心所不会与邪见、慢一起生起

and so they are free wrong view and conceit which create rigidity

所以它们就不会有邪见、慢就不会制造出僵硬

since they are free from rigidity they are said to be soft

因为它们不是僵硬的,所以就被称为:柔软性

so softness of mental body softness of consciousness

所以是身柔软性和心柔软性 the next one is wieldiness of mental body wieldiness of consciousness

下一个是:身适业性与心适业性

now wieldiness means you can do anything you like with that thing

适业性,就是适于作业

when the clay is wet and soft

当泥巴是湿的,又是软的

then you can make this clay into any shape you like

你可以将其捏成任何形状

so that is what is called wieldiness of mental body and wieldiness of consciousness

这就是身适业性与心适业性

there are hindrances like sensual desire, hate and so on

五盖如贪、嗔等等

so when these mental hindrances are in the mind

当心里有这些盖

mind is difficult to manage

心就很难被调控

so there are said to be unwieldy

这样就不适业

so when mind is free from these mental hindrances

如果心里没有这些盖

the mind is said to be wieldy

心就适业

so that means you can manage the mind in the way you like

所以这样你就可以随心所欲调控心

and so these are the two mental factors

所以这两个心所

wieldiness of mental body and wieldiness of consciousness

身适业性与心适业性

and the next pair is proficiency of mental body and proficiency of consciousness

下一对是:身练达性与心练达性

in pali word pāguññatā means proficiency

巴利语pāguññatā意思是练达性

it is oppose to unhealthiness of mental body and unhealthiness of consciousness

它破除心所、心的疾病

now when there is lack of faith and so on

如果缺乏信等等

mind can not take what it likes to take

心不能缘取喜欢缘取的

and so the proficiency is missing there

这就没有练达性

so when there is no lack of faith in the mind

当心里有信

mind is proficient, taking the things that are beneficial to it

心就练达,可以缘取有益的目标

and the last is rectitude or straightness of mental body and rectitude of consciousness

最后一个:身正直性与心正直性

now it oppose to hypocrisy and fraudulence

对治伪善与狡诈

when there is hypocrisy or fraudulence mind is said to be crooked

如果有伪善和狡诈,心就是扭曲的

but these mental factors are free from hypocrisy and fraudulence

但是这些心所没有伪善和狡诈

and so there are said to be straight

所以称为正直性

so straightness of mental body and straightness of consciousness

所以是身正直性与心正直性

these 19 types of consciousness are called beautiful, universals

这19种被称为通一切美心心所

now you remember the beautiful types of consciousness

你们都记得美心

how many beautiful types of consciousness are there? you remember?

有多少美心?记得吗?

except the non-beautiful, the rest are beautiful

除了不美心,剩下的是美心

so 89 minus 30, 59 89减去30,59 so 59 types of consciousness are called beautiful, you take out of the chart 59种心被称为美心,你们把表拿出来

and you see the first 30 are non-beautiful, right?

首先的30个是不美心,对吧

and the rest are beautiful

剩下的都是美心

the first 30 means 12 unwholesome and 18 rootless consciousness

首先的30包括

12个不善心和18个无因心

so these 30 are collectively called non-beautiful

这30个统称为不美心

so since these are non-beautiful the others are beautiful

因为这些是不美心,剩下的就是美心

now these 19 mental factors are common to all these types of consciousness

这19个美心所通一切美心

so that means the first consciousness from among the sense-sphere wholesome consciousness, the first one

欲界善心第一个

so when that first one arises

如果它生起

all these 19 mental factors will arise with it

所有这19个美心所也会随之生起

the same with all other beautiful types of consciousness

其他美心也是同样的

therefore these 19 are called beautiful universals or in pali sobhana-sādhāraṇa

所以这19个心所被称为通一切美心

now the next three

接下来三个

the next three are called abstinences

接下来三个被称为:离

and in pali they are called virati abstaining from something

“离”巴利语是virati,远离

or refraining from something, so they are called abstinences, they are three of them

或者是:避免有三种离

and they’re right speech, right action and right livelihood

正语、正业、正命

if you’re familiar with the 8 factors of path you may notice these three among those 8

如果你们熟悉八正道就会发现这三个就在其中

right understanding, right thoughts, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration

正见、正思维、正语、正业、正命、正精进、正念、正定

so these three are among the 8 factors of path

这三个就在其中

but here since they are called abstinences

但是这里,因为它们被称为离

you must understand that

你们要知道

right speech means actually abstention from wrong speech

正语实际就是离开错误的语言

not just talking right, it is actually abstention from wrong speech

不只是讲正确的语言,也要离开错误的语言

the same with right action, right action here means abstention from wrong action, action means bodily action

同样,正业也指远离错误的行为行为,指身体行为

and right livelihood means abstention from wrong livelihood

正命意思是远离邪命

so these three

所以这三个

although the names are right speech, right action, right livelihood

虽然它们被称为:正语、正业、正命

they really mean not just speaking right, not just acting right

它们不只是语言正确,行为正确

but abstention from wrong speech, wrong action and wrong livelihood

还指远离:错误的言语、行为和错误的职业

and the abstention is

explained in the commentary as of three kinds, there are three kinds of abstentions

根据注释书,有三种

the first one is called abstention on occasion

第一种是:自然离

that means when you meet with an occasion to do something wrong

意思是:当你遇到某种做坏事的机遇

you refrain from doing that

你远离它,不去造恶

and that is called abstention on occasion

这被称为:自然离

and the second one is abstention by precepts

第二种是:持戒离

that means you have taken the precepts and so

意思是当你持戒后

when the occasion for doing wrong arises you refrain from it

有作恶的机会,你不去作恶

and the third one is absolute abstention

第三种是:正断离

and that absolute abstention arises with path consciousness

这种离与出世间道心一起生起

so when path consciousness arises, there is this absolute abstention

当道心生起时,就有这种正断离

that means it destroys the propensity to do wrong speech, or wrong action or wrong livelihood

意思就是摧毁了错误言语、错误行为、邪命的倾向

now

现在

the first one abstention on occasion

第一个:自然离

the commentary gives us a story for that

注释书给我们讲了个故事

there is a family in a village

村里有一户人家

and the mother is sick with some disease

一位母亲生病了

and the physician told them that in order to cure the disease

医生说如果要治好她的病

the fresh flesh of a rabbit is needed

需要新鲜的兔肉

a raw flesh of a rabbit is needed

需要新鲜的兔肉

now there were two brothers

这位母亲有两个儿子

so the older brother asked the younger brother to go to the forest and catch a rabbit

哥哥让弟弟去森林里捉兔子

so he went out to the forest

弟弟就去了森林

and he saw a rabbit eating grass

他看到兔子在吃草

but when the rabbit saw the man the rabbit went away

当兔子看到他的时候,就逃走了

but as the rabbit went away, it was caught in a creeper and so it could not run away and it was making like grrr, grrr, grrr and so on

兔子逃跑的时候,被藤条缠住了不能动弹,发出吱吱的叫声

so he picked it up

所以他就捉住了兔子

and then thought to himself: now i have got medicine for my mother

他想:这可以给我妈妈治病了

i will make medicine with the flesh of this rabbit

这只兔子可以入药

but then he thought

然后他想:

it would not be proper for me to kill a being simply because i want to cure the disease of my mother

为了治疗妈妈的病,而去杀生这应该是不对的

so thinking this way, he just let it go

这样想后,他就放了兔子

and he went back

他就回家了

then his brother asked him whether he had got the rabbit and he told the story

然后他的哥哥问他有没有捉到兔子他就告诉他哥哥情况

so when the elder brother heard this he scolded his younger brother

他的哥哥听了之后,把他骂了一顿

but the younger brother went to the mother

但是弟弟去到母亲那里

and then made the utterance of truth

然后宣说真实语

he made utterance of truth in this way

他这样宣说真实语:

ever since i came of age i know of what is right and wrong

自从成人以来,我知善知恶

i have never taken the life of a living being

未曾杀害任何生命

by this utterance of truth may my mother be cured

以此真实语,愿我母亲得愈痊

and it is said that the disease of his mother is cured

他母亲因此愈痊了

so here this man refrained from killing the rabbit on occasion

这个人避免杀生的境遇

now the occasion for or the chance for killing the rabbit has come to him

在他面前有一个杀兔子的机会

but he refrains from it

但是他远离了

so refraining or abstaining from doing wrong when some opportunity arises

当某种境遇出现时,避免作恶

is called abstention on occasion

这就被称为:自然离

he has an occasion to kill a rabbit but he did not

有杀兔子的机会,但是他没有杀

and abstention on precepts

接下来:持戒离

for this there is another story

这里也有一个故事

again there is a village and

也是一个村庄

one day a farmer took precepts from a well-known monk in the village

一天有个农夫从一个著名法师那里受戒了

so after taking the precepts he went to the fields to plow

受戒之后,他就去田里耕种

and then his oxen ran away

然后他的牛跑走了

and so he went in search of the oxen and he got into a forest

所以他就去森林里寻牛

so in the forest he was caught by a python a snake

在森林里他遇到了一条蟒蛇

so the snake coiled around him

这条蛇缠住了他

but he had in his hand a axe

他手里有一把斧头

so the first thing he thought was i will kill the snake with this axe

他的第一个念头就是要用斧头杀死蛇

so three times he thought that way

起了三次这样的念头

but later he thought it will not be proper for me to break the precepts

但是后来他想:我犯戒杀生恐怕不好

that i have taken from such a holy person

因为给我授戒的是个圣人

so i will give up my life

我要放弃生命

and he threw the axe away

所以他扔掉了斧头

by the power of his moral precepts his moral sila

凭借戒行的力量

the python released him and went away

蟒蛇松开了他,逃走了

so in this story

这个故事里

he abstained from killing the snake

这个农夫放弃杀蛇

because he has taken the precepts

因为他受戒了

so this another kind of abstention, abstention by or through taking precepts

这就是持戒离

the last one is absolute abstention, that means abstention achieved at the moment of enlightenment

最后一个是正断离,是在觉悟的时候获得的

now at the moment of enlightenment you all know the path consciousness arises

觉悟的时候,你们都知道,道心生起

and that path consciousness eradicate all mental defilements

道心断除了所有的烦恼

so when it eradicate mental defilements

它断除了烦恼

it eradicates all disposition for doing what is wrong

断除了作恶的倾向

so that is the abstention that last forever

这就是永远的离

so that is called absolute abstention

叫做:正断离

so there are three kinds of abstentions or abstinences

这三种离

each one of them can be of three

每一个都包含三个

so here we have sammā-vācā, right speech

我们在这里有:正语

sammā-kammanta, right action

正业

and sammā-ājīva right livelihood

正命

since there are abstentions

what is meant here is abstention from wrong speech

就是离开错误的言语

abstention from wrong action

离开错误的行为

and abstention from wrong livelihood

离开邪命

now in the discourses suttas

在经文里

buddha mentioned five trades

佛陀提到五种贸易

that disciples should not follow

佛弟子不当为

and it is

分别是

trading in or dealing in poisons, dealing in intoxicants, dealing in weapons

贩卖毒药、贩卖酒、贩卖武器

dealing in human beings that means slaves and so on

贩卖人口,就是贩卖奴隶等

and dealing in animals for slaughter

贩卖动物,卖它们去屠杀

so these five are called wrong livelihood

这五种被称为邪命

so a disciple of the buddha should abstain from dealing in these five things

佛弟子必须远离这五种贸易

so when he abstains from dealing in these five things

当一个人远离这五种事

and make his livelihood correctly

就是正命自活

then he is said to be practicing right livelihood

这就是正命

but here also right livelihood means abstention from these five kinds of wrong livelihood

正命就是远离这五种邪命

now the next group is limitless ones

下一组是无量

and they are compassion, karuna, and appreciative joy, mudita

就是悲、喜

now they are called limitless because

它们被称为无量

they must take the object that is limitless

是因为它们的所缘是无量的

when you practice compassion

当你修悲心的时候

you have to take all beings as object, no limits

所缘必须是所有众生,无量的

that is why they are called limitless

所以就被称为无量

so limitless means limitless in the range of object

无量,指所缘的无量

and when you practice appreciative joy also, you have to take all beings as object

当你修“喜”的时候也必须将所有众生作为所缘

now what is compassion

什么是悲?

compassion is desire to remove suffering from those who are suffering

悲就是拔除受苦者之苦的愿望

now when you see someone suffering, you want to remove that suffering from that being

当你看到某人受苦你想移除他的苦

and that desire to remove suffering from those who are suffering is called compassion

这种拔除受苦者之苦的愿望就被称为悲

so it has the characteristic of promoting the removal of suffering in others

所以它的特相就是促成他人苦难的拔除

when you practice compassion first you may practice compassion to one person one being, two beings and so on

当你修悲的时候,首先你对一个人、两个人修悲

but ultimately you must reach all beings

但是最终,你的悲心要达到所有众生

so may all beings be free from affliction or something like that

诸如:愿所有的众生远离烦恼等

may all beings be free from suffering

愿所有的众生脱离苦难

so when you repeat this, really meaning this and you are practicing compassion

当你重复这些,真的这样想你就是在修悲心

and it is important when you practice compassion

当你修悲的时候,重要的是

you just stop there with compassion and don’t go into sorrow or anger

仅仅停在悲心上,不要生起忧伤和愤怒

now that is very important

这是非常重要的

now sometimes people transcend or people pass compassion and go into violence

有时候人们跨越悲心,走向暴力

there are people who have compassion for animals being used as tests in medical laboratories

有人对医学实验室的动物有悲心

and then they would attack the people who are working there or they might even throw a bomb at them

他们去攻击在那里工作的人甚至向那里扔炸弹

and so their compassion turns to anger

所以他们的悲心变成了愤怒

so that is not compassion now they have come into anger

所以那不是悲心,它变成了愤怒

so when you practice compassion you have to see to it that it does not change into anger

当你修悲心的时候,你得知道不要让它变为愤怒

or sometimes you’re sorry with the person who is suffering

有时候你对受苦的人感到难过

and when you’re sorry with him then you have dommanasa you have a kind of ill will

你难过的时候,是忧受你的心里就出现嗔,

and so you step over into akusala

所以你跳过悲心,生起了不善心

so it is very important that we must be careful when we practice compassion

所以,修悲的时候,要非常小心,这很重要

we must not get into anger or sorrow

我们必须不要愤怒和忧伤

we must just stop just at compassion wish that they be free from suffering

我们必须只是停在悲心上愿他们脱离苦难

the second is appreciative joy that means

第二个是喜

when other people are prosperous

当别人有成就时

when other people are in success you are happy

当别人成功时,你很开心

you do not feel jealousy

你不会感到嫉妒

so that is appreciative joy or mudita

这就是随喜

and mudita also should be practiced to all beings without exception

喜的所缘也是所有众生,没有例外

and so it is also called limitless

所以也是无量

there must be no limit in the objects of mudita or appreciative joy

随喜的所缘必须无量

so when you practice mudita you say may they not fall away from this prosperity or some thing like that

当你修喜时,你说:愿所有的众生成就等等

now there are four divine abidings, for brahmaviharas

有四梵住

but here only two are mentioned

在这里只是提到两个

that is because metta is included in non-hatred

因为慈被包含在无嗔里

and upekkha is included in neutrality of mind

舍被包含在中舍性里

so actually there are four brahmaviharas

所以实际上有四个梵住

but the other two are included in the mental factors non-hatred and neutrality of mind

但是其他两个被无嗔、中舍性含摄

so these four can be practiced to become brahmaviharas or divine abidings

所以可以修习这四个,成为梵住

and also they can be not brahma abidings

也可以不成为梵住

so when you’re paying homage to the buddha, there is no hatred in your mind

所以当你礼敬佛陀,心里就没有嗔

but you’re not practicing loving-kindness

但是你不是在修慈

and when you’re paying homage to the buddha there is neutrality of mind

当你礼敬佛陀时,心里生起中舍性

but that is not upekkha as the brahmavihara

但是这不是梵住里面的“舍”

so in order to practice brahmavihara or noble abiding

如果要修习梵住里面的“舍”

you have to take the beings as object

你要将众生作为所缘

beings, limitless beings as object

将无量的众生作为所缘

and then thought of loving-kindness and so on to all living beings

然后对所有众生修慈

so here the two are called limitless

在这里,这两个被称为无量

but in other books, the four are called limitless ones

在其他书里,有四无量

now we come to the last one, that is wisdom faculty, paññindriya

最后一个是:慧根

actually paññindriya is amoha, non-delusion

实际上慧根是:无痴

opposite of moha, moha is not knowing

与痴相对,痴就是无明

and so paññindriya is knowing

所以paññindriya指智慧

understanding the true nature of things

了解诸法实相

and since it exercises its authority in its own field

因为在如实知见方面占主导

it is called indriya or faculty

所以被称为“根”

and this paññindriya or wisdom faculty has the characteristic of penetrating things according to their intrinsic nature

慧根的特相就是穿透诸法的本质

that means penetrating the true nature of things understanding that things are impermanent and so on

意思就是穿透实相,知道诸法无常等等

and it is compared to a light

它被比喻成一盏灯

so when there is wisdom then we see things as they really are

有智慧,就能如实知见实相

when there is no wisdom we are like in the dark

没有智慧,就如同在黑暗里

so it is the opposite of moha

它的对立面是:痴

so altogether we get 52 cetasikas

一起就是52心所

some common to both unwholesome and beautiful

有些心所可以伴随不善心,也可以伴随美心

some common to akusala only or beautiful only

有些只伴随不善心,或者只伴随美心

and these cetasikas will come into combination with the types of consciousness we have studied

这些心所将和我们学过的各种心组合

now we will have to find out

我们将要找出

which cetasikas go with which types of consciousness

哪些心所与哪些心同生

and also which types of consciousness go with which types of cetasikas

同样,哪些心与哪些心所同生

that means suppose we will take say vitakka

意思是,假如我们拿出:寻

and we will find out how many types of consciousness arise with vitakka

我们要找出有多少心可以与它同生

and then we will take the first unwholesome citta

假如我们拿出:不善心

and then we will find out how many cetasikas arise with that type of consciousness

我们要找出有多少心所伴随这些心生起

so there are two modes of combination

所以有两种组合模式

so we will study them tomorrow

我们明天学习它们

now we have come to the end of the 52 cetasikas

我们结束了52心所的学习

and these are mental states and these are interesting things

这些心所很有趣

and there is a way of understanding them

可以通过一种方式了解它们

by four aspects

通过四个方面

our teachers of old

我们古代的老师

taught us that each one of these should be understood according to the four aspects

教导我们每个心所都要通过四个方面了解

that means the characteristic of each one function of each one manifestation of each one and proximate cause of each one

即:特相、作用、现起、近因

they are given in the manual

在概要精解里都给出了

so you make check those from the manual

所以你们可以从里面查到

and they will be very interesting

这些非常有趣

ok, we will continue….

好,我们下次继续……

disk01track11

yesterday we studies the 52 mental factors

昨天我们学习了52心所

today we will study the combination of consciousness with mental factors

今天我们要学习心和心所的组合

now on other days i talked and you listened to me

以前是我讲,你们听

so i sweat and you didn’t

所以我流汗,你们很轻松

today i will make you sweat

今天我要让你们流汗

i will make you work

让你们做练习

now the chart on the screen shows the two kinds of combination

屏幕上的图表显示了两种组合

this chart shows the combination two ways

这张表显示了组合的两种方式

if you read from top to bottom

如果你从上往下读

it is one method of combination

这是一种组合方式

in order to differentiate the two methods

为了区分这两种方法

i will call this down going method cetasika-citta combination

我将自上而下的方法称为:心所-心组合

that means we will pick up a cetasika

意思就是我拿出一个心所

and then we will find out how many cittas that particular cetasika arises with

然后我们找出与这个心所同生的有哪些心

and if you read across it is another kind of combination

如果横着看那是另外一种组合

we pick up a type of consciousness

我们拿出一种心

and then we try to find out how many cetasikas arise with that particular type of consciousness

找出有多少心所可以伴随这种心

so we will call it citta-cetasika combination

这种组合就是心-心所组合

so there are two kinds of combination: cetasika-citta combination and citta-cetasika combination

所以有两种组合方式:心所-心组合方式,心-心所组合方式

so

所以

the in the column of cetasikas

在心所的纵列里

there are grouped together

是分组的

52 cetasikas are grouped together 52种心所分组排列

that is to make the chart fit in the page of the book

这样图表才能适应页面大小

if we can expand this chart

如果我们扩展这个表格

so that each column each line represent just one citta, one cetasika

每列每行只代表一种心或心所

it would be very good

这样就非常好

but it maybe bigger than the wall of this hall

但是这样就要一张很大的纸可能比这个墙壁还大

ok, now the first is universal 7, you know the universal 7

好,第一个是遍一切心心所,七个

the 7 universal cetasikas

七个遍一切心心所

if you look back the list of cetasikas,

如果你往前翻心所的列表

the universal 7 are contact, feeling, perception, volition, one-pointedness of mind, life faculty and attention

遍一切心心所是:触、受、想、思、一境性、名命根、作意

the universal 7 represent these 7 cetasikas

遍一切心心所就代表这七个心所

and then next line is initial application or vitakka

下一行是寻心所

and then sustained application, vicara

然后是伺心所

decision, adhimokkha

胜解

energy, viriya

精进

zest, piti

and desire, chanda

and then next column is unwholesome universals 4

下一列是遍一切不善心心所4个

so they are delusion, shamelessness, fearlessness, and restlessness

它们是:痴、无惭、无愧、掉举

and next is greed or lobha

下一个是:贪

and then wrong view, ditthi and conceit mana

然后是:邪见、慢

a group of 3

这是三贪因心所

and next a group of 4

下面是四嗔因心所

hate dosa, envy issa

嗔、嫉、

avarice macchariya and worry or remorse kukkucca

悭、恶作

and then two sloth and torpor, thina and middha

然后是两有行:昏沉和睡眠

and then the last of the akusala cetasikas, doubt vicikiccha

最后一个不善心所:疑

and then beautiful universals 19

然后是:遍一切美心心所19个

since they arise together with the beautiful cittas

它们伴随美心生起

the 19 are put in just column

所以这19个被放在一列里

and then abstinences 3

然后是三离心所

right speech, right action, right livelihood

正语、正业、正命

and then illimitables or limitless ones 2

然后是二无量心所

compassion and sympathetic joy

悲、喜

and then the last wisdom or the wisdom faculty

最后一个是慧或慧根

so these are the 52 cetasikas here

这就是52个心所

if we read these chart down

如果我们从上往下看表

now we will find out how many cittas arise with universal cetasikas

我们会发现有多少心与遍一切心心所相应

since they are universal, they arise with all cittas

因为它们是遍一切心心所,所以与所有心同生

this chart is in the book

书里的这张表

page 102, 103

在第102、103页

if you read down the column universal 7

如果你向下看这列遍一切心心所

you see all cittas there

你看到所有心都与它相应

so 89 or 121 types of consciousness

所有89或121种心

so contact arises with 89 or 121 types of consciousness

所以“触心所”与89

或121种心相应

feeling, perception and so on

然后是受、想等等

all these 7 cetasikas arise with all types of consciousness, so there is no difficulty here

这七种遍一切心心所与所有心相应,这个没什么困难

and then we come to initial application or vitakka

我们现在看寻心所

if you look down at the bottom you see the number 55

如果你看这一列的底下,可以看到数字55 so that means vitakka arises with 55 types of consciousness

意思就说寻心所与55种心相应

and they are, what?

是哪些心呢?

all akusala cittas

所有的不善心

oh, wait, i’d like to explain the left hand column with the head cittas

等一等,我想解释一下左边的“心”

now greed rooted

先看贪根心

there are 8 types of consciousness that are rooted in greed lobha mula

有八种贪根心

so there are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

一二三四五六七八

and then hate rooted, 1 and 2, dosa mula

然后是嗔根心两种

and delusion rooted again 1 and 2 moha mula

然后是痴根心也是两种

now the next sense consciousness 10

接下来是根识10种

now that means, seeing consciousness, hearing consciousness, smelling, tasting and touching consciousness

根识就是:眼耳鼻舌身诸识

5 are the result of unwholesome kamma

五个不善果报心

and the other 5 result of wholesome kamma

五个善果报心

so these 10 are collectively called sense consciousness

所以这十个被称为根识

actually not just sense consciousness

实际上不仅称为根识

two sets of five types of consciousness

还被称为双五识

in pali they’re called dvipañcaviññāṇa

巴利语是:dvipañcaviññāṇa so when we want to refer to all ten of these consciousnesses, we say in pali dvipañcaviññāṇa

如果我们要提到所有这十个心,我们就会说:双五识

so two sets of five types of consciousness

双五识

but here for simplicity sake we will call sense consciousness

在这里,为了简便,直接称为根识

so when we say sense consciousness we mean those ten types of consciousness from the rootless consciousness

所以当我们说根识的时候,就是指无因心里面的这十个心

so two eye consciousnesses, two ear consciousnesses and so on up to two body consciousnesses

双眼识、双耳识、一直到双身识

and then receiving consciousness there are two receiving consciousnesses

然后是领受心,有两个

one belonging to the result of unwholesome and the other belonging to the result of wholesome

有一个是不善果报心,另外一个是善果报心

and then investigating consciousness

然后是推度心

accompanied by equanimity that means accompanied by neutral feeling

是伴随着舍受

and another investigating consciousness

还有一个推度心

there are two of the investigating consciousnesses accompanied by neutral feeling

有两个舍俱推度心

and then investigating joy, that means investigating consciousness accompanied by joy there is only one

然后是悦俱推度心,一个

and it belongs to the result of wholesome kamma

这个是善果报心

and then five-door-adverting

然后是五门转向心

in the dot chart that is the first of the third column in rootless consciousness

在带点的图表里,第三列第一个,是无因心

five-sense-door-adverting

五门转向心

and then the next is mind-door-adverting

然后是意门转向心

and then next one smile producing

然后是生笑心

and then you have SS wholesome

然后是SS善心

sense-sphere wholesome or kamavacara kusala

也就是欲界善心

there are 8, and 1 and 2 are put together there, 3, and 4, 5 and 6, 7 and 8

有八个,一二、三四、五六、七八

because they have the same number of mental factors arise with them

在一起的两个都具有相同数目的心所

and then SS result, sense-sphere resultant

然后是欲界果报心

there are also grouped together as 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 5 and 6, 7 and 8

也是按一二、三四、五六、七八,两个一组

and then SS functional, sense-sphere functional

然后是欲界唯作心

they are also grouped together as 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 5 and 6, 7 and 8

也是按照一二、三四、五六、七八,两个一组

and then FMS what is that?

然后是FMS,这是什么?

fine-material sphere, rupavacara

色界心

so fine-material sphere, first jhana three

色界心,初禅三心

fine-material sphere second jhana three, third, fourth, fifth jhana three

色界二禅,三心,三禅、四禅、五禅,三心

three means one wholesome, one resultant and one functional

三心指:善心、果报心、唯作心

so there are three first jhana, second, third, fourth, fifth jhana cittas

所以初禅、二三四五禅,每一个都有这三心

and then IS

然后是IS immaterial sphere, arupavacara

无色界心

arupavacara is included in the fifth jhana

无色界心被第五禅所摄

so there fifth there

所以第五禅

and there are 12 of them

有十二个心

and then four path cittas

然后是四个道心

expanding into 20 cittas

扩展为二十个心

so here what do they mean is first jhana, first path

在这里就是:初禅,第一道心

second jhana first path

二禅、第一道心

third jhana, fourth jhana, fifth jhana first path

三四五禅,第一道心

and then first jhana second path

然后是初禅,第二道心

second jhana second path

二禅,第二道心

third jhana second path, fourth jhana second path

三四禅,第二道心

and fifth jhana and second path and so on

五禅,第二道心等等

so there are all together 20 path consciousnesses

一起就是二十个道心

and fruit consciousnesses are also in brief there are four

果心,略数是四个

and when expanded there are twenty

如果扩展就是二十个

so first jhana first fruit consciousness

初禅,第一果心

second jhana first fruit consciousness and so on

二禅,第一果心等等

fifth jhana first fruit consciousness

五禅,第一果心

and then first jhana second fruit consciousness and so on

初禅,第二果心等等

so

所以

all 121 types of consciousness are arranged in this diagram

所有121种心都被包括在这张表里

grouping together the types of consciousness that have the same number of mental factors arising with them

根据相同的心所数量,按组分类

that is to abbreviate or to make the chart fit in the page

这样做是为了让图表适应页面

here also if we can put just one citta in one line

我们同样也可以把一个心作为一行

we will have 121 lines so to go down

排列下去就有121行

that will be very good because

这样就很好,因为

in that case you don’t have to find for yourself what sense consciousness means and so on

这样的话,像碰到根识,你就不用再查了

but in order to make it manageable we have to group some types of consciousness together

但是为了让图表适应页面,我们只能给它们分组

so now we will go back to the cetasika-citta combination

我们现在再回到心所-心组合

so the seven univsersals, they arise with all 89 or 121 types of consciousness

所以七个遍一切心心所,它们与所有89或121种心相应

so that is no difficulty here

这个不难

now initial application it arises with all 12 akusala cittas

寻心所,与所有12个不善心相应

and then it does not arise with ten sense consciousness

但是它与双五识不相应

that means eye consciousness and so on

就是指眼识等等

so the eye consciousness so on arise without vitakka without initial application

眼识等的生起没有寻心所的伴随

so initial application does not arise with these ten types of consciousness

寻心所不与这十个心相应

and then two receiving consciousness it arises with and so on so on until we come to the second jhana

然后是与两个领受心相应,一直到二禅心

so the fine-material second jhana three

色界二禅的三个心

there is no vitakka

没有寻心所

and third jhana, fourth jhana, fifth jhana no vitakka and

三四五禅,都没有寻心所

immaterial jhanas no vitakka

无色界禅那,没有寻心所

and then path consciousnesses with first jhana forth, there is vitakkha

然后是道心,初禅系列,有寻心所

but with second, third, fourth, fifth no vitakka

但是二三四五禅,没有寻心所

and with fruit consciousness also first jhana forth there is vitakka

果心也是同样,初禅系列,有寻心所

but with second, third, fourth and fifth there is no vitakka

二三四五禅,没有寻心所

so when we add these all up, we get 55 types of consciousness with which initial application or vitakka arises

所以把所有这些加起来,我们得到55种心,与寻心所相应

actually vitakka does not arise with ten sense consciousnesses

实际上寻心所与十个根识不相应

and it does not arise with second, third, fourth and fifth jhana that’s all

与二三四五禅不相应,如此

if you can remember this, you can find out the 55

如果你记住这些,就能找出55个心

then sustained application

接下来是伺心所

now sustained application arises with 66 types of consciousness

伺心所与66种心相应

the 55 that vitakka arises with plus 11 more

寻心所的55再加11 vicara is with second jhana, right?

伺心所与二禅相应,对吧?

how many jhana factors are with second jhana?

二禅有几个禅支?

vicara, piti, sukha, ekaggata

伺、喜、乐、一境性

so vicara arises 11 more cittas than vitakka

所以伺心所比寻心所多11个相应的心

so you just add the 11 second jhana consciousness to the 55

用11个二禅心加上55 and you get 66

就得到66 you have the small card with you?

那张小卡你们有吗?

please try to find out the fisrt jhana cittas and so on

请找出初禅心等等

how many first jhana cittas are there?

有多少初禅心

3 from rupavacara

色界三个

and 8 from lokuttara or supramundane

出世间八个

so all together 11

一起就是11个

so 11 first jhana cittas, 11 second jhana cittas, 11 third jhana cittas, 11 fourth jhana cittas 11个初禅心,11个二禅心

11个三禅心,11个四禅心

and how many fifth jhana cittas

五禅心多少个?

3 from rupavacara

色界三个

and all 12 arupavacara or immaterial 12个无色界禅心

and then 8 from supramundane

八个来自出世间心

you use the chart?

你们用那个表吗?

so first jhana three

初禅三个

now you see them?

现在你们看到了吧?

first jhana three

初禅三个

there are rupavacara or material consciousness

色界心

and the second jhana three

二禅三个

third jhana three

三禅三个

fourth jhana three

四禅三个

and then fifth jhana three

五禅三个

it’s from rupavacara

这是色界心

and arupavacara all 12 belong to fifth jhana

还有无色界所有12个都属于五禅

and then you go to the supramundane

然后看出世间心

so

所以

path consciousness, look at the path consciousnesses

道心,看道心

how many first jhana cittas are there? four

有多少初禅心?四个

second jhana citta, four

二禅心,四个

third jhana, fourth jhana citta, four

三禅四禅心,四个

fifth jhana citta also four

五禅心,也是四个

and among the fruit consciousness

果心

there are four first jhana cittas

有四个初禅心

four second, third, fourth, fifth, four fifth jhana cittas

二三四五禅心,也都是四个

so if you read these across there are only 11 first jhana cittas

如果你们横着看,有11个初禅心

so three from rupavacara

三个来自色界

and eight from supramundane

八个来自出世间心

so next 11 second jhana cittas

然后11个二禅心

11 third jhana cittas 11个三禅心

11 fourth jhana cittas 11个四禅心

but fifth jhana cittas are more than 11

但是五禅心不止11个

three plus twelve plus four plus four

三加十二加四加四

how many?

多少?

three plus twelve fifteen, fifteen plus four seventeen

三加十二十五,十五加四十七(此处尊者算错了) seventeen plus four, twenty one

十七加四二十一

no

错了

there must be twenty three

应该是二十三

well

那么

three twelve, right?

三加十二,对吧?

or yeah, fifteen plus eight, twenty three

哦,是的,十五加八,二十三

so there are twenty three fifth jhana cittas

所以有23个五禅心

ok now

好,现在

we can go back to the chart

回到图表

so now you can see in your mind

现在你们可以知道

the 11 first jhana cittas 11个初禅心

11 second, third, fourth jhana cittas

二三四禅心,各11个

and 23 fifth jhana cittas

五禅心,23个

now vitakkha arises with 11 first jhana cittas

寻心所与11个初禅心相应

but vicara arises with 11 first jhana cittas and 11 second jhana cittas

但是伺心所与11个初禅心和11个二禅心相应

so that is why vicara or sustained application arises with 66 types of consciousness

所以伺心所与66种心相应

the third one, decision

第三个:胜解

decision does not arise with doubt

胜解不与疑在一起

decision and doubt are opposite to each other

胜解与疑彼此相对

when there is doubt you can not get your decision

如果有疑,你就不能做决定

so when there is decision there is no doubt

做决定的时候,就没有疑

so decision does not arise with the consciousness which is accompanied by doubt

所以胜解不包括在与疑相应的心里

so 11 types of unwholesome consciousness

所以11个不善心

and then it does not arise with the ten sense consciousnesses and that’s all

然后它不与十个根识相应,就这样

so all together 78 or 110

所以一共是78个,或者110个

and then energy

接下来是:精进

energy arises with all twelve akusala unwholesome cittas

精进与所有12个不善心相应

but it does not arise with sense consciousness ten

但是不与十个根识相应

receiving consciousness two

不与两个领受心相应

investigating consciousness three let us say

不与三个推度心相应

and five-sense-door-adverting

不与五门转向心相应

so it arises with only two from the rootless consciousness

它只与无因心里的两个相应

and there are mind-door adverting and smile producing

也就是:意门转向心、生笑心

and then with all the rest of cittas

然后与剩下的所有心相应

and so it arises with 73 or 105 types of consciousness

精进与73或105种心相应

next is what? zest

接下来是什么?喜心所

now zest or joy piti

喜心所

piti cannot arise with those types of consciousness that are accompanied by indifferent feeling or neutral feeling

喜心所不能与舍受心在一起

so piti arises with only four from the lobha mula or four from the types of consciousness rooted in lobha

所以喜心所只与贪根心里的四个相应

and no other from the akusala

不与其他不善心相应

and then it does not arise with sense consciousness because sense consciousness are accompanied by what feeling?

喜心所不与根识相应,因为根识伴随的感受是什么?

all ten sense consciousness are accompanied by upekkha, neutral feeling

所有十个根识都是舍受

so it does not go with upekkha so it does not arise with this

所以喜心所不与舍在一起也就与根识不相应

and two receiving consciousness also

也不与两个领受心相应

are accompanied by upekkha

因为它们也是舍受

so it does not arise with them

所以就不与它们相应

and investigating consciousness accompanied by equanimity two it does not arise with

两个舍俱推度心,不与之相应

but the investigating consciousness accompanied by joy it arises with

但是与悦俱推度心相应

and with smile producing also it arises

也与生笑心相应

and then

然后

we go to kamavacara or sense-sphere wholesome

看欲界善心

now the first four of the sense-sphere wholesome

前四个欲界善心

are accompanied by joy, right? somanassa

它们是悦俱的,对吧?

so with these four piti arises

所以喜心所与这四个相应

but with the other four, piti does not

喜心所与另外四个则不相应

that means with sense-sphere wholesome one two and three four piti arises

即欲界善心1、2、3、4个,喜心所与之相应

but with five six and seven eight piti does not arise

但是第5、6、7、8个,喜心所不与之相应

and then sense-sphere resultant

接下来是欲界果报心

one two three four it arises 1、2、3、4,与之相应

with and, five six seven eight it does not arise with 5、6、7、8,喜心所不与之相应

and sense-sphere functional, one two three four it arises with

欲界唯作心,1、2、3、4,喜心所与之相应

and with five six seven eight it does not arise 5、6、7、8,喜心所不与之相应

and then with first jhana

然后是初禅心

actually 11 11个

with rupavacara first jhana it arises

色界初禅心,与之相应

second jhana yes, third jhana yes

二禅,是,三禅,是

fourth jhana it does not arise

四禅,不与之相应

because there is no piti in fourth jhana

因为四禅没有喜禅支

and then fifth jhana there is no piti so it does not arise

五禅,也没有喜禅支,不与之相应

and with the twelve arupavacara cittas with twelve immaterial sphere cittas it does not arise 12个无色界心,不与之相应

because the twelve immaterial cittas are accompanied by neutral feeling

因为12个无色界心都是舍受

and then with the supramundane it arise with first jhana second jhana and third jhana not with fourth and fifth jhana

然后是出世间心,与初禅、二三禅相应不与四五禅相应

so all together, piti arises with 51 types of consciousness

所以,所有加起来,喜心所与51种心相应

that means with those that are accompanied by joy

即与悦俱的心相应

except the fourth jhana cittas

但四禅禅心除外

and desire chanda

欲心所

desire arises with eight rooted in greed

欲心所与八个贪根心相应

and two rooted in hate

也与两个嗔根心相应

but it does not arise with two accompanied by delusion

但是与两个痴根心不相应

so only ten from akusala

所有与不善心中的10个相应

and then it does not arise with all rootless consciousness

它与所有无因心都不相应

but with others it arises

与剩下的所有心,都相应

so all together it arises, desire arises with 69 or 101 types of consciousness

所以所有加起来,欲心所与69或101种心相应

so now you know how to read this chart

现在你们知道如何看这个表

if you want to know with how many types of consciousness a certain mental factor arises

如果你想知道某个心所与哪些心相应

then you read this chart from top to bottom

你就从上往下看

now let us go further

接下来继续

unwholesome universals four

遍一切不善心心所

that means delusion shamelessness fearlessness and restlessness

即:痴、无惭、无愧、掉举

these four arise all unwholesome cittas

这四个与一切不善心相应

that’s all

就这样

the others are not unwholesome cittas, so they will not arise with any of the remaining types of consciousness

其他的都不是不善心,所以不与其他心相应

and so there are only twelve for them

所以只有十二个心与之相应

that means delusion arises with twelve unwholesome types of consciousness

即:痴与12个不善心相应

shamelessness fearlessness with twelve unwholesome types of consciousness and so on

无惭、无愧也是与12个不善心相应,等等

and then greed or lobha

接下来是:贪心所

it arises with only 8 types of consciousness accompanied by greed lobha mula

它只与八种贪根心相应

no other so only eight

没有其他的,所以只有八种

and wrong view

邪见

wrong view arises with first and second unwholesome consciousness rooted in greed

邪见与贪根心中第一二两种心相应

and then fifth and sixth

也与第五六两种贪根心相应

if you go back to the list of types of consciousness you will see

如果翻回到心的列表,可以看到

say with joy with wrong view unprompted

悦俱邪见相应无行

with joy with wrong view prompted

悦俱邪见相应有行

with joy without wrong view unprompted

悦俱邪见不相应无行

with joy without wrong view prompted and so on

悦俱邪见不相应有行等等

so if you look at the chart you easily see that

如果你看那个表,就容易看到

wrong arises with first and second and fifth and sixth of the eight types of consciousness accompanied by lobha or attachment or greed

邪见与八个贪根心中的第一第二、第五第六相应

and then conceit

然后是:慢心所

conceit arises with third and fourth seventh and eighth consciousness from the unwholesome types of consciousness

慢与不善心中的第三四、七八相应

now it is said in the books that wrong view and conceit do not arise together

书中说邪见和慢不能同时生起

because their way of looking at the five aggregates are different

因为它们观察五蕴的方式不同

wrong view takes things to be permanent, it takes things to be self or soul or so on

邪见认为诸法是常、有我等等

and so its way of looking at the five aggregates is like permanent or soul

所以它看待五蕴的方式是恒常、有我

but conceit is “I”, “I”

但是慢心所是:“我怎样”、“我怎样”

so conceit looks at the five aggregates in another way

所以慢以另外的方式看待五蕴

and so they can not arise together with the same type of consciousness

所以这两个不能同时存在于一个心中

so when wrong view is there there can be no conceit

所以有邪见,就不能有慢

and when there is conceit there can be no wrong view

有慢,就不能有邪见

although they are based on the five aggregates

虽然它们都是基于五蕴

and although both of them are associated with lobha or greed or attachment

虽然两个都与贪有关

because wrong view also comes from attachment to the five aggregates

因为邪见也是起源于对五蕴之贪执

conceit also comes from attachment

慢也是来自贪执

if you are not attached to yourself you will not feel conceit at all

如果你不贪执于自己,你就决不会有慢

so it is said that just as two lions can not live in one and the same cave

所以说,二狮不容于一穴

so wrong view and conceit can not arise with one and the same type of consciousness

所以邪见、慢不能同生于一心

so when there is wrong view there is no conceit, when there is conceit there is no wrong view

所以有邪见就没有慢,有慢就没有邪见

so conceit arises with only third, fourth, and seventh eighth of the consciousness accompanied by greed so only four

所以慢心所与贪根心中的第三第四第七第八相应,四种

now the next group is hate, envy, avarice, worry

下一组是:嗔、嫉、悭、恶作

thsese four are put together because they arise with the two cittas accompanied by hate

这四个放在一起,因为它们与两个嗔根心相应

so if you read down you see

如果往下,你就看到

hate, envy, avarice, worry

嗔、嫉、悭、恶作

hate rooted one and hate rooted two

嗔根心第一、第二

so there are only two types of consciousenss that they arise with

所以它们只与两种心相应

and next is sloth and torpor

下一个是:昏沉与睡眠

now sloth and torpor means you are dull

昏沉与睡眠意思是:呆滞

so sloth and torpor can not arise with those types of consciousenss that are unprompted

所以昏沉与睡眠不能与无行心在一起

so those that are unprompted are not said to be dull

无行心不呆滞

they are keen

因为无行心很敏锐

and so sloth and torpor can not arise with the types of consciousenss that are unprompted

所以昏沉与睡眠不能与无行心相应

so they arise with prompted only

它们只与有行心相应

and they are one two three four five

有1、2、3、4、5 five types of consciousness that are prompted among the twelve unwholesome cittas

与12个不善心中的五个有行心相应

so only five

所以只有五个

and then doubt

然后是疑

doubt arises with only one type of consciousness

疑心所只与一种心相应

and that is the first of the two types of consciousness accompanied by delusion

就是与两个痴根心中的第一个相应

and now we come to beautiful cetasikas

现在看美心所

now the first group is beautiful universal 19

第一组19个遍一切美心心所

now if you look at the list you will find that there are 19 beautiful cetasikas

如果你们看表,就可以看到19个美心所

that is from faith to rectitude of consciousness

从信到心正直性

from number 28 to 46

从第28到第46 so these 19 types of consciousness [cetasikas]

所以这19种心所

arise with all beautiful consciousness

与所有美心相应

that is why they are called beautiful universals

所以被称为遍一切美心心所

so beautiful universals means they arise with every type of beautiful consciousness

所以遍一切美心心所意思是它们与所有美心都相应

that means every type of wholesome consciousness

即:每一种善心

every type of kamavacara resultant consciousness and so on

每一种欲界果报心等等

so they arise with 59 or 91 types of beautiful consciousness

所以它与59或91种美心相应

and then they are three abstinences

然后是三离

right speech, right action, right livelihood

正语、正业、正命

so three abstinences arise with how many?

这三离心所与多少种心相应?

eight sense-sphere wholesome consciousness

八个欲界善心

all, one to eight, one two three four five six seven eight

所有八个,从一到八

and then you go down you get the all supramundane cittas

然后往下,找到所有的出世间心

if you take supramundane cittas to be eight

如果把出世间心算作八个

then the number of cittas they arise with is sixteen

那么与它相应的心有16个

if you take supramundane cittas to be forty, then the number of cittas they arise with is forty eight

如果将出世间心算作40,那么与它相应的心有48个

and then two limitless ones

然后是两个无量

now two limitless ones arise with eight sense-sphere wholesome consciousness

这两个无量心所与八个欲界善心相应

and then

然后

eight sense-sphere functional

八个欲界唯作心

and then first jhana, rupavacara

然后色界初禅

fine-material sphere first jhana three

色界初禅,三个

second jhana, three third jhana, three and fourth jhana, three

二禅三个,三禅三个,四禅三个

they do not arise with fifth jhana

它们不与五禅相应

because illimitables mean karuna and mudita, compassion and sympathetic joy

因为无量心所是悲、喜

and they are accompanied by joy

它们的感受是喜悦

and so they do not arise with fifth jhana

所以与五禅不相应

and they do not arise with all supramundane cittas

与所有出世间心都不相应

so they arise with only 28 types of consciousness

所以只与28种心相应

and then the last one is wisdom, or non-delusion

最后一个是慧或无痴

now if you look at the list you will see

如果看列表,你们就看到

in the sense-sphere wholesome cittas the first two are with joy with knowledge unprompted

欲界善心,前两个是悦俱智相应无行

with joy with knowledge prompted and so on

悦俱智相应有行

so the first and second

所以,第一第二

with first and second wisdom arises

慧心所与第一第二相应

and with fifth and sixth wisdom arises

与第五第六也相应

so four from wholesome four from resultant

所以四个来自善心,四个来自果报心

and four from the functional

四个来自唯作心

and then it arises with all rupavacara cittas arupavacara cittas and lokuttara cittas

然后它与所有色界心、无色界心、出世间心相应

it arises with all fine-material sphere cittas

所以它相应于所有色界心

immaterial sphere cittas and supramundane cittas

无色界心和出世间心

so the wisdom arises with 47 types of consciousness or 79 types of consciousness

所以慧心所与47或79种心相应

so

所以

if you have this chart you can easily find out which cetasikas arise with which cittas

如果你有这张表,就很容易找出哪个心所与那种心相应

if you want to simplify this

如果想方便

you have to draw the diagram for just one line for one citta

你需要画表,每行表示一个心

so you have 121 lines going down

你需要画121行

it may be a big chart

这就会是一张大表

but that will be much easier because you don’t have to think of anything, you just look at it and you get the result

那样就更简单,因为你不需要动脑筋,只要看一下就知道结果

now when i taught abhidhamma in Malaysia

我在马来西亚教阿毗达摩的时候

i had them made a big chart

我让他们画了一张大表格

and they did

他们照做了

and they had about three or four versions of it

他们画了三四个版本

because i divided them into groups and each group made the chart of its own

因为我把学生分组,每组做自己的表

now there were many students there

因为学生很多

too many so that it’s difficult so we divided into groups

人数太多了,比较麻烦所以我们就分组

so if you can do like that a big chart it will be much easier

如果你们能那样画大表格那样就会更简单

but if you know how to read this small chart it may be the same to you

如果你们知道如何读这个小表格效果也是一样的

so this is the method of association

所以,这就是心所相应理

or cetasika-citta combination

或者说:心所-心组合

so this is one method

这是一种方法

now you have this chart

你们有这张表

do you remember the colors of this?

你们记得这张表上的各种颜色吗

colors are not put in this chart

这张表格没有涂颜色

because i left them blank for you to fill in the colors

我留白让你们去涂颜色

so i will give you homework

我会给你们留作业

so

所以

let us do the first one with vitakka

让我们做第一个:寻心所

so with vitakka there are 55 types of consciousness

与寻心所相应的有55种心

transparencies have not been made

透明纸还没做好

so you can not look at this green today

所以蓝颜色你们今天还看不到

so with vitakka there are 55 types of consciousness

与寻心所相应的有55种心

what i want you to do is

我要求你们做的是

filling the colors, correct colors in those types of consciousness that arise with vitakka

就是在与寻心所相应的心上涂上正确的颜色

i hope you can do that

我希望你们能做到

right?

好不好?

so it is important that you do not make mistake

重要的是:不要写错了哦,

because you have only this sheet

你们只有这一张表格

before putting in colors i think you make extra copies

我觉得在涂颜色之前,你们多复印几张

ok, let us try for vitakka

好,现在试试寻心所

you look at the first column right?

看第一列,对吧?

vitakka arises with all twelve akusala cittas right?

寻心所与所有

12个不善心相应,对吧

so you put red color in four

所以在前四个上涂红色

blue color in the next four

接着四个蓝色

green color in the two

接下来两个是绿色

and blue color in the two, ok

然后两个是蓝色,好

and then it does not arise with sense-sphere consciousness

寻心所不与欲界心某些心相应

so you keep blank the ones in the rootless consciousness

所以在无因心里面的某些不用涂颜色

so one two three four five six seven eight nine ten

一二三四五六七八九十

so these ten you leave blank

这十个心不用涂颜色

because vitakka does not arise with these ten

因为寻心所不与这些心相应

with others it arises

但是与余下的相应

so with two receiving consciousness you put in color

所以两个领受心,你涂上颜色

and then three investigating consciousness you put in correct colors

然后是三个推度心,要涂上正确的颜色

one red and two blue

一个红色,两个蓝色

and then with the third column

然后第三列

the first one is five sense door adverting

第一个五门转向心

now vitakka arises with it so you put in color there

寻心所与之相应,所以涂颜色

and mind door adverting also yes

意门转向心,涂颜色

and smile producing also yes

生笑心,涂颜色

so you put in correct colors in these three

这三个涂上正确的颜色

now let us go to sense sphere beautiful consciousness

看欲界美心

so three columns

三列

vitakka arises with all 24

寻心所与所有24个相应

so you have to fill in the colors red colors and blue colors here in all 24

所以你要给24个涂上红色、蓝色

and then vitakka arises with first jhana

然后寻心所与初禅心相应

eleven first jhana cittas 11个初禅心

so that means in topmost line

所以最上面的一行

three rupavacaras and eight lokuttaras

三个色界禅心,八个出世间禅心

and if you count them you will get 55

你们数一下,有55个

so now you know how to fill in the other charts, they’re all together, how many?

你们知道如何涂其他表,看看多少张

only eighteen

只有十八张

not too many

并不多

so i want you to fill in the colors in these charts

我希望你们将这些表都涂上颜色

and tomorrow you will see the transparencies and you will check with the transparencies

明天,你们就会看到透明纸可以用它对答案

how many you get right or you get all right or you may get some one wrong

看看你们对了多少,错了多少

so it is a good exercise to make yourself familiar with the combination of cittas and cetasikas

这是个很好的练习,让你熟悉心和心所的组合

so this is the method of association it is called method of association

这个方法就是心所相应理

but it doesn’t mean much

但是这个意思并不明确

so i prefer to call it cetasika-citta combination

所以我喜欢叫:心所-心组合

that is easier to understand

这个更好理解

so in cetasika-citta combination we can use these charts

所以心所-心的组合,我们可以用这些表

i want you to really do the charts and bring them tomorrow so you can check with the transparencies

我希望你们涂好这些表格,明天带过来用透明纸对答案

so first you have to make yourself familiar with the original basic chart

首先你们要让自己熟悉最基本的表格

because there are colors red blue and green

因为上面有红、蓝、绿的颜色

so you put in correct colors there

你们涂上正确的颜色

so after you have done the charts

你们涂好颜色之后

then you have this chart with you, you can find out easily how many cittas arise with vitakka

然后根据这个表,你们就很容易找出有多少心与寻心所相应

how many cittas arise with vicara

有多少与伺心所相应

i mean with how many types of consciousness vitakka arises

我的意思是寻心所与哪些心一起生起

with how many types of consciousness with vicara arises and so on

伺心所与哪些心一起生起,等等

you want to do the next one

想做做下一个么?

you may try now

你们可以试试

with vicara, 66

伺心所,66个

oh, you may not have red and blue colors with you

哦,你们没有红色和绿色

[laughs] ok

vicara arises with the 55 that arise with vitakka

伺心所与寻心所的

55个相应心一致

plus 11 second jhana consciousness

在加上11个二禅心

so you just put 11 more second jhana consciousness

所以你只需要再涂上

11个二禅心

you put in the colors there and you get the chart for with vicara 66 and so on

你涂上颜色,在表上写上伺心所66,等等

so this is the method of association or cetasika-citta combination

这种方法就是:心所相应理或心所-心组合

now the other combination is called method of combination

另外一种方法是:心所摄理

so i prefer to call it citta-cetasika combination

我喜欢称它为:心-心所组合

we take citta as a basis

是以心为基础

and then we find out how many cetasikas arise with a given citta

然后找出有多少心所被此心所摄

for this method you read across

这种方法,你要横着看

so first there is greed rooted consciousness number one

第一个是贪根心第一个

that is with joy with wrong view unprompted

悦俱邪见相应无行心

so how many cetasikas go with it? 19

有多少心所被其所摄?19 and there are seven universals

七个遍一切心心所

vitakka, initial application, sustained application, decision

寻、伺、胜解

energy, zest, desire

精进、喜、欲

that means all thirteen ethically variables

即所有十三个通一切心所

and then unwholesome universal four, yes

然后4个遍一切不善心心所,是的

and then greed, yes, wrong view, yes

然后贪, 是的,邪见,是的

when there is wrong view there can be no conceit, so only wrong view

如果有邪见,就没有慢,所以只有邪见

so you get all together 19 mental factors arising with first type of consciousness accompanied by greed

所以一起就是19个心所被第一个贪根心所摄

now 19 means universals are seven 19即七个遍一切心心所

and then initial application eight

寻心所,八

sustained application nine

伺心所,九

decision ten energy eleven zest twelve

胜解,十,精进、喜,十二

desire thirteen

欲,十三

and then unwholesome universal four that means seventeen

然后遍一切不善心心所四个,一起十七个

greed eighteen wrong view nineteen

贪,十八,邪见,十九

so the first type of consciousness among those rooted in greed has nineteen mental factors arising together with it

所以贪根心第一个心有十九个心所来聚合

and the second has two more

第二个心再加两个

because when it is prompted

因为当是有行时

when you have to push when you have to encourage that means

当被怂恿,意思是

this type of consciousness is dull

这个心很呆滞

so when it is dull it is accompanied by sloth and torpor

当心很呆滞,就有昏沉和睡眠

so you add just two to nineteen you get twenty one

所以十九加二,二十一

now please notice sloth and torpor are two not one

请注意:昏沉和睡眠是两个心所,不是一个心所

so you get twenty one mental factors arising with the second consciousness rooted in greed

所以第二个贪根心摄二十一个心所

and then the third type of consciousness has nineteen

第三个心摄十九个心所

but although the number is the same

虽然数目与第一个一样

the cetasikas are different

心所是不同的

here instead of wrong view, there is conceit

就是把邪见换成了慢

because it is without wrong view

因为是邪见不相应心

so the third one has nineteen cetasikas the fourth one has twenty four [21?]cetasikas

所以第三个心摄十九心所第四个心摄二十四[21?]个心所

then number five

然后是第五个

number five is accompanied by what? joy or indifference

第五个心是悦俱还是舍俱?

indifference

舍俱

since it is accompanied by indifference

因为是舍俱

zest can not go with it, piti can not go with it

所以没有喜

so

所以

twelve from among the thirteen ethically variables 13个通一切心所里面的12个

and then the rest four unwholesome universals

然后四个遍一切不善心心所

greed, wrong view

贪、邪见

so here eighteen not nineteen

所以这里是18个,不是19个

nineteen minus piti or zest 19个减去1个喜心所

so the fifth consciousness arises with eighteen mental factors

所以第五个心摄18个心所

and the sixth

第六个

the sixth is prompted it is accompanied by sloth and torpor

第六个是有行心,所以有昏沉与睡眠

so it is accompanied by twenty mental factors

所以摄20个心所

number seven, now number seven is without wrong view

第七个,第七个邪见不相应

since it is without wrong view it has conceit

没有邪见,就有慢

so instead of wrong view there is conceit

把邪见换成慢

again we get eighteen

所以又是18个

and number eight we add sloth and torpor so we get twenty

第八个,加上昏沉与睡眠,所以是20个

and next rooted in hate

接下来嗔根心

the first one is accompanied by

伴随第一个心的有

universal seven, initial application, sustained application

七个遍一切心心所,寻、伺

decision, energy, but not by zest or piti

胜解、精进、但没有喜心所

so piti does not go with dosa or domanassa

所以喜不能与忧俱的心同存

so there is no piti

所以这里没有喜心所

and then there is desire and then four unwholesome universals

有欲心所,四个遍一切不善心心所

and no greed

没有贪心所

no wrong view no conceit because it is accompanied by hate

没有邪见,没有慢因为是嗔根心

then it is accompanied by hate envy avarice worry

然后有嗔、嫉、悭、恶作

these four arise with two types of consciousness rooted in hate

这四个与两个嗔根心同生

so we get all together twenty

所以一起有二十个

now seven eight nine ten eleven twelve and twelve plus four sixteen

十二加四,十六

sixteen plus four we get twenty

十六加四,二十个

so the first type of consciousness rooted in hate

所以第一个嗔根心

is accompanied by twenty mental factors

摄二十个心所

and the second is accompanied by twenty two mental factors

第二个嗔根心摄二十二个心所

because it is prompted so we have to add sloth and torpor

因为是有行心,所以加上昏沉和睡眠

and then

接下来

two types of consciousness rooted in delusion

两个痴根心

now decision does not arise with consciousness accompanied by doubt

胜解不能与疑并存

we have to leave out decision here

所以这里没有胜解

and also it does not arise with piti and also with desire

同样,没有喜、欲两个心所

so from among the thirteen ethically variables we get only seven eight nine ten

所以13个通一切心所里,只有10个

and then four unwholesome universals

四个遍一切不善心心所

and no greed no wrong view no conceit because it is accompanied by moha here

没有贪、邪见、慢因为这里是与痴相应

and no hate and so on

也没有嗔等

no sloth and torpor

没有昏沉和睡眠

but there is what? doubt

但是还有什么?有疑

so there are fifteen cetasikas that arise with the first type of consciousness that are rooted in delusion

所以第一个痴根心摄15个心所

and the second one is with restlessness

第二个是掉举相应

so the second one that is no doubt

所以没有疑心所

but there is decision

但是有胜解

so from among the thirteen ethically variables we get how many? seven eight nine ten eleven

所以13个通一切心所,有几个?七八九十十一

and then four unwholesome universals, fifteen

四个遍一切不善心心所,一共15个

so fifteen cetasikas arise with the second unwholesome type of consciousness rooted in delusion or moha mula

所以第二个痴根心摄15个心所

so this way when you read across you get the number of cetasikas arising together with a particular citta

这样,你横着看,就能找到特定心所摄的心所数目

so when we first study this we have to be able to say without looking at the chart we have no chart at the time

我们当初学这些,不能看表当时我们也根本没表格

we had to study the hard way by memorizing

我们要用最苦难的方式,也就是死记硬背

so we tried to exercise among ourselves first before we go to our teacher

我们先在同学们之间训练好然后才去找老师背诵

because if we can not answer the questions then we will be scolded

因为如果我们不能回答正确就会被老师训斥

so

所以

how we memorize, we memorize 19, 21, 19, 21, 18, 20, 18, 20, 20, 22

我们怎么背呢?我们就是硬背

so and then we ask each other what are the 19 what are the 21 and so on

我们互相问答,这个数是什么,那个是什么等等

so that way we get very familiar with the number of cetasikas as well as cetasikas themselves

这样我们就很熟悉这些心所的数目、心所的名称

but nowadays there are many devices we can use like this chart

但是,现在我们有各种手段可以利用,例如这个表格

and if there are computer programmers among the students

如果你们中间有程序员

you can do something you can make a computer program

你们可以有所作为,开发一个程序

to find out which citta arises with which cetasika

找出何种心与何种心所同生

i had a student and he tried it but it was long ago during the time of DOS

我有一个学生,他试过就在很久之前,DOS时代

[laughs] so he made some program and it works

他开发了一个程序,还真管用

so you point out at the first citta and you press a button

你找第一个心,你按一个键

and then you press a key and then you get the answer

按键之后,你就看到了答案

not just 19 or 21 but cetasikas also, so

不仅是19或21这个数目,还显示出心所的名称

if any of you can write the program like that it would be very useful

如果你们之中有人能开发这样的程序那就非常有用,

for all not just here for all people who want to study abhidhamma

不仅让这里的人获益,还能让所有想学阿毗达摩的人获益

so i hope there are some computer programmers with us in the audience

所以,我希望你们之中有程序员

and so if you have time and if you have desire to do it, it would be very useful

如果有时间,想开发,那是非常有用的

and i would be very grateful to you if you can do that because i can use it in my classes

如果你能开发,我就非常感谢因为我可以在课堂上使用

so that way you can just press a key and then you get the answer

那样,你只需要按一下键,就获得答案

and that is why i always say to people nowadays to study a subject of whatever

所以我经常说,如今无论学什么

much easier than it was before

都比以前容易得多了

the computers are great help for studying different subjects

计算机对我们学习不同的学科有很大的帮助

and so the only thing is there will be no commercial value in this

但是这里面没什么商业价值

but it will be a great service to the teachings of the buddha to to the sasana

但是对于佛法的弘扬,就有很大的帮助

ok i think we have a break now

好,我们休息一下

disk01track12

ok, now we will continue

好,我们现在继续

the method of combination or citta-cetasika combination

组合方式,心-心所组合方式

now i want you to be familiar with the pali name also

我希望你们也要熟悉巴利语名称

the citta-cetasika combination is called sangaha method

心-心所组合被称为心所摄理

and cetasika-citta combination is called sampayoga method

心所-心组合被称为心相应理

you find these words in the manual and also on this chart

你们在概要精解和这张表上都可以看到这些词

now this chart and the one on the screen are actually the same

这张表和屏幕上的实际上是一样的

but these i made with pali names

但是屏幕上的我加了巴利语

and

但是

bhikkhu bodhi turned it into english

菩提比丘都翻译成了英语

so you have two versions, this is pali, what is in the book is english

所以,你们有两个版本,屏幕上的是巴利,书上的是英语

so i prefer to use pali so i made chart with pali

我喜欢用巴利语,所以我的表格用巴利语

but the same

但实际上都是一样的

so now we go to the sense consciousness

现在我们看根识

those sense consciousnesses are called dvi-pañca-viññāṇa in pali

这些根识被称为双五识

you may look at this chart: dvi-pañca-viññāṇa

你们可以看这张表:双五识

dvi means two dvi意思是二

pañca means five panca意思是五

viññāṇa means consciousness vinnana意思是“识”

so two five consciousness that means two sets of five consciousness

所以两组五个识,意思就是:双五识

now they are: two eye consciousnesses, two ear consciousnesses and so on

它们是:两个眼识,两个耳识,等等

and there two body consciousnesses

还有两个身识

they are collectively called sense consciousness or in pali dvi-pañca-viññāṇa

它们统称为:双五识

so seeing consciousness is accompanied by how many cetasikas?

所以眼识摄多少心所?

so where is seeing consciousness included?

眼识在哪里?

in the ten sense consciousnesses

被包括在双五识里

so when i ask you how many cetasikas arise with seeing consciousness or eye consciousness

当我问你们眼识摄多少心所时

then you look at the line sense consciousnesses ten

你们就找双五识那一行

and then you find that

你就会发现

there are only seven cetasikas that arise with these ten types of consciousness

双五识只摄七个心所

so that arise with eye consciousness or seeing consciousness

也就是眼识摄七个心所

so they are the types of consciousness that have the smallest number of cetasikas arise with them

它们是所摄心所数目最少的心

only seven universals

只有七个遍一切心心所

then we come to two receiving consciousnesses

然后是两个领受心

receiving consciousness one among the result of unwholesome

领受心,一个是不善果报心

and one in the result of wholesome

一个是善果报心

and both are accompanied by indifferent feeling

两个都是舍俱领受心

so receiving consciousness arises with seven universals

所以领受心与七个遍一切心同生

and then initial application

接下来是寻心所

sustained application

伺心所

and decision

胜解

only ten

只有十个

seven plus three, ten

七加三,十

so either of the two receiving consciousnesses arises with these ten cetasikas

所以这两个领受心任一个都与这十个心所同生

now investigating equanimity or in pali santīraṇa-upekkha

接下来是舍俱推度心

there are two santīraṇa-upekkha

有两个舍俱推度心

upekkha means accompanied by neutral feeling

舍就是upekkha so they are accompanied by or they arise together with how many cetasikas again?

所以它们摄多少心所?

ten cetasikas

十个心所

universal seven, then initial application, sustained application and decision

遍一切心心所七个,寻、伺、胜解

but investigating joy or santīraṇa accompanied by somanassa

但是悦俱推度心

is accompanied by the ten plus piti or zest

所摄为十个心所加喜心所

because it is accompanied by joy it is accompanied by zest also

因为它是悦俱,所以也摄喜心所

so there are eleven cetasikas arising with investigating consciousness accompanied by joy

所以悦俱推度心摄11个心所

and then we come to five sense door adverting

接下来是五门转向心

now five sense door adverting arises with ten mental factors

五门转向心摄10个心所

and they are: universal seven, and then initial application, sustained application and decision

它们是:七个遍一切心心所寻、伺、胜解

and mind door adverting

然后是意门转向心

arises with eleven cetasikas

摄11个心所

just one more that is energy or viriya

加一个精进心所

and then the last one: smile producing

最后一个:生笑心

since it is smile producing, it will be accompanied by piti

因为是生笑心,所以有喜心所

so all together there are twelve cetasikas arising with smile producing consciousness

所以生笑心一共摄12个心所

universal seven, initial application, sustained application, decision, energy and zest or piti

七个遍一切心心所,寻、伺、胜解、精进、喜

now we come to sense-sphere wholesome consciousness

现在我们看欲界善心

now number one and number two are put together because they have the same number of mental factors arising with them

第一个第二个放在一起,因为它们的心所数目是一样的

now they arise with all thirteen ethically viariables

它们摄所有的通一切心所

seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen

七八九十十一十二十三

then they do not arise with unwholesome cetasikas

它们不会与不善心所同生

so we skip unwholesome cetasikas

所以忽略不善心所

then we come to beautiful cetasikas

看美心所

now nineteen beautiful cetasikas arise with all beautiful consciousness

十九个美心所与所有美心相应

so they are nineteen

所以十九

and then three abstinences

然后是三离心所 two limitless ones

二个无量心所

and one wisdom

然后是慧心所

so all together we get thirty eight mental factors arising together with the first and the second sense-sphere wholesome consciousness

所以欲界第一二善心一共摄38个心所

with the third and fourth one less

第三、四个心,少一个心所

because the first and second are with knowledge

因为第一、二是智相应的心

the third and fourth are without knowledge

第三、四心,智不相应

so when it is without knowledge, the last one wisdom can not arise with it

如果是智不相应,最后的慧心所就不与之同生

so the third and fourth arise with 37 cetasikas

所以第三第四摄37个心所

that is thirty eight less wisdom

也就是38减去一个慧心所

and the fifth and the sixth are accompanied with knowledge

第五第六,智相应

but since they are accompanied by indifferent feeling

因为是舍俱的

piti does not arise with them

所以喜心所不会跟它们同生

so the thirty seven is the universal seven

所以37是:遍一切心心所7个

initial application, sustained application, decision, energy

寻、伺、胜解、精进

and no zest or piti

没有喜心所

but desire or chanda

但是有欲心所

and then we go to the nineteen beautiful universals

接下来看19个遍一切美心心所

and three abstinences two limitless ones and one wisdom

三离心所 ,两个无量心还有一个慧心所

seventh and eighth they are without knowledge

第七,第八,智不相应

and since they are accompanied by neutral feeling, piti does not arise with them

因为它们是舍俱心,所以没有喜心所

so seventh and eighth types of consciousness arise with thirty six cetasikas

所以,第七第八个心摄36个心所

now we come to sense-sphere resultant

现在看欲界果报心

so the first and second

第一第二个心

arise with thirty three cetasikas

摄33个心所

now

现在

what are the thirty three?

这33个心所是哪些呢?

thirteen ethically variables 13个通一切心所

and the nineteen beautiful common 19个遍一切美心心所

and then wisdom only

然后只有慧心所

now abstinences arise only with wholesome

三离心所只与善心相应

because abstinences have the nature of kusala

因为三离心所的性质是善的

so when you abstain from something, you get kusala, wholesome kamma

当你具有三离时,你就有善业

so

所以

the abstinences arise only with wholesome

三离心所只与善心相应

so they do not arise with the resultant consciousness

不与果报心相应

so we leave out

所以我们跳过它们

and also the two illimitables or limitless ones do not arise with resultant consciousness

同样,两个无量心所,也不与果报心相应

because karuna and mudita

因为悲心所、喜心所

when you practice karuna and mudita you get kusala

当你修悲、修喜的时候,就获得善业

so when we leave these out, we get only thirty three

当我们跳过这两个,就剩下33个心所

that is for number one and number two that is with knowledge

第一第二个心,这是智相应的

for number three and four we have to leave out knowledge because they are without knowledge

第三第四个,就要忽略慧心所,因为它们是智不相应的心

so they arise with thirty two cetasikas

所以它们摄32个心所

and then the fifth and sixth

然后是第五第六

they are with knowledge

是智相应的心

but since they are accompanied by neutral feeling

因为它们是舍受的

piti does not arise with them

所以喜心所不与它们相应

so the number is the same, thirty two

所以同样的心所数目,32个

although the individual cetasikas are different

心所数目相同,但是对应的心所有所不同

and then the seventh and eighth

然后是第七第八个心

no piti no wisdom so thirty one

没有喜心所,没有慧心所,所以摄31个心所

now we come to functional cetasikas

现在看唯作心

all the thirteen the ethically variables arise with the first and second

所有13个通一切心所与第一第二个心相应

and then nineteen beautiful universal

然后是19个遍一切美心心所

and abstinences do not arise with the functional consciousness

三离心所不与唯作心相应

because they have the nature of kusala

因为它们具有善的性质

and illimitables or limitless ones that is karuna and mudita arise

无量心所,即悲心所、喜心所

and also wisdom arise with the first two

还有慧心所,与前两个心相应

and so we have thirty five cetasikas with the first and second sense-sphere functional consciousness

所以前两个欲界唯作心摄35个心所

and with the third and fourth

第三第四个心

we subtract wisdom

我们减去慧心所

and with the fifth and sixth

第五第六个心

we put in wisdom but we subtract zest or piti

加上慧心所,但是减去喜心所

and with seventh and eighth we subtract both

第七第八个心,两个都减掉

the piti and wisdom

就是减去喜心所、慧心所

so there are only thirty three cetasikas arising with seventh and eighth sense-sphere functional consciousness

所以第七第八欲界唯作心只摄33心所

now we come to rupavacara cittas

现在看色界心

so rupavacara cittas are grouped as first jhana three, second jhana three and so on

色界心分为:初禅三心、二禅三心、三禅三心,诸如此类

so please understand that in the first jhana three

要知道,初禅的三心

there are wholesome resultant and functional

就是善心、果报心、唯作心

so first jhana three are accompanied by all thirteen ethically variables

初禅三心所摄心所:所有13个通一切心所

and then nineteen beautiful universals

然后是19个遍一切美心心所

and two limitless ones

然后是两个无量心所

and one wisdom

还有慧心所

so there are thirty five cetasikas for the three first jhana cittas of rupavacara

所以色界初禅三个心一共摄35个心所

and for the second jhana

现在看二禅

you know, vitakka must be missing

二禅没有寻心所

so you subtract vitakka and you get thirty four

所以减掉寻心所,就是34个心所

for the third jhana

看三禅

you have to subtract vicara

你要减掉伺心所

so without vitakka and vicara there are only thirty three

去掉寻、伺,只有33个心所

and with the fourth jhana, piti is also missing

四禅,喜心所也没有

so without vitakka without vicara without piti only thirty two

没有寻伺喜,只有32个心所

and with the fifth jhana only thirty

五禅,只有30个心所

fifth jhana is accompanied by upekkha, right?

五禅心是舍俱的,对吧?

so two limitless ones can not arise with upekkha

所以两个无量心所不能与舍俱心同生

because they have the nature of joy

因为它们具有喜悦的性质

so we must leave out these two with the fifth jhana consciousness

所以,对于五禅心我们要去掉这两个心所

so there are only thirty mental factors arising with three fifth jhana form-sphere consciousness

所以色界第五禅心只摄30个心所

with the formless sphere consciousnesses

对于无色界心

twelve formless sphere consciousnesses 12个无色界心

they belong to the fifth jhana

它们属于第五禅

and so they are accompanied by indifferent feeling or upekkha

所以它们是舍受的心

so they have the same number of cetasikas as the fifth jhana of the material sphere consciousness

所以它们与色界第五禅心具有相同数量的心所

so only thirty

所以只有30个心所

and for the lokuttra or supramundane consciousness

对于出世间心

now please understand that first jhana four means first jhana first path, second path, third path, fourth path

要知道初禅四心意思是初禅第一道心,第二道心第三道心,第四道心

and fifth jhana four means fifth jhana first path, second path, third path, fourth path

五禅四心意思是:五禅第一道心,第二道心第三道心,第四道心

and the same with the fruit consciousnesses

果心也是如此

so with the first jhana consciousness of the supramundane sphere

所以出世间的初禅心

there are thirty six cetasikas arising with them

摄有36个心所

thirteen ethically variables 13个通一切心所

and nineteen beautiful universal 19个遍一切美心心所

and three abstinences

三离心所

the illimitables do not arise with supramundane consciousness

无量心所不与出世间心相应

and there is wisdom

慧心所与之相应

and so we get thirty six mental factors arising with first jhana consciousness in supramundane cittas

所以出世间初禅心摄36个心所

with the second jhana you know you subtract vitakka

二禅,大家知道要减去寻心所

and with the third jhana, vitakka and vicara

三禅,减掉寻、伺

and with the fourth jhana, vitakka, vicara and piti

四禅,减掉寻、伺、喜

and fifth jhana again vitakka, vicara and piti

五禅,减掉寻、伺、喜

and so you have only thirty three

所以只有33心所

with the fruit consciousness also the same number of cetasikas

对于果心而言,是相同的心所数目

so with the first jhana fruit consciousness there are thirty six cetasikas

所以初禅果心,36个心所

and with the second thirty five

二禅,35个

with the third, thirty four

三禅,34个

with the fourth, thirty three

四禅,33个

and with the fifth thirty three

五禅,33个

so this is how we find out the combination of cittas and cetasikas

所以,这就是心-心所的组合方式

so if you have this chart

所以,如果你们有这张表

you can easily find out how many cetasikas go with a given citta

你们就可以很容易找出某个心摄多少心所

now when we study something we have to find out ways of memorizing or ways of making ourselves familiar with the subject

当我们学习某个科目的时候就要找出记忆方法熟悉它

so you may use this chart also

所以你们也可以用这张表

and also you may use this chart for easy reference

可以参照这张表

but this you have to put in the colors first

但是这张你要先涂上颜色

and it is good to do it yourselves

你们最好自己完成任务

so that you get more familiar with the chart

这样就能更熟悉这个表

and also that is a kind of ego

这也是种“自我”

I made it

“我完成了这张表”

[laughs] so it is my, my doing and so you have more and more respect for the chart

这是“我做的……”所以你就会越来越看重这张表

the handout

资料

i hope you have this handout also?

我想你们也有这份资料吧?

the sampayoga method, cetasika-citta combination

心所相应理:心所-心组合

you may refer to this sheet also

你们也可以参照这张资料

at the bottom of that sheet there is some information

在页面底部有一些信息

so the sheet is called sampayoga method

所以这张被称为:心所相应理

cetasika-citta combination

心所-心组合

generally, we say that dosa, issa, macchariya, kukkucca

一般地,我们说:嗔、嫉、悭、恶作

they arise with two types of consciousness accompanied by ill will or dosa

它们与两种嗔根心相应

but actually

但是实际上

the envy, avarice and remorse do not arise together

嫉、悭、恶作并不同时生起

so the number given is the maximum possible number of cetasikas arising with a given citta

所以上面的数字只是特定心的最大可能心所数量

but actually at one time they do not arise together

但是,实际上它们不能同时生起

envy

envy means jealousy

嫉就是嫉妒

so jealousy takes other person’s success, or other person’s property, other person’s position as object

嫉妒的所缘是:别人的成功、别人的财产、别人的地位

and macchariya or avarice takes one’s own property, one’s own success, one’s own position as object

悭的所缘是:自己的财产、自己的成功、地位

so they take different objects

它们的所缘不同

that is why they can not arise together

所以它们不能同时生起

so

所以

when you’re jealous of another person’s success

当你嫉妒别人的成功

there is issa or jealousy in your mind

你心里就有嫉心所

but not macchariya or avarice

但是没有悭心所

when you can not tolerant your positions being common to others.

如果你不能忍受别人分享自己的地位

then macchariya arises in your mind

你心里就生起悭心所

and not issa or jealousy

就没有嫉心所

so they arise occasionally

所以它们只是偶尔个别地生起

only when you feel jealous jealousy will arise

只有当你感到嫉妒的时候,才会生起嫉心所

only when you feel intolerance the macchariya will arise

只有当你感到不能包容时,悭心所才生起

so they arise occasionally or sometimes only

所以它们只是个别单独生起

and then kukkucca, remorse

然后是恶作

remorse takes something you did in the past

恶作的所缘是过去所做的坏事

and something good you did not do in the past

过去没有做的好事

so remorse also arises occasionally

所以恶作也是偶尔地生起

only when you have regret the remorse will arise

只有你后悔的时候才生起恶作

if you do not feel that remorse, then it will not arise in your mind

如果你不后悔,心里就不会生起恶作

for example, you kill an animal

例如,你杀了一只动物

so when you kill an animal let us say you have no remorse

当你杀死动物不后悔的时候

remorseful feeling what you did in the past or what you did not do in the past

后悔的所缘是过去做的错事,过去没有做的好事

and in that case, kukkucca will not arise with your consciousness

不后悔的话,心里就不会生起恶作

so these are said to be arising sometimes only occasionally

所以它们只是偶尔地生起

and these three when they arise they arise separately

这三个,生起的时候,是单独生起

that means only one of them can arise at one time

意思就是一次只能生起一个

when there is issa in the consciousness

心里有嫉心所的时候

then macchariya will not arise

就没有悭心所

kukkucca or remorse will not arise and so on

恶作也不会生起,诸如此类

so first please noted these three arise separately

所以首先要注意:这三个单独地生起

that means one at a time

意思就是一次只生起一个

and they arise only occasionally, only sometimes

只是偶尔生起,有时生起

so

所以

they may not arise every time the dosa consciousness arises

当嗔根心生起时,它们也可能不生起

only when you feel jealousy only when you feel intolerance will they arise

只有当你嫉妒,或者不容忍它们才生起

and then the virati three abstinence three

然后是三离心所

the same, they arise separately, and they arise occasionally

同样,它们也是单独生起,偶尔生起

that means when you are paying homage to the buddha

意思是,当你礼敬佛陀的时候

they do not arise in your mind

它们并不在心里生起

and these can arise separately one at a time

它们只能每次生起一个

because right speech means abstention from wrong speech

因为正语,意思是远离错误语言

right action means abstention from wrong action, right livelihood means abstention from wrong livelihood

正业意思远离恶业,正命意思是远离邪命

so abstention from wrong speech will arise only when you abstain from wrong speech

所以,正语这个心所只有当正语的时候才生起

if you are not abstaining from wrong speech if you are just paying homage to the buddha

如果你没有正语,你只是在礼敬佛陀

if you are doing just dana

如果你只是在布施

it will not arise in your mind

正语这个心所就不会在你心里生起

so it will arise sometimes only

它只是偶然地生起

and when it arises it arises separately one at a time

当它生起的时候,只能单独生起每次生起一个

so when there is right speech there is no right action

所以当生起正语心所,就没有正业心所

there is no right livelihood and so on

也没有正命心所,等等

so these three abstinences arise separately that is one at a time

所以,这三离心所,单独生起意思是每次生起一个

and they arise only when you refrain from wrong doing

只有你正远离诸恶的时候,它才生起

and then the two appamañña two limitless ones

然后是两个无量心所

that means compassion and sympathetic joy

意思是悲、喜二心所

they arise separately and occasionally

它们单独地生起,偶尔生起

now they arise only when you have compassion for beings

只有你对众生有悲心,才生起悲心所

they arise only when you are glad at the success of others

只有当你为别人的成功开心,才会生起喜心所

but when you pay homage to the buddha they do not arise in your mind

但是当你礼敬佛陀的时候它们并不会生起

so they arise the compassion and sympathetic joy arise only occasionally

所以这悲、喜二心所只是偶尔生起

and when they arise they arise separately, one at a time

当它们生起的时候,每次只生起一个

when you feel compassion, you don’t feel sympathetic joy, vice versa

当生起悲心所的时候,就没有喜心所,反之亦然

and then mana, conceit or pride

接着是慢心所

it also arises occasionally

它也是偶尔生起

not every time the consciousness accompanied by lobha arises

并不是随着贪根心,每次都生起

only when you have this pride in yourself or the pride of something will it arise

只有当你为自己或其他而骄慢,慢心所才会生起

so mana is said to be arising occasionally or sometimes only

所以,慢心所只是偶尔地生起

you know with what consciousness does mana arise

你们知道在什么心里,生起慢心所?

let’s say that there are eight types of consciousness accompanied by lobha

贪根心有八个

so with which citta does mana arise

哪个心会生起慢心所?

with the first or with the second or with the third or with the fourth?

第一个?第二?第三?第四?

does it arise with the first?

慢心所会与第一个贪根心一起生起么

no, because there is ditthi

不会,因为第一个是邪见相应

and with the second also? no

第二个呢,也不会

but with the third? yes, with the fourth? yes

第三个,是的,第四个,是的

ok, now let us take the third one

好,看第三个

now whenever the third consciousness arises mana may or may not arise

当第三个贪根心生起的时候,慢心所可能会,也可能不会生起

because it arises occasionally

因为它是偶尔地生起的

only when you have pride will it arise

只有你骄慢时,它才生起

if you have just attachment for something and no pride involved

如果你只是有贪执,没有涉及骄慢

then it will not arise

它就不会生起

so it arises occasionally

所以说它是偶尔地生起

and then thina and middha sloth and torpor

接下来是昏沉与睡眠

they always arise together, they will not separate

它们总是一起生起,不会分开

and they arise occasionally

但是它们是偶尔地生起

only when you become sleepy

只有当你困倦时

only when you become, when your mind become dull

只有当你的心呆滞的时候昏沉与睡眠才会生起

otherwise they will not arise with the consciousness assign to them

否则,它们就不会与那些分配给它们的心一起生起

so these, how many all together?

所以,这些一共是多少个?

three plus three plus two plus one plus two

三加三加二加一加二

eleven 11个

these eleven cetasikas are called in pali aniyatayogi

这十一个心所被称为:不定附随法

that means they associate not always

意思是它们并不是总是生起

in english they are called fixed adjuncts, niyatayogi are called fixed ajuncts,

定附随法的意思是:固定的附件

and so there are aniyatayogi, unfixed adjuncts

这些是不定附随法:不固定的附件

now the other the remaining forty one cetasikas are called fixed adjuncts

剩下的41个被称为定附随法

that means they will arise with every consciousness assigned to them

意思是对于每一个分配给它们的心,它们都会生起

so

所以

let us say

例如说

first citta accompanied by ill will

第一个嗔根心

how many cetasikas will arise with it?

有多少心所与它同生?

the maximum number is twenty

最大的数目是20个

but

但是

can twenty arise at one time? can all twenty arise at one time?

这20个心所能同时与它一起生起吗?

no

不能

issa, macchariya and kukkucca they arise occasionally

因为嫉、悭、恶作是偶然地生起

so they may not arise at all

所以它们可能完全不会生起

so the number of cetasikas arising with the first consciousness accompanied by dosa

所以第一个嗔根心所摄的心所数量

may be twenty minus three, only seventeen

可能是20减去3,只有17个

but at most, one of them can arise

但是这三个,至多只能生起一个

so at most there can be eighteen

所以,第一个嗔根心所摄心所最多是18个

but the maximum possible number is twenty

但是可能与它同生的心所最多是20个

so this difference also we have to understand

所以我们也要了解这种区别

again

接着

first citta accompanied by ill will or dosa

第一个嗔根心

when you look at this chart

当你看这个表的时候

so you will see that it is accompanied by twenty cetasikas

你会看到它摄20个心所

among the twenty cetasikas there are issa, macchariya and kukkucca

这20个之中,有嫉、悭、恶作

so these three may not arise at all with this type of consciousness

所以,这三个完全可能不与这个心同生

so every time this first consciousness arises there will be only seventeen

如果这样,每次第一个贪根心生起就只有17个心所与它同生

but since issa, macchariya and kukkucca arise occasionally

但是因为嫉、悭、恶作它们偶尔生起

then at one time, they can be eighteen

所以这个心也可以一次摄18个心所

with issa or with macchariya or with kukkucca

就是加一个嫉、或悭、或恶作

but the maximum possible number of cetasikas arising together with this type of consciousness is twenty

但是可能与这个心生起的心所最大数量是20个

and then the next thing to note is you can note on the screen or on your sheet

下一个要注意的是你们可以看屏幕或自己的材料

the three abstinences or virati cetasikas

三离心所

they arise in the eight kamavacara kusala cittas

它们在八个欲界善心里生起

it means they arise with eight sense-sphere wholesome consciousness sometimes only

意思是它们只是偶尔地与八个欲界善心生起

so again when abstaining from evil speech evil deeds or wrong livelihood

只有当你正语、正业、正命的时候

and not at other times

其他时候不生起

and they arise separately when a person abstain from evil speech

而且它们是单独地生起,当一个人离恶语的时候

only samma vaca arises and not the other two and so on

只是生起正语心所,其他两个不生起

this you already understand

你已经知道这个了

but when they arise with the lokuttara cittas with the supramundane cittas

当它们与出世间心一起生起时

they arise by all modes of crushing evil speech, evil deeds and wrong livelihood

它们一下全部摧毁了恶语、恶业、邪命

for there is no job for them in these cittas to crush evil speech, evil deeds and wrong livelihood one at a time as in the kamavacara kusala cittas

在欲界善心里,恶语、恶业、邪命是一个个摧毁的,但在出世间心里是全部摧毁的

now when the path consciousness arises

所以道心生起的时候

now it is said that these three arise

所有三离心所都生起

not like with the sense-sphere consciousness

不像是在欲界心里的情况

when the abstinences arise with the sense-sphere consciousness

当三离心所在欲界心里生起

they will arise sometimes only they will arise one at a time

它们只是偶尔地生起,一次也只生起一个

but with the supramundane consciousness

但是在出世间心里

they will always and all three will arise simultaneously

它们总是生起,而且是三个同时全部生起

because when a path consciousness arises

因为当道心生起时

the path consciousness can eradicate completely all evil and livelihood at once

道心可以一次性摧毁诸恶、邪命

it is like lightning striking a tree

就像闪电摧毁一棵树

so since it can eradicate all evil and all wrong livelihood all at once

因为它可以一次性摧毁诸恶、所有邪命

they arise together at the same time

所以三离心所同时生起

so this is the different between the abstinences arising with sense-sphere consciousness and with supramundane consciousness, it is the opposite

所以,这就是三离心所在欲界心和出世间心中的区别它们是相反的

when arising with supramundane consciousness they arise always

当它们与出世间心一起生起时它们总是同时生起的

not occasionally

不是偶尔生起

and all three arise together not one by one

三个一起生起,不是单独生起

now there is one more thing to note

还要注意一件事

and that is with regard to karuna and mudita

就是关于悲、喜二心所

now according to this chart

根据这个表格

the karuna and mudita compassion and sympathetic joy

悲、喜二心所

arises with how many cittas?

与多少心同生?

you know where to find karuna and mudita

你们知道在哪里找悲、喜二心所

apamana two is karuna and mudita in this chart

表格里的二无量就是:悲、喜心所

so karuna and mudita arise with twenty eight types of consciousness

悲、喜二心所与28种心相应

now this is the common opinion of teachers

这是所有老师的普遍看法

but there are some teachers who had different opinion

但是有些老师有不同的看法

so the author of the manual of abhidhammatthasangaha says

所以《摄阿毗达摩义论》的作者说

some say this and that

有些人这样说,那样说

so when the word “some say” are used, that means the author doesn’t like it

当有“有些人说”这种措辞时表示作者不喜欢这些说法

that is why he said some say this, some say that

所以他就这样写:有些人这样说,有些人那样说

this is a kind of style in writing in the olden days that

这是以前的写作风格

when they used the word some say that means they don’t like it

如果他们用“有些人说”,表示他们不喜欢这样的说法

so the karuna and mudita

所以悲、喜二心所

when cultivating karuna and mudita

当修悲、喜时

one may do experience preliminary cultivation

可能有一些初级的修持

that is before jhana arises, with cittas accompanied by upekkha

就是在禅那生起之前,是舍俱之心

now when you practice let us just say compassion

例如当你修悲的时候

when you practice compassion

你修悲

first you practice compassion saying to yourselves

开始你修悲,对自己说

may this being get free from suffering, may this being get free from suffering and so on

愿众生免于苦,等等

so when you are doing this

当你这样做的时候

by the force of the practice

通过修持的力量

you may do this preliminary exercises with consciousness accompanied by indifferent feeling

这些初级的修持之心,可能是舍受

when

you have thoroughly learned a passage

你对某段文字彻底熟悉时

you can recite that passage

你可以背诵这段文字

without paying attention to it

不需要在将注意力放在上面

or your mind may be somewhere else but you still can say the passage you have memorized

你的心可以放在别处但是你还是可以背诵这段文字

so that may have happened to you many times

这种事情你可能经历过多次

when you pay homage to buddha sometimes

当你礼敬佛陀时刻,有时候

you are saying the word, your mind may be somewhere else

你背诵这些段落,你的心可能在别的地方

because you are very familiar with the passage

因为你非常熟悉这些段落

so in the same way when you become very familiar with or experience with this wish

同样,当你非常熟悉你的祝愿

that beings get free from suffering

愿所有众生离苦

you may do this with the consciousness accompanied by upekkha

你做这些的时候,心可以是舍俱的

and also the other example is that when you practice vipassana

另外一个例子是,当你修内观的时候

now vipassana means knowledge

内观意思就是:智慧

so when you practice vipassana your mind must be accompanied by knowledge

当你修内观的时候,你的心必须是智相应的

without knowledge normally speaking, there can be no vipassana

智不相应,一般就没有内观

but when you have experience of vipassana

当你有内观的体验后

then at sometimes

有时候

you may be able to comprehend the mind and matter with consciousness that is not accompanied by knowledge

你可能用智不相应的心观察名色

you have been doing this many times and for a long time

如果你多次长期内观

that you’ve become very acquainted with comprehending the mind and matter with consciousness accompanied by knowledge

你用智相应之心对名色的观察就很熟悉

and so by the force of that sometimes you may be able to comprehend the mind and matter with the consciousness that is not accompanied by knowledge

因为这种惯性,有时候你可能用智不相应的心来观察名色

so in the same way here also

这里也是同样

a person may be able to practice the karuna and mudita with consciousness that is accompanied by upekkha

一个人可以用舍俱之心修悲、喜

but when he gets jhana

当他获得禅那之后

it must definitely be accompanied by somanassa or joy

就一定会有悦俱的心

so two phases

所以两个阶段

there are two phases the preliminary phase and let us say jhana phases

初级阶段、禅那阶段

during preliminary phase

在初级阶段

sometimes it may be possible to practice compassion and sympathetic joy with consciousness accompanied by indifferent feeling

有时候,可以用舍俱的心来修悲、喜

but in the jhana phase

但是在禅那阶段

the consciousness must definitely accompanied by somanassa or joy

心必须是喜俱的

please look at the chart and find out how many cittas they arise with?

请看表,找出它们与多少心相应?

sense-sphere kusala, right? eight

欲界善心,对吧?八个

and then sense-sphere functional, eight

然后欲界唯作心,八个

and then rupavacara

然后是色界心

first jhana second jhana third jhana fourth jhana

初禅、二禅、三禅、四禅

so among the sense-sphere wholesome consciousness

在欲界善心里

some are accompanied by joy and some are accompanied by upekkha

有些是悦俱,有些是舍俱

right? four are accompanied joy four are accompanied by indifferent feeling

对不对?四个是悦俱,四个是舍俱

the same with the functional consciousness

唯作心也是如此

now what some teachers say is that karuna and mudita can not be practiced by consciousness accompanied by indifferent feeling

但是有些老师认为悲、喜二心所不能与舍俱之心同时生起

so according to them karuna and mudita can not arise with consciousness that are accompanied by indifferent feeling

根据他们的说法,悲、喜心所不能与舍俱心同时生起

so that is what is the some teachers said

这是有些老师的说法

now the teacher of this manual did not like this saying or this opinion so he

《摄阿毗达摩义论》的作者不喜欢这样的说法

says some author say this

所以他说:有些人这样说

and the reason is that when one has become familiar with doing something

原因就是当一个人熟悉做某件事

then one may do things with his mind on some other object

他在做这件事的时候,所缘可以是别的东西

so here also

这里也是同样

when one has become thoroughly familiar with practicing the compassion and sympathetic joy

当一个人彻底熟练修悲、喜心所

one may be able to do it with consciousness accompanied by indifferent feeling

他就可以用舍俱之心来修悲、喜

so it is to be noted that

你们要注意

the common opinion of all teachers is that

所有老师共同的看法

the karuna and mudita compassion and sympathetic joy

悲、喜二心所

can arise with all these twenty eight types of consciousness

可以与所有28个心相应

but according to some how many?

但是根据有些人的说法,是多少?

common opinion is twenty eight types of consciousness, right?

通常的看法是与28个心相应,对吧?

but some say that

但是有些人说

it can not arise with indifferent feeling upekkha

不能与舍俱心相应

so how many according to some teachers

所以根据这些人的说法,是多少心?

you have to leave out those that are accompanied by indifferent feeling

你要去掉舍俱的心

so from the eight sense-sphere wholesome consciousness

所以八个欲界善心中

you take out four

你要去掉四个

and from the eight sense-sphere functional consciousness

从八个欲界唯作心中

you take out four that are accompanied by upekkha

你去掉四个舍俱心

so all together you take out eight of them you get only twenty

所以一共去掉8个,只有20个

so that is according to some teachers

这是有些老师的看法

so according to some teachers

根据有些老师的说法

the karuna and mudita arise with twenty types of consciousness

悲、喜二心所与20个心相应

but according to common opinion of teachers

但是根据大多数老师的说法

karuna and mudita arise with twenty eight types of consciousness

悲、喜心所与28种心相应

now when you fill in the chart

当你填写这个表格时

you will come to that

你就会碰到这些心所

so

所以

if you don’t remember

如果你不记得

you can read this book

你就可以看书

and also read these notes so you can get them right

也要看看这些注释,这样就能做对

so with regard to karuna and mudita

所以对于悲、喜二心所

it was say, common opinion and then opinion of some teachers

有两种看法:主流看法,某些老师的看法

so you have to fill in the colors correctly

所以你要正确涂颜色

now

现在

you want to start more?

要继续进行吗?

there is another type of combination of cittas and cetasikas

还有一种心-心所的组合方法

although it is too involved

虽然它很复杂

i just want to let you know there is such a method also

我只是想让你们知道有这种方法

you may not want to do it but there is such a method

你们可能不想练习这种方法但是是有这样的方法

and that is mixture of two methods, i don’t know whether you have this sheet with you

就是前两种方法的混合我不知道你们有没有这张资料

mixture of two methods

混合组合方式

so this is the mixture of two methods

就是两种方法的混合

citta-cetasika combination and cetasika-citta combination

心-心所、心所-心,两种混合起来

only when you are very familiar with the two methods

只有当你们非常熟悉这两种方法

can you do this mixture of the two methods

你们就能做这种混合方法

the usual method are

通常的方法是

citta and cetasika combined, right? cetasika and citta combined

心-心所,心所-心,这样组合,对吧?

now this method is cetasika and cetasika combined

但是这种方法是心所-心所组合

the easiest one is the first one

第一个最简单

the contact

触心所

so the question is

问题是

how many cetasikas arise with contact?

有多少心所与触心所同生?

now you know that contact is also a cetasika

你们知道触也是一个心所

so how many cetasikas arise with contact

有多少心所与触同生

first you have to find out how many cittas arise with contact

首先你得找出有多少心与触相应

and then you have to find out how many cetasikas arise with those cetasikas

然后再找出与之相应的心所

and then third step is you know how many cetasikas arise with contact

第三步就知道触心所与多少心所同生了

with contact it is very easy

对于触心所而言,很简单

but with other cetasikas it may not be so easy

但是对于其他心所,可能就不那么简单了

now contact arise with eighty nine cittas

触心所与89种心相应

and with eighty nine cittas all fifty two cetasikas arise 89种心摄52个心所

so the answer is

所以答案是

contact arise with fifty one cetasikas

触心所与51个心所同生

except itself

除了它自己

with feeling the same

受心所也是一样的

with vitakkha the same

寻心所是同样的

with vicara the same

伺心所是同样的

but with adhimokkha it is different

但是对于胜解而言,就不同了

so this is a little involved

这就有点复杂

so if you don’t want to, i don’t want to go into this method

如果你们不想,我就不教你们这种方法了

but i just want to let you know that

我只是想让你们知道

there is such a method

有这么一种方法

and this method is created by one famous sayadaw of myanmar

这种方法是缅甸一个著名长老提出的

so when he wrote his book

他在他的书中

he introduced or he created this method

介绍了这种方法

and this method is very useful in making yourself thoroughly familiar with the first two methods

对于彻底熟悉前两种方法,这种方法很有帮助

so only when you are thoroughly familiar with the first two methods

只有你彻底熟悉前两种方法

can you do this

你才能练习第三种方法

let us called third method, that is the mixture of two methods

这就是第三种方法:混合方法

so we come to the end of second chapter

我们结束第二章的学习

now the second chapter deals with cetasika or mental factors

第二章讨论了心所

and as you now know how many mental factors?

你们现在知道,有多少心所?

fifty two mental factors 52心所

and each mental factor is interesting in itself

每个心所都很有趣

and we can study more about this

我们以后会进一步学习

these mental factors by reading this book

通过这本书学习这些心所

or by reading the visuddhimagga

也可以通过《清净道论》学习

and it is intersting because these are mental states

之所以有趣,是因为这些心所

and these mental states are what we experience in our daily life and also when we practice meditation

就是我们日常生活和禅修时能够体验到的心所

and these may not be obvious to us when we don’t pay attention to them

如果我们不注意,我们可能觉察不到这些心所

but when we practice meditation

当我们禅修时

you may see at least some of these mental states when they arise in your mind

你们至少可以在心里看到某些心所

because when you practice meditation you are like trying to catch something when it comes up

因为当你禅修时,你就像在抓取显现的东西

so when you are practicing vipassana meditation

所以当你内观禅修时

you can see many of these mental states in your mind

你可以在心里看到许多心所

that is as and when they arise

当它们生起的时候,就能看到

and as i said yesterday

我昨天讲过

they can be studied by way of four kinds of definition

这些心所可以通过四种定义来学

that is the characteristic, function, the mode of manifestation and the proximate cause

特相、作用、现起、近因

and so we can study the mind more minutely

我们可以更详细地学习名法

by way of abhidhamma analysis

借助于阿毗达摩的分析

and along with understanding the fifty two cetasikas

借助于对这52心所的理解

we also need to know what cetasikas go with citta or

我们也要知道伴随各种心是哪些心所

which citta go with which cetasikas

哪些心所可以与哪些心同生

and when we understand this

当我们明白这点

i think we will understand about our mind more

我想我们就能更多地了解我们的心

more than maybe studying modern psychology

比学习现代心理学更加了解心

because mind is minutely analyzed in abhidhamma

因为在阿毗达摩里,心被详尽地分析

now you know that eight nine types of consciousness or one hundred and twenty one types of consciousness

现在你们知道89或121种心

and fifty two mental factors and 52心所

these are separate distinct mental states

这些都是独立的心所

but they arise together and

但是它们可以同时生起

so it is very difficult to differentiate one from the another

所以想把它们彼此区分很难

but through reading and through practice of meditating

但是通过学习,通过禅修

we can see them

我们可以看清它们

at least we can see some of them

至少可以看清一部分

distinctly and separately

清楚,独立地分辨它们

so now we finish studying two of the ultimate realities

我们完成了两个究竟法的学习

one is consciousness and second mental factors

一个是心,一个是心所

citta and cetasikas

心、心所

and cittas and cetasikas together are called what?

心和心所统称为什么?

nama or mind

名法

so when we say mind, actually we mean citta and cetasika together

所以我们说的名法就是心、心所的统称

but when we talk we don’t differentiate between citta and cetasika

我们说的名法没有将心、心所区分开

we just say as those they are one and the same

我们好像说它们都是一体的

but when you have knowledge of abhidhamma

但是当你具有阿毗达摩的知识

then even though maybe you’re using the general terms

即便你用这些统称

you know what you are talking about

你也知道你在讲什么

say i’m angry

例如,我愤怒

so that means i have the consciousness accompanied by anger

意思是我的心伴随着嗔心所

so there are two things in our mind when i say i’m angry

所以当我们说我愤怒时,包括两方面:

consciousness and anger

心、嗔心所

and you also know that anger does not arise alone

你也知道嗔心所不会单独生起

with anger there are some other mental factors also

伴随嗔心所的,还有其他心所

so you know that when you’re angry

所以你知道当你愤怒时

and your mind is accompanied by other mental states mental factors

有其他心所伴随你的心

so you know more about yourself when you know abhidhamma

所以当你了解阿毗达摩就更能了解自己

but

但是

many people live without abhidhamma

很多人不知道阿毗达摩,也照样生活

[laughs] so even if you don’t know abhidhamma it’s ok

所以即便你不了解阿毗达摩,也没问题

you can live

你们还照样可以生活

just like without knowledge of the modern science or whatever

就像不知道现代科学知识之类的

we can live we can be alive

我们照样生活

so in the same way without the knowledge of abhidhamma also you can live

同样,没有阿毗达摩的知识你也能照样生活

but if you know abhidhamma

但是如果你了解阿毗达摩

then you have more deeper understanding of yourself of your life

你就对自己,自己的生活有更深的了解

and that makes your life more precious

这样你的生活就更加珍贵

so

所以

we will stop today with the end of the second chapter

第二章学完了,今天到此结束

i want you to read the book also

我希望你们也要读读教材

because i don’t want to read the book here because it will take much time

因为课堂上我没有读教材如果读就要花费很多时间

but please if you have time read the book also

如果你有时间,也读读教材

and then use the chart as a help for understanding

借助于图表来理解

we’ve got some time for questions

现在是提问时间

anybody has any questions for sayadaw please step forward for the mic there

有么有要向尊者提问的请走到话筒这边来

student: yeah, i have two questions here

学生:我有两个问题

oh, sorry, can i refer why is it there is no this

我能问为什么没有

akusala vipaka

不善果报心吗?

there is no hetuka akusala vipaka

没有有因的不善果报心

is always, the resultant is always through the ahetuka

果报心只有无因的

well in the kusala, there is ahetuka and hetuka

当然,在善心里有有因、无因果报心

kusalavipaka

善果报心

sayadaw: could you please say it again?

尊者:你能再讲一遍吗?

student: [embarrassing pause]

学生:[尴尬地笑] for the akusala citta

对于不善心而言

the resultant consciousness is always expressed to the hetuka

果报心总是通过有因

is always expressed as hetuka

总是有因

akusala

不善心

sayadaw: maybe….ok [laughs]

尊者:可能……好

another student: maybe I will help to rephrase what you wanted

男同学:我来帮她复述一下吧

i think her question is

我想她的问题是

in the akusala citta

在不善心里

there are no resultant cittas

没有果报心

whereas the akusla resultant citta appear only in the ahetuka rootless cittas

不善心果报心只是出现在无因里面

is that what you wanted?

这是你想问的吗?

whereas in the beautiful consciousnesses

但是在美心里

there are resultant cittas, is that what you wanted?

是有果报心的,这是你的问题吗?

sayadaw: so sense-sphere wholesome consciousness two kinds of result, identical and non-identical, right?

尊者:欲界善心有两种果报心有因果报心、无因果报心对吧?

but akusala has no identical result

但是不善心没有有因的果报心

it has only non-identical result

只有无因的果报心

if it will to give identical results

如果它产生有因的果报心

it will be with lobha, dosa and moha and all

它的因也是:贪嗔痴

so if it is identical

如果是有因的

it will be akusala not resultant

它就是不善心,不是果报心

but the kusala is different

但是善心是不同的

so kusala is accompanied by what we call beautiful mental factors

所以善心摄的都是美心所

so beautiful mental factors are found in kusala as well as in resultant consciousness

所以美心所在善心和果报心里都有

so when they arise as the resultant then they are not called kusala

所以当它们作为果报心时并不称为善心

but they can arise as resultant

它们可以作为果报心生起

because they are here called sobhana or beautiful

因为它们在这里被称为美心

but with regard to akusala

但是对于不善心

if it will to give identical results

如果产生有因的果报心

it will not be kusala

它不会是善心

it will no vipaka, it will still be akusala

不会是果报心它还是不善心

because there are lobha, dosa and moha

因为贪嗔痴

accompanying the resultant consciousness

还会伴随这些果报心

so that is why there is no identical resultant consciousness for unwholesome consciousness

所以就没有关于不善心的有因的果报心

student: thank you, teacher

学生:谢谢你,尊者

student: ok, with regard to this communication of citta and cetasika

学生:关于心和心所的组合

is there any lesser evil i mean there

有没有哪个少一点恶

the greater or lesser evil of consciousness and cetasika

心和心所谁的恶大,谁的恶少

sayadaw: since they arise together

尊者:因为它们同生

they must be the same

它们应该是一样的

we can not say that citta is lesser evil or cetasika is lesser evil

我们不能说心的恶少,还是心所的恶少

but you know that citta is neutral

你们知道心是中性的

citta by definition the awareness of the object is

心的定义就是对所缘的觉知

just the awareness of the object it is neither wholesome nor unwholesome

只是对所缘的觉知,不是善也不是恶

but it becomes wholesome when it is accompanied by beautiful root

只是伴随着美根,就成了善心

and it becomes unwholesome when it is accompanied by unwholesome root

伴随着不善根,就成了不善心

student: thank you

学生:谢谢

student: venerable sir, could you please explain why there is no compassion and joy in the supramundane citta?

学生:尊者,你能解释一下,为什么出世间心没有悲、喜心所吗?

sayadaw: supramundane cittas take nibbana as object

尊者:出世间心的所缘是涅槃

so

所以

there are two kinds of supramundane consciousness as you know

你知道,有两种出世间心

path consciousness and fruition consciousness

道心,果心

both take nibbana as object

都是以涅槃为所缘

so if it is supramundane it must take nibbana as object

如果是出世间心,所缘必须是涅槃

but the compassion and sympathetic joy take the concept of being as object

但是悲、喜的所缘是众生的概念

so they are different in object

所以它们的所缘不同

since they are different in object they can not arise with the supramundane consciousness

因为它们有不同的所缘,所以就不能在出世间心生起

because there is no such occasion

因为不存在这样的情况

as the consciousness taking one object

心缘取一个所缘

and mental factors taking another object at the same time

同时,心所缘取另一个所缘

so that is why there is no compassion in sympathetic joy arising with supramundane consciousness

所以在出世间心里,就没有悲、喜心所

because their objects are different

因为它们的所缘不同

student: i mean i read somewhere about nibbana being love and compassion only

学生:我的意思是我在别的地方看到:涅槃就是爱和慈悲

sayadaw: that is not true

尊者:那是不对的

[laughs] as i said before,

我之前讲过

nibbana is an object

涅槃是个所缘

the cessation of suffering

就是苦之断灭

so it is not love it is not joy or whatever

它不是爱,也不是喜悦之类

it is an object like this, right? one object that we can take with our mind

这个所缘就是这样,对吧?我们心中的所缘就是如此

student: venerable sir, my question relates to supramundane consciousness

学生:尊者,我的问题是关于出世间心

you say that on the wholesome supramundane consciousness

你说对于善的出世间心

it only appears once to mean the path consciousness

道心只会生起一次

if i will to relate it on the normal people again, or does it stay with the person permanently?

如果对于普通人,会永远伴随他吗?

sayadaw: he will not fall back

尊者:他不会退转

so once he becomes a sotapanna

所以只要成为须陀洹圣者

and he does not practice further he will remain a sotapanna

即便不再修习,也保持须陀洹圣者身份

so there is no falling back from the states of sotapanna

不会从须陀洹圣者退转回来

host: more questions?

主持人:还有问题吗?

shall we call it a day?

今天到此结束?

disk01track13

I hope you did the homework

我希望你们都做了作业

you may check your colorings with the picture on the screen

你们可以根据屏幕上的图片对答案,看你们涂的颜色

so the first one is with vitakka

第一个是寻心所

so vitakka arises with fifty five types of consciousness

寻心所与55种心相应

and these fifty five are

这55种心

now you can see twelve unwholesome cittas

你可以看到12个不善心

and the ahetuka cittas or rootless cittas less ten sense consciousness

无因心、没有十个根识

and then twenty four sense sphere beautiful consciousness 24欲界美心

and then eleven first jhana cittas 11个初禅心

so when you have these dots

有了这些圆点

you can easily tell

你就很容易知道

with how many cittas vitakka arises

寻心所与多少心相应

so here vitakka arises with fifty five types of consciousness

这里寻心所与55个心相应

first you need to be familiar with the basic chart

首先你要对那个基本的表格熟悉

the eighty nine or one hundred and twenty one types of consciousness

就是89或121心的那个表格

so please try to get more and more familiar with that basic chart

请尽量熟悉那个基本表格

so that you don’t have to think when you see you are able to say what type of of consciousness a certain dot is

当你看到圆点,不需要思考就知道那是什么心

now see the second one with vicara

现在看第二个伺心所

now that is very easy

这个非常简单

so vicara arises with first jhana and second jhana

伺心所与初禅、二禅相应

so we add just the eleven second jhana cittas to the fifty five

所以就就用55

加上11个二禅心

and we get sixty six types of consciousness

得到66种心

now in order to remember this

为了记住这个

you can remember that the ten sense consciousness

你可以记住十个根识

do not need vitakka to go to the object

不需要寻心所来缘取目标

because the impact of the senses and the object is great

因为诸根和目标的力量是强大的

since the impact is great

因为它们力量很大

these types of consciousness do not need vitakka to take them to the object

双五识就不需要寻心所来将它们投向目标

actually vitakka arises with the fifty four kamavacara cittas sense-sphere cittas except these ten

实际上,寻心所与欲界54心相应但是这十个根识除外

so fifty four minus ten so forty four

所以54减去10等于44 and then the eleven first jhana cittas

然后是11个初禅心

and so we get fifty five easily

所以,我们很容易就得到55 so fifty four kamavacara cittas 54个欲界心

and then you take the ten sense consciousness out

减去10个根识

so you get forty four

得到44 and then you add the eleven first jhana cittas and we get fifty five

然后加上11个初禅心,得到55 with vicara we just add second jhana cittas

对于伺心所,我们加上二禅心

so there are eleven second jhana cittas

有11个二禅心

and we get sixty six with vicara

我们得到66个伺心所

and next is with adhimokkha

下一个是胜解心所

now with decision

对于胜解

decision does not arise with doubt

胜解不能与疑心所同生

so the consciousness with doubt is not shown here

所以有疑心所的心不能出现

and then it does not arise with the ten sense consciousness

然后它也不与10根识同生

so and with all others it arises

其他所有的,与之同生

so ten plus one eleven

所以10加1等于11 eighty nine minus eleven we get seventy eight 89减11等于78 one hundred and twenty one minus eleven we get one hundred and ten 121减11等于110 so these types of consciousness are those that arise with adhimokkha or decision

这就是胜解心所同生的心

then the next one is viriya, effort

下一个是精进心所

effort does not arise with the seven resultant consciousness of akusala and

精进不与7个不善果报心相应

eight resultant consciousness of kusala and also with five-sense-door adverting

也不与8个善果报心相应,也不与五门转向心相应

and with the rest it arises

与其他心都相应

so seven eight fifteen sixteen

所以7加8等于15,再加1就是16 it does not arise with sixteen types of consciousness

所以它不与16种心相应

so eighty nine minus sixteen we get seventy three 89减去16等于73 one hundred and twenty one minus sixteen we get one hundred and five 121减去16等于105 so these one hundred and five cittas arise with viriya all viriya arises with these one hundred and seventy three or one hundred and eight[105?] cittas

所以这105个心与精进心所同生或者精进心所与73或105心相应

next is

下一个是

now piti arises with those that are accompanied by joy or somanassa

喜心所与悦俱心同生

but we have to take out the fourth jhana cittas

我们要去掉四禅心

because although fourth jhanas cittas are accompanied by somanassa

虽然四禅心是悦俱心

piti does not arise with them

但是喜心所不与它们同生

with the others, other cittas accompanied by somanassa or joy piti arises

对于其他悦俱心,喜心所与它们同生

so we get four from the akusala cittas

所以不善心里有4个

and one investigating consciousness from the resultant of kusala

善果报推度心有1个

and one smile producing from the functional rootless cittas

无因唯作心里面的1个生笑心

and then from the sense-sphere beautiful we get the twelve that are accompanied by joy

欲界美心有12个悦俱

and then from the rupavacara cittas we get nine

色界心中有9个

and from lokuttara cittas we get twelve and twelve

出世间心有两个12 so with these cittas or altogether fifty one cittas piti arises

所以与喜心所相应的心有51个

the next one is chanda desire or conation

接下来是欲心所

now chanda does not arise with two rooted in moha

欲心所不与两个痴根心相应

and then it does not arise with all the eighteen rootless cittas

它不与18个无因心相应

so eighteen plus two twenty

所以18加2等于20 so ninety, eighty nine minus twenty we get sixty nine 89减去20等于69 and one hundred and twenty one minus twenty we get one hundred and one 121减去20等于101 so chanda arises with these one hundred and one cittas

所以欲心所与101个心相应

and next is moha, ahirīka, anottappa, uddhacca

下一个痴、无惭、无愧、掉举

and you know these four are called unwholesome universals

这四个被称为遍一切不善心心所

that means these four arise with all twelve unwholesome cittas

即此四个与所有12个不善心相应

so here we can see moha arises with these twelve

所以这里我们看到痴与这12个心相应

ahirika shamelessness arises with these twelve

无惭与这12个心相应

anottappa fearlessness arises with these twelve

无愧与这12个心相应

uddhacca restlessness arises with all these twelve unwholesome cittas

掉举与这12个不善心相应

then we come to lobha

我们再看贪

since it is lobha we can easily see it arises with those that are accompanied by lobha or attachment

因为是贪心所,我们就容易知道它与贪根心相应

so there are eight types of consciousness that are rooted in lobha or attachment

所以贪根心有8个

and so lobha arises with these eight types of consciousness

所以贪心所与这8种心相应

four accompanied by joy and four accompanied by upekkha or neutral feeling 4个悦俱,4个舍俱

then we come to diṭṭhi or wrong view

再看邪见

diṭṭhi arises with those that are accompanied by diṭṭhi

邪见与邪见相应的心同生

when you look at the list of the types of consciousness you see

你看列表中的心,可以看到

with joy with wrong view unprompted

悦俱邪见相应无行心

with joy with wrong view prompted

悦俱邪见相应有行心

so with wrong view, two with wrong views in those that are accompanied by joy

所以,悦俱心有两个邪见

and two from those that are accompanied by indifferent feeling

舍俱心有两个

so ditthi arises with these four types of consciousness

所以邪见与这4个心相应

mana

now we learned that ditthi and mana do not arise together

我们知道邪见和慢不能同时生起

when there is ditthi there is no mana, when there is mana there is no ditthi

有邪见不能有慢,有慢不能有邪见

ditthi is wrong view mana is pride or conceit

邪见,就是错误的观念慢,就是骄慢

so mana arises with those that are not accompanied by ditthi

所以慢只伴随没有邪见的心生起

so number the third and fourth

所以,第三第四个

and then seventh and eighth of the consciousness accompanied by or rooted in lobha

然后第七第八个贪根心

next is the four hatred universals or we can call them something like that

接着是四嗔因心

dosa, issa, macchariya and kukkucca so dosa is hatred, issa jealousy, macchariya avarice and kukkucca remorse

嗔、嫉、悭、恶作

each one of them arises with two types of consciousness accompanied by ill will

每个都与两个嗔根心相应

so dosa with these two, issa with these two

嗔与这两个相应,嫉与这两个相应

macchariya with these two, kukkucca with these two

悭与这两个相应,恶作与这两个相应

now yesterday we learned that issa, macchariya and kukkucca

昨天我们学了嫉、悭、恶作

arise occasionally and seprately

偶尔、分别生起

so when there is issa there will be no macchariya and when there is macchariya there is no issa

当有嫉的时候,就没有悭有悭的时候,就没有嫉

and here

这里

in this small chart we just find out what cittas arise with dosa issa macchariya and kukkucca so it’s ok now

这个表,我们找出哪些心与嗔、嫉、悭、恶作同生,好

so there are only two types of consciousness

只有两种心

accompanied by dosa accompanied by issa accompanied by macchariya and accompanied by kukkucca

与嗔、嫉、悭、恶作相应

the next is thina and middha

然后是昏沉和睡眠

now we know that thina and middha always arise together

现在我们知道昏沉与睡眠总是在一起

but they arise occasionally

但是它们只是偶尔地生起

since they are dull mental factors

因为它们是呆滞的心所

they do not arise with those that are unprompted

它们不与无行心生起

so they arise with types of consciousness that are prompted and

它们与有行心生起

so they arise with second fourth sixth eighth of the eight those are rooted in lobha

所以它们与第二第四第六第八个贪根心相应

and then second of those that are rooted in dosa or ill will

与第二个嗔根心相应

so there are only five types of consciousness that arise together with sloth and torpor

所以只有五个心与昏沉睡眠同生

the last of the unwholesome cetasikas is vicikiccha

最后一个不善心所是疑

i think it is the easiest

我想这个最简单

because it arises with only one type of consciousness

因为它只与一种心相应

which is accompanied by vicikiccha or doubt

就是疑相应的心

so only one consciousness there

所以那里只有一种心

ok next one

好,下一个

sobhaṇa-sādhāraṇa sobhaṇa universals, or beautiful universals

遍一切美心心所

now first you should be familiar with what are non-beautiful what are beautiful citta

首先,你们应该熟悉什么是不美心、美心

so the first thirty are non-beautiful

前30个心是不美心

and the rest are beautiful cittas

剩下的是美心

so when we say sobhaṇa-sādhāraṇa cetasikas arise with sobhana cittas

所以,当我们说遍一切美心心所与美心相应

then you have to look at sobhana cittas only

所以你们只需要看美心

and there are fifty nine or ninety one of them

有59或91个

so the first thirty are non-beautiful and the rest are beautiful

前30个心是不美心,剩下的是美心

so it is very easy

所以这很简单

and then we come to virati, abstentions

然后看三离心所

abstention from wrong speech, abstention from wrong action, abstention from wrong livelihood

离恶语、离恶业、离邪命

now here these virati or abstention mental factors arise with eight wholesome beautiful sense-sphere consciousness

这些离心所与8个欲界美心相应

because these have the nature of being kusala or wholesome

因为这些心所具有善业的性质

you abstain from something and at that moment there arises in your mind is wholesome types of consciousness

你远离诸恶的时候,就会生起善心

so they accompany the wholesome types of consciousness in the sense-sphere consciousness

所以这些心所与欲界善心相应

and then they arise with supramundane consciousness

它们还与出世间心相应

if we take supramundane consciousness as eight

如果把出世间心看成八个

and we see that viratis arise with sixteen types of consciousness

离心所就与16个心相应

eight from sense-sphere beautiful 8个欲界美心

and eight supramundane consciousness 8个出世间心

but if we take the supramundane to be forty

如果我们将出世间心看成40个

then we see the virati cetasikas arise with forty eight types of consciousness

我们就看到离心所与48个心相应

i hope you remember when arisign with sense-sphere beautiful consciousness

我希望你们记住:当它们与欲界美心同生时

they arise occasionally and also they arise one at a time

它们只是偶尔生起,并且每次生起一个

so when arising with the sense-sphere beautiful consciousness

所以当与欲界美心同生时

at one time only one will arise

一次只生起一个

when there is right speech there will be no right action and livelihood and so on

当有正语的时候,就没有正业和正命等等

and also they will arise occasionally only sometimes not always

它们也只是偶尔生起,不是必定生起

only when one refrain from wrong speech will the right speech arise

只有当离恶语的时候,正语心所才生起

and the others will not arise

其他离心所不会生起

so they arise occasionally or they arise at sometime only

所以它们偶尔生起

and they arise they arise one at a time

并且每次只是生起一个

but with the supramundane consciousness it is different

但是对于出世间心,则不同

with the supramundane consciousness it is said they arise always

它们总是与出世间心同生

every time the supramundane consciousness arises they arise

只要有出世间心生起,它们就生起

and when they arise they arise together

只要生起,就是全部生起

not one by one as in the case of sense-sphere beautiful consciousness

不像欲界美心里那样,单独生起

because in the supramundane consciousness there are four path consciousnesses

因为在出世间心里,有四个道心

these path consciousnesses have the power to eradicate all propensities of wrong doing at one stroke

这四个道心有一次性断除所有恶的力量

like lightning can kill a tree in one stroke

就像闪电一次击倒一棵树

so when they arise with supramundane consciousness they arise always

所以当它们总是与出世间心一起生起

that means every time a supramundane consciousness arises they also arise

意思是每次出世间心生起,它们就生起

and they arise they arise together

当它们生起时,它们全部生起

and the next is with appamaññā limitless ones

下一个是无量心所

and limitless ones here means karuna and mudita compassion and sympathetic joy

无量心所这里指悲无量、喜无量

so they arise with eight wholesome sense-sphere beautiful consciousness

它们与八个欲界善心相应

and eight functional sense-sphere beautiful consciousness 8个欲界唯作心相应

and then the first jhana three, second jhana three, third jhana three and fourth jhana three

然后初禅三心、二禅三心、三禅三心、四禅三心

form-sphere consciousness

色界心

so we get altogether twenty eight types of consciousness

所有加起来28个心

that arise with appamaññā这些都与无量心所同生

when the people practice karuna and midita

当人们修悲无量、喜无量时

when they get the karuna and mudita as jhana

当禅那里有悲、喜无量时

then they must accompany by joy only

必定是悦俱心

but when doing the preliminary work on karuna and mudita

当初级阶段修悲、喜无量时

through experience sometimes they may do karuna and mudita with consciousness by indifference

可以用舍俱心修悲、喜无量

so the common opinion of all teachers is that the

大多数老师的看法是

the limitless ones can arise with all eight wholesome sense-sphere beautiful consciousness

无量心所可以与所有

8个欲界善心生起

and when they arise in an arahant, they will arise with eight functional sense-sphere beautiful consciousness

当它们在阿罗汉心里生起时,它们与欲界美心的8个唯作心同生

so this is the common opinion of all teachers

所以这是主流老师的看法

so according to them, the appamanna or limitless ones arise with twenty eight types of consciousness

根据这种说法,无量心所与28种心相应

but some teachers

但是有些老师

did not think that appamanna or the limitless ones can arise with those that are accompanied by indifferent feeling

不认为无量心所可以与舍俱心同生

now according to them

根据这种说法

appamanna or the limitless ones arise with those that are accompanied by joy or somanassa only

无量心所只与悦俱心生起

so according to them we have to strike out those that are accompanied by neutral feelings

所以根据这种说法,我们要去掉舍俱心

so we get only twenty of them here

所以只有20个心

four from sense-sphere beautiful wholesome consciousness accompanied by joy

四个悦俱欲界善心

and four from sense-sphere functional beautiful sense-sphere consciousness accompanied by joy

四个悦俱欲界唯作心

and then the others are the same

其他的都一样

and the last one is paññindriya

最后一个是慧根

paññindriya is also called amoha

慧根又称为无痴

so amoha and paññindriya are the same

所以无痴与慧根是一样的

sometimes we may just call it paññā有时候我们简称它为慧

so paññā and paññindriya are the same

所以慧与慧根是一样的

and it is sometimes called amoha

有时候被称为无痴

and sometimes it is called vijjā有时候被称为:明

the opposite of avijjā in dependent origination

就是缘起里无明的反义词

since it is paññā, it will arise with those types of consciousness that accompanied paññā因为是慧,就与智相应的心同生

and as you know from among the twenty four sense-sphere beautiful consciousness

大家知道,24个欲界美心中

only the first and second

只有第一第二个

only the fifth and sixth are accompanied by knowledge

第五第六个是智相应的

so from among the sense-sphere beautiful consciousness we get twelve

所以在欲界美心中,我们得到12个

and then the rest of the types of consciousness always are accompanied by paññā or wisdom

除欲界外所有心都是与智相应的

because if you do not have wisdom or knowledge you do not get jhanas

因为如果不与智相应,就没有禅那

if you do not have knowledge or wisdom you do not reach enlightenment

如果不与智相应,就不能获得觉悟

so these types of consciousness are always accompanied by knowledge or wisdom

所以这些心总是与智相应

but regarding the sense-sphere beautiful consciousness

但是对于欲界美心

they arise with some of them only and not all

它只与其中某些相应,并非全部

so altogether we get forty seven or seventy nine

所以我们一起获得47或79个心

forty seven or seventy nine types of consciousness accompanied by knowledge or paññā

47或79种心与慧根同生

since paññā is among the beautiful mental factors

因为慧是在美心所里

we need to look at the beautiful consciousness only

我们只需要查看美心

and not the none beautiful ones

不美心不需要看

so with paññā forty seven types of consciousness arise

所以慧心所与47个心相应

or seventy nine types of consciousness arise

或者与79个心相应

so if you have this chart it would be very easy for you to find out the cetasika and citta combinations

如果你们有这张表,就很容易找出心所-心的组合

so now you can check your homework with the chart on the screen

现在你可以通过屏幕检查你的作业

if you have made mistakes

如果有错

it may be necessary for you to make the copy of the plain ones

你们或许有必要多复印几份

so it is better to keep extra copy of the plain ones so that

这样除了基本表格,还有备份

if you make a mistake you can just throw it away

如果涂错了,可以扔掉

so these are very convenient when we cannot memorize all these things

如果我们记忆不了所有这些有这些表格就很方便

this is the combination of cetasika to citta

这就是心所到心的组合

or cetasika-citta combination

或心所-心组合

the other combination is citta-cetasika combination

另外一个组合是心-心所组合

for that we may need eighty nine or one hundred and twenty one chart or diagrams

这种组合,我们就要

89或121个表格了

if you have time and if you want to do them it is good to do just as exercise

如果你有时间,如果你愿意做这些练习很好

fifty two cetasikas can be arranged like the eighty nine and one hundred and twenty one types of consciousness 52心所可以像89或121心那样分组处理

now the first thirteen can be one row

前13个心所可以归为一排

and then the fourteen akusala can be one two three four five rows

然后14个不善心所可以分为五排

the four universals and then

四个遍一切不善心心所

lobha triad

三贪因

and then four hate universals

然后四嗔因

and then two sloth and torpor

然后是二有行:昏沉和睡眠

and the last one doubt

最后一个是疑

so you can arrange them that way: four, three, four, two, one

可以这样分组:

4个、3个、4个、2个、1个

and then the next column would be nineteen beautiful common mental factors

下一列是19个遍一切美心心所

and you can arrange them as faith one

你可以这样处理它们:信

mindful one and so on

念等等

but when you come to the pairs you can put them two side by side

然后是成对的心所,两个两个一对

so the nineteen mental factors will be in two columns 19个心所就分成两列

and then three abstinences one column

然后是三离心所一列

two limitless ones one column

二无量一列

and paññindriya or wisdom one column

慧根一列

you can arrange like that

你就可以这样排列

and then here you can put in any color

然后你可以任意涂颜色

so you will need eighty nine or one hundred and twenty one of those charts

这样你就需要89或121个表

so we now have gone through what is taught in the second chapter

所以,我们已经讲完了第二章

the second chapter of the book is with mental factors

第二章是讲心所的

and their combination with cittas

讲它们与心的组合

so as you now know there are two kinds of combinations

你们现在知道有两种组合

the cetasika to citta combination and citta to cetasika combination

心所-心组合,心-心所组合

and these combinations can be studied with the help of these charts

这些组合可以借助这些表格学习

so with the help of these charts it will be very easy for you to do that

借助于这些表格,就很容易了

and next will go on to the third chapter of the book

下面我们讲本书第三章

the third chapter is called miscellaneous chapter

第三章被称为:杂项

in the third chapter the types of consciousness will be classified

在第三章,心将按各种方法被分类

according to feeling, according to roots, according to functions, doors objects and bases

根据受、因、作用、门、所缘、依处

so the first section in this chapter is the section on analysis of feelings

第一节:受之分析

now you have met feeling in the fifty two cetasikas

你们在52心所里遇到了受

so among the fifty two cetasikas feeling is the second one

在52心所里,受是第二个

and that feeling can be of just one or two or three or five

受可以依一分、二分、三分、五分

so the first five kinds of feelings

首先是五分法

and then these five kinds of feelings can be reduced to three kinds of feelings

五分法又可以简化为三分法

and these three can be reduced to two kinds of feelings, and two kinds can be reduced to one kind of feeling

三分法可以简化为二分法二分法可以简化为一分法

normally we say that there are three kinds of feelings

通常我们说有三种受

there are only pali: sukha, upekkha, or dukkha

乐、舍、苦

these divisions of feeling into three is by its nature

这种分法根据本质分为三

because feeling has the nature of experiencing the flavor of the object

因为受的本质就是品味所缘

and sometimes the experience is pleasurable sometimes it is unpleasurable or displeasurable or sometimes it is neutral

有时候感受是愉悦的,有时候是不愉悦的,有时候是中性的

so there are three kinds of feelings

有三种受

pleasurable unpleasurable and neutral

愉悦、不愉悦、中性

these three are expanded into five when buddha taught what are called the faculties

当根据佛陀所将依根来分这三种受可以扩充为五种

now you are familiar with the faculties, there are twenty two faculties taught in abhidhamma

你们熟悉“根”,根据阿毗达摩有22种根

and when buddha taught the twenty two faculties

当佛陀讲授22种根时

buddha divided feeling into five kinds

将受分为五种

and they are sukha, somanassa, upekkha, dukkha and domanassa

乐、悦、舍、苦、忧

so now you see that the sukha in the threefold division is expanded into sukha and somanassa

现在你知道三分法中的乐扩展为:乐、悦

and dukkha in the threefold division is expanded into dukkha and domanassa

三分法中的苦扩展为:苦、忧

now when feeling is divided into three

如果受被分为三种

both bodily pleasure and mental pleasure are included in sukha

乐受包括:身体的愉悦、心理的愉悦

and both bodily pain and mental pain are included in dukkha

苦受包括:身体的痛苦和心理的痛苦

when you have pain in the body and you feel it

当你身体痛苦,你感受到了

and that feeling is called dukkha

这种痛苦,被称为苦

bodily displeasurable feeling

身体上不愉悦的感受

when you are sad or when you are depressed then you feel the domanassa

当你难过或压抑,你就感受到忧

that is displeasurable mental feeling

这是不愉悦的心理感受

so dukkha in the threefold division is expanded into dukkha and domanassa

所以三分法中的苦被扩展为苦、忧

and sukha in the threefold division is expaned into sukha and somanassa

三分法中的乐被扩展为:乐、悦

so in that case sukha is bodily pleasurable feeling

所以,乐就是身体的愉悦感受

and somanassa mental pleasurable feeling

悦就是心理上的愉悦感受

and dukkha is bodily painful feeling and domanassa is mental painful feeling

苦是身体的痛苦感受,忧是心理上的痛苦感受

upekkha is just upekkha

舍还是舍

here upekkha means indifference or neutral feeling and not equanimity

这里舍指中性感受,不是中舍性

sometimes buddha said, monks there are two kinds of feeling

有时候,佛陀说:比丘们,有两种受

pleasurable and displeasurable

乐受、苦受

so in that case

在这种情况下

upekkha is included in sukha

舍受就被包括在乐受里

because upekkha is peaceful sukha is also peaceful and they are similar to each other

因为舍受是安详的,乐受也是安详的,它们彼此相似

and so including upekkha into sukha

所以将舍受归于乐受

buddha said there are only two kinds of feelings

佛陀说有两种受

sometimes buddha said just whatsoever there is feeling all that is dukkha

有时候,佛陀说不管是什么受,都是苦受

so in that case there is only one feeling

这样就只有一种受

and that one feeling is dukkha

这一种受就是:苦受

now this saying of mind was uttered with reference to the impermanence of conditioned things

这种关于心的说法,就是把心与有为法的无常联系起来

that means buddha said when i say whatever there is feeling there is dukkha

意思是佛陀说,无论我讲什么感受,都是苦受

i mean the impermanence of all conditions

我的意思是有为法的无常性

all conditioned phenomena is impermanent

一切有为法都是无常

that means all conditioned phenomena have arising and disappearing a beginning and an end

意思是一切有为法都有生灭

so

所以

anything that has a beginning and an end that arises and disappears is impermanent

有生有灭的事物就是无常

feeling also has arising and disappearing

受也是有生有灭

so in that case feeling is just one feeling that is dukkha

这样受只有一种那就是:苦

so in the discourses in the suttas buddha taught feeling in different ways

在经文里,佛陀讲授了不同的受

sometimes he said like here there is only one feeling

有时候,他说只有一种受

sometimes there are two feelings sometimes there are three feelings

有时候是两种受,有时候是三种受

and sometimes there are five kinds of feelings

有时候,是五种受

so we must understand all these

所以我们必须明白这些

and know which feelings are associated with which

知道受与什么有关

and which feeling can be included into which feeling

哪种受可以被归于另一种受

so when buddha said there is only one feeling dukkha that means he is referring to the impermanence of all conditioned phenomena

当佛陀说只有一种苦受的时候他是说一切有为法皆是无常

when buddha said there are two feelings and one pleasurable and the other displeasurable

当佛陀说有苦乐二受时

and the neutral is here included in pleasurable feeling

舍受就被归入乐受

sometimes buddha said three feelings

有时候佛陀说有三种受

sukha, dukkha and upekkha

乐、苦、舍

and when buddha taught indriyas or faculties

当佛陀讲授“根”时

he said there are five feelings

他讲授了五种受

so whether there are five feelings or three feelings or whatever we must understand all these feelings

所以,不管是五分、三分,还是其他,我们都要了解

according to these feelings

根据这些受

consciousness can be classified or divided

我们可以对心进行分类

so that is very easy

所以这很简单

because you always have the basic chart

因为你总是有一个基本图表

so when you look at the basic chart

当你看这个基本表格时

you know there are so many accompanied by pleasurable feelings

你知道有很多悦俱心

so many accompanied by unpleasurable feeling and so on

有许多忧俱心等等

so look at the basic chart

所以对照这个基本表格

so those that are accompanied by joy or pleasurable feeling are colored red

悦俱心被涂成红色

and those that are accompanied by neutral feeling are blue

舍俱心被涂成蓝色

those by hate or ill will are green

忧俱心被涂成绿色

and then the two bodily feelings are also colored green and red but they are made crosses

然后两个身体的感受,也被涂成绿色和红色,但是画了十字

so looking at this chart you can easily see or say how many types of consciousness are accompanied by pleasurable feeling and so on

所以对照这个表,可以很容易看出有多少心是悦俱的,等等

so

所以

how many are accompanied by joy or pleasurable feeling

有多少是悦俱心?

and you count all the red ones

你数所有红色的

sixty two there are 62个

and how many are accompanied by upekkha or neutral feeling

舍俱的有多少

fifty five yes 55个,对

and how many are accompanied by ill will

忧俱的多少个?

only two

只有2个

and how many are accompanied by bodily painful feeling

有多少是身体的苦受?

only one

只有一个

and how many are accompanied by bodily pleasurable feeling? only one

有多少是身体的乐受?只有一个

so it is very easy

所以这很简单

when you have this chart

只要有这张表格

so consciousness accompanied by bodily painful feeling is one

身体上的苦受,只有一个心

and consciousness accompanied by bodily pleasurable feelings just one

身体上的乐受,一个心

and then consciousness accompanied by joy or pleasurable feeling are sixty two

悦俱的有62个

and those are accompanied by neutral feeling are fifty five

舍俱的心有55个

we can study these taking the groups of types of consciousness one by one

我们可以分组学习这些心

so let us take the akusala twelve

让我们看看12个不善心

so among them how many are accompanied by pleasurable feeling, four

其中有多少是悦俱的?4个

how many by neutral feeling? six

舍俱的多少?6个

how many by ill will? two, ok

多少忧俱的?2个,好

now the next group ahetuka or rootless group

下一组,无因心

how many are accompanied by pleasurable feeling, or how many are accompanied by joy? only two

悦俱的多少?只有2个

how many are accompanied by neutral feeling?

舍俱的多少?

two four six eight ten twelve fourteen 2,4,6,8,10,12,14 so fourteen are accompanied by neutral feeling 14个是舍俱的

how many are accompanied by bodily painful feeling? one

有多少是身体的苦受?1个

and how many by bodily pleasurable feeling? one

多少是身体的乐受?1个

very good

非常好

now we go to beautiful sense-sphere consciousness twenty four

现在我们来看24欲界美心

how many are accompanied by joy? twelve

悦俱多少?12 how many by neutral feeling? twelve

舍俱多少?12 and we go to form-sphere consciousness fifteen rupavacara cittas

我们再看色界15心

how many are accompanied by joy? twelve

多少悦俱?12个

how many by neutral feeling? three

多少舍俱?3个

then we go to formless or immaterial types of consciousness

再看无色界心

how many are accompanied by joy? none

多少悦俱?没有

how many are accompanied by neutral feeling? all twelve

舍俱多少?所有12个

then we go to the supramundane forty supramundane consciousness

再看出世间40心

twenty path consciousness 20个道心

so how many are accompanied by joy? sixteen

悦俱多少?16个

how many by neutral feeling? four

舍俱多少?4个

then we go to twenty fruition consciousness

再看20个果心

how many accompanied by joy? again sixteen

悦俱多少,也是16个

how many accompanied by neutral feeling? four

舍俱多少?4个

so we take the forty supramundane consciousness together 40个出世间心一起算

how many are accompanied by joy? thirty two

多少悦俱?32个

and how many are accompanied by neutral feeling? eight

多少舍俱?8个

so altogether forty, ok

一起是40, 好

so if we go through group by group

所以如果我们一组组练习

then we become more familiar

我们就更加熟练

so when we take all the types of consciousness

所有心都在一起算

how many are accompanied by joy or pleasurable feeling, sixty two

悦俱多少?62 how many by neutral feeling? fifty five

舍俱多少?55 how many by hate? two

嗔根心多少?2个

how many by bodily painful feeling? one

身体上的苦受?1个

how many by bodily pleasurable feeling? one

身体的乐受?1个

so this is the classification of cittas according to feeling

这就是根据感受来给心分类

this section is very easy

这节非常简单

now next section is roots and classification according to roots

下一节是按因(根)来分类

you all know that there are six roots

你们知道有六因(根)

if you don’t know before, now you know there are six roots

如果之前你不知道,现在你就知道了有六因

lobha, dosa, moha and alobha, adosa, amoha

贪嗔痴、无贪无嗔无痴

so there are like roots there is why they are called hetu in pali

它们就像树根,所以就称为hetu now the word hetu as i explained before hetu我们之前讲过

means a cause

意思是:原因

so in the discourses

在经文里

hetu may mean cause hetu的意思可能是:原因

but here here especially in abhidhamma

在这里,特别是在阿毗达摩里

hetu is a technical term hetu是个专有名词

and here only these six are called hetu

在这里只有这6个被称为hetu and here the word hetu means the root or mula

这里的hetu意思是:根

now the roots help the trees to be strong

树根使树变得强壮

so those that have roots are strong

有根就强壮

in the same way those that are accompanied by roots are stronger than those that are not accompanied by roots or hetus

同样,有因心比无因心更强壮

so there are six roots the first one is lobha or attachment

所以有六个根,第一个是贪根

so attachment is one hetu

贪是一个根

dosa anger or ill will is another hetu

嗔是另外一个根

and moha illusion or ignorance is another hetu

痴是另外一个根

these three are called akusala hetu unwholesome roots

这三个被称为不善根

so three unwholesome roots

三个不善的根

and then the other three are just the opposites of the first three

另外三个是前三个的反面

in pali the “a” means not

巴利语前缀a是“没有”的意思

so alobha means not lobha or non-lobha

所以无贪,就是没有贪

adosa means non-dosa, and amoha means non-moha non-delusion

无嗔就是没有嗔,无痴就是没有痴

so alobha means non-attachment

所以无贪就是没有贪执

non-attachment is a positive mental factor not the absence of lobha

无贪执是个正面的心所不是指贪执的缺失

it is a positive state

是个正面的状态

the same with adosa not the absence of dosa but it is a mental state which is the opposite of dosa

无嗔也是同样,不是嗔的缺失而是指嗔的对立面

and actually it is loving-kindness

实际上它是指慈爱

and then amoha means not moha, so opposite of moha not just absence of moha, it is the opposite of moha

然后无痴就是没有痴,痴的反面不是痴的缺失,是痴的反面

since moha is delusion or ignorance amoha means paññā or wisdom or understanding

因为痴就是愚痴或无明无痴意思就是智慧或者明了

so these six are called hetus in abhidhamma

这六个在阿毗达摩里被称为因(根)

or they are like roots

就像是“根”

they strengthen the concomitants consciousness and other mental factors

它们让心所变得更强壮

ok, lobha arises with how many cittas?

好,贪与多少心同生?

lobha arises with eight lobha cittas

贪与八个贪根心同生

and

并且

with lobha mula cittas how many cetasikas

贪根心摄多少心所?

take the first one

看第一个

the first of the lobha mula cittas, how many cetasikas?

第一个贪根心,摄多少心所?

you want to go back to the chart, nineteen cetasikas

你们想回看图表吧,19个心所

so

所以

when first lobha mula citta arises

当第一个贪根心生起

there are nineteen cetasikas going along with it

有19个心所与之同生

among the nineteen cetasikas there is lobha

这19个心所之中,就有贪

and then there is moha

还有痴

and there are other mental factors

以及其他心所

so these lobha and moha among those mental factors

所以贪、痴等心所

keep the citta and its concomitant mental factors strong

让心和它的心所坚固

that is why they are called mula or roots

所以被称为“根”(因)

so now we try to find out how many are accompanied by lobha, dosa and so on

我们现在就是要找出与贪嗔等同生的有多少

so you look at the chart and you see lobha accompanies eight lobha mula cittas

所以对照表格,可以看到贪心所伴随八个贪根心

and dosa accompanies two dosa mula cittas

嗔伴随两个嗔根心

dosa mula means those rooted in hate

嗔根就是以嗔为根

and moha accompanies

痴伴随

eight lobha mula cittas two dosa mula cittas and two moha mula cittas 8个贪根心、2个嗔根心还有2个痴根心

that means moha accompanies all twelve akusala cittas

意思是痴伴随所有12个不善心

so when we call the first eight types of consciousness

所以我们称呼所有12个不善心

lobha mula cittas or rooted in lobha

贪根心

we do not mean that it is rooted in lobha only

我们不是说它们只有贪根

we must understand it is rooted in moha also

我们要知道痴也是它的根

but since moha is common to all we do not say here lobha moha mula

因为痴根在一切不善心里都有

we just say lobha mula

所以我们只说贪根

but when we say lobha mula or rooted in lobha we must understand that it is rooted in moha also

但当我们说贪根心时,我们必须了解它同时也是痴根心

the same with dosa mula

对于嗔根心也是如此

so when we say rooted in hatred we do not mean it is rooted in hatred only

当我们说嗔根心时,并不是说它只有嗔根

it is rooted

它的根

actually it is rooted in moha delusion also

实际上痴也是它的根

so dosa mula citta means actually dosa moha mula cittas

所以嗔根心实际上是:嗔痴根心

but the last two accompanied by moha

但是最后两个心是痴根心

has moha only as root

仅仅有痴根

they are rooted in moha only

只是以痴为根

now we go to alobha

我们现在看无贪

alobha, can you find alobha in the fifty two cetasikas?

无贪,你能在52心所里找到无贪吗?

can you tell me the number? alobha?

能告诉我序号吗?无贪?

thirty two, right, yes 32,正确

so that is alobha, non-greed

就是无贪

since it is the beautiful universal

因为它是遍一切美心心所

it will arise with all beautiful types of consciousness

它会和所有美心相应

or fifty nine types of beautiful consciousness

就是59种美心

and adosa adosa is number thirty three

无嗔是33号心所

so adosa is also a beautiful universal consciousness

无嗔也是遍一切美心心所

and so it arises with all beautiful consciousness

所以也与所有美心相应

in this chart they are divided into Kāmāvacara sobhana ñāṇasampayutta and so on

在这个表格里,它们被分为欲界智相应美心

because when we come to paññā or amoha we have this differentiation

因为当我们遇到慧(无痴)的时候就有这种区分

so alobha and adosa arise with all fifty nine types of beautiful consciousness

所以无贪、无嗔与所有59美心相应

but amoha or paññā arises with only forty seven of them not all fifty nine

但是无痴或慧只与所有59个美心中的47个相应

it will not accompany those that are not associated with paññā它不与智不相应的心同生

so if you look at the eight wholesome sense-sphere beautiful consciousness

所以如果你看8个欲界善心

you will see that the first two are accompanied by knowledge

你会看到前两个是智相应的

but the second two that means third and fourth not accompanied by knowledge

之后的3、4两个是智不相应的

and then fifth and sixth are accompanied by knowledge and seventh and eighth are not accompanied by knowledge 5、6是智相应,

7、8是智不相应的

so with regard to amoha or paññā we have to leave them out

所以无痴或慧心所不与之相应

so the amoha or paññā does not arise with sense-sphere beautiful consciousnesses that are not accompanied by or that are not associated with knowledge

所以无痴或慧不与智不相应的欲界美心相应

that means we have to take out twelve

所以我们要减去12 so amoha or paññā arises only with forty seven types of consciousness

所以无痴或慧只与47种心相应

again we will find out

我们还能找出

how many types of consciousness are accompanied by one root only

一根心有多少种

now at the bottom you see the numbers two two one zero three two three three

在底部你们看到数字:

2,2,1,0,3,2,3,3 so just take the one there so

所以看一根心

those that are accompanied by one root are those that are accompanied by moha, moha mula two

一根心就是痴根心,2个

and then two root cittas

二根心

how many two root cittas are there?

有多少二根心

then you add those with the two at the bottom

你就加上底下有2的

so eight two and twelve

所以8,2和12 eight and two ten, ten plus twelve twenty two 8加2等于10,10加12等于22 so there are twenty two two-root cittas

所以有22个二根心

and then three-root cittas

然后是三根心

that means consciousness accompanied by three roots that are forty seven

就是有三个根的心,有47个

those that are accompanied by paññā就是智相应的

and then zero root cittas

然后是无根心

how many are without hetus or without roots, eighteen

有多少是无根心,也就是18个

so eighteen ahetuka cittas or eight rootless cittas are not accompanied by any of these hetus 18个无因心是没有这些根的

so this is the classification of consciousness according to roots

这就是根据因来给心分类

these can also be represented in chart like the ones you put the cetasikas

这些都可以在图表里反应出来就像你做那些心所的表格一样

now you have the basic chart

你们有基本表格

so in the basic chart you can see

在基本表格里,你可以看到

accompanied by lobha, accompanied by dosa, accompanied by moha, accompanied by alobha, adosa and amoha

贪根、嗔根、痴根无贪、无嗔、无痴

you can have separate cards

你们可以用不同的卡片

so

所以

actually you need to have more copies of those charts

实际上你们需要复印更多表格

blank charts

空白表格

and then you put in colors for this chapter also

然后根据本章,给表格涂颜色

now if you want to use that chart for this purpose

如果你想这样做

then you have the chart and at the bottom of the chart you see

你们有这个表,在表格底下看到

rooted in lobha, right?

贪根心,对吧?

and you will have the eight colored

然后将8个心涂颜色

and rooted in moha you will have all twelve colored, not just the last two

痴根心,就要给所有12个涂颜色并不只是最后2个

like that, and rooted in alobha

这样,无贪心

you will have colored the beautiful ones

给美心涂颜色

and adosa also beautiful ones

无嗔心,也是美心

but when we come to amoha you are not to color those that are not accompanied by knowledge

然后是无痴心,不要涂智不相应的心

and others i want you to make yourselves

剩下的,你们自己完成

so you make them and then you become familiar with this

你们通过练习来熟悉

you will become experts in that

这样就会成为专家

it is good to do by yourselves

最好自己完成

so in that way you can make charts like this all like this

这样就可以完成这样的表格

and you will have many of them with you

然后就有许多表格

and you can take out these charts and study them at all times

随时可以拿出这些表格学习

so this is how you can make yourself more and more familiar with intricacies of methods and the combination and others that are taught in this book

这就是如何让自己熟悉书本里的这些复杂组合方法

so

所以

in this section

在这节

the author teaches us the roots and then the classification of consciousness according to roots

作者教我们按照根(因)来给心分类

then we have a break now

我们现在休息一下

disk01track14

so now you have the booklet with the blank circles

现在你们有空白圆圈的练习册了

so you are to fill in the colors

你们要给它们涂颜色

and the sheets that are given to you yesterday are to be used as a draft.

昨天给你们资料可以用来作草稿

and then when you get all correct you copy them and do this booklet

你们全部做好了之后,就可以抄到练习册上

and then you can keep this booklet with you and look at it and refresh your memory

然后你就可以随身携带这个练习册,经常记记它

so with vitakka and so on they are the same as the sheet given to you

寻心所等等,这些都跟你们资料上的一样

I hope you’ve got the… your answers

我希望你们填写的答案

correct or if you had made mistakes, you have corrected it

都是正确的,如果错了,就改正好

now you’ve the blank let us try doing these roots

你们现在有空白本,我们试着做一做关于根的练习

if you have the sheet you may use the diagrams in the sheet

你们也可以用资料上的图表

because there are some extra diagrams on the sheet

因为资料上有一些多余的图表

page 18, from 19 to 24 are blank ones

第18、19到24页都是空白的

so you may use them first

你们可以先用它们

and then you have got correct then you can copy them and do this booklet

先把它们写对,再抄到练习册上

it says here that lobha, lobha arises with eight lobha mula cittas

这里讲了贪,贪伴随着八个贪根心生起

so

所以

this one diagram say

这张表格上说

with lobha or something like that here

伴随贪之类的

and you fill in these eight lobha mula cittas

你涂好这八个贪根心

and then next say number 20

接着20号

dosa mula

嗔根

so you see with dosa and then you fill in these two, right?

你找到嗔相应的心,涂上这两个,对吧?

and then with moha, here and you fill in all twelve

痴相应的,你涂上所有12个

moha

and then you can combine alobha and adosa for one chart

然后你可以把无贪、无嗔合并成一个表

so with alobha and with adosa then you color all these beautiful consciousness

无贪、无嗔相应的心你涂上所有美心

and then the last is amoha or paññā, so with amoha here

最后一个是无痴或慧

and with amoha will be actually the same as number 18 with paññindriya

无痴相应的心跟18号慧根是一样的

the paññindriya, amoha, paññā, knowledge, they are the same

慧根、无痴、慧、智,它们都是一样的

so you can do like that

你们可以这样做

so with lobha, one chart, with dosa, one chart, with moha, one chart

贪相应,一个表,嗔相应,一个表痴相应,一个表

with alobha and adosa one chart, with amoha one chart

无贪无嗔一个表,无痴一个表

and when you’re sure that you have done it correctly, you may copy it in this booklet

你确定都写对了之后,就抄写到这个练习册上

ok we will go to the next section

下面我们讲下一节

the next section is

下一节是

section on function

依作用分析心

just as different people functions to do

如同不同的人,有不同的作用

the consciousnesses we studied in the first chapter have functions of their own

我们在第一章学习到的心也各自有自己的作用

now at the office there may be many people, working together in the same building

同一栋楼里办公室的人有许多人一起工作

but not everybody does the same work

但是大家都做不同的事情

some may be typing, some using computers

有些人可能在打字,有些人在使用电脑

some keeping books

有的记账

or even some doing janitorial jobs and so on

有些人做保洁工作的等等

so different people have different functions working in an office

不同的人,在办公室有不同的工作

so in the same way here we have studied the 89 or 121 types of consciousness

同样,我们学了89或121心

and these consciousnesses have functions of their own

这些心都有自己的作用

and altogether there are 14 functions for 89 types of consciousness

这89种心一共有14种作用

that means a number of consciousness may be doing one function

意思就是有些心它们起相同的作用

so there are 14 functions taught in abhidhamma

阿毗达摩里讲了14种作用

and

并且

on the chart you will see the patisandhi, bhavanga, cuti

在图表上你们可以看到:结生、有分、死亡

now patisandhi means rebirth linking, you may just say rebirth

结生意思是:投生之连接,你也可说是投生

the word patisandhi means linking or joining

这个巴利语的意思是连接

and bhavanga, we will talk about bhavanga in more detail

有分,我们将更详细地讲解

and then cuti, cuti means death or passing away

然后是死亡,巴利语cuti的意思是死亡

so patisandhi is one function, bhavanga is another function

所以结生是一种作用,有分是另外一种作用

and cuti is another function

死亡也是一种作用

so in this box there are three functions

在这一个表里,有三种作用

now patisandhi

现在讲结生

it is called rebirth linking, because it links the new existence to the previous one

它被称为连接投生,因为它将新的一生与前一生连接起来

this patisandhi function is the function of the consciousness called patisandhi consciousness, or re-linking consciousness

这种结生作用,就是结生心的作用

now when a being takes conception

当某一众生在受孕时

let us talk about human beings

我们以人为例

so when a being takes conception in his mother’s womb

当人在母胎受孕

the first consciousness that arises is called rebirth-linking consciousness

生起的第一个心就是结生心

or in pali patisandhi consciousness

或者用结生心的巴利语

so this is the first consciousness in that given life

这就是一期生命的第一个心

and if this consciousness does not arise

如果此心没有生起

then the life would have ended, no more

生命就会终止

that is why it is called patisandhi, re-linking, or rebirth linking consciousness

这就是它称之为结生心的原因

so when that consciousness arises

当那个心生起

that consciousness has this function

它就有此功能

that is linking function, linking the present existence with the previous or past existence

就是连接的作用,将现在的生命和过去的生命连接起来

and this consciousness occurs only once in any individual existence

这个心在一期生命只生起一次

and it arises at the moment of rebirth

在投生的那一刻生起

and this consciousness is a resultant consciousness

此心是果报心

later on we will find out

稍后我们会找出

which types of consciousness are represented by patisandhi, bhanvanga and cuti

哪些心可以作为:结生、有分、死亡

so this consciousness arises

所以此心的生起

as it was joining the two lives together or linking the two lives

是要连接两期生命

and immediately it arises

它立刻生起

then it lasts for three sub-moments, and then it disappears

然后持续三个阶段,然后就消失了

and immediately after it

随即

another identical type of consciousness arises

另外一个相同类型的心生起

that consciousness may arise for many times

这个心会生起很多次

now patisandhi arises only one time

结生心只生起一次

it arises then it disappears

然后消失

after it

随后

an identical type of consciousness arises for 15 times or 16 times

一个相同类型的心生起15或16次

this consciousness that arises after the rebirth consciousness

紧随结生心之后的心

is called bhavanga

被称为有分心

I want you to understand bhavanga correctly

我希望你们正确理解有分心

because after I came here

因为我刚来的时候

I hear people using the word bhavanga in a different meaning

我听到有人用“有分”的时候,指的是其他意思

that I was not aware of before

这种意思我还没听过呢

so

所以

so it is important to understand bhavanga

理解“有分”这个词很重要

first the word bhavanga is made up of two parts

首先bhavanga这个词是由两部分组成的

bhava and anga bhava和anga now bhava means existence or life bhava意思是:生命

and anga means a member or a factor or even a cause anga意思是:成分、因素

so bhavanga means part of life or a factor of life, a factor of existence or constituent of existence

所以有分意思是:生命的因素,生存的成分

or the cause of existence

或者说生命的原因

that means if this consciousness does not arise life would have ended with just patisandhi

意思是如果有分心不生起生命就会随着结生心结束

because this consciousness arises and then goes on and on

这种心生起,不断持续

there is what we call life or existence

所以就有生命

and this type of consciousness arises during life

此种心在生命中生起

during life between the active thought processes

生起于活跃的心路过程之间

if this consciousness does not arise

如果此种心不再生起

life would have ended

生命就会终结

and so it is called in pali bhavanga

所以它被称为有分心

it is translated as life continuum

被翻译成:生命之存续

and some people translate it as subconsciousness and so on

有人将之翻译为潜意识等

but I think we should keep these two separate

但是我觉得此两者理应有所区别

because what is understood as subconsciousness may not be exactly the same as what we understand as bhavanga

因为我们理解的潜意识与有分心可能有所不同

so let us just put these two separate

所以我们要区别对待这两者

so this bhavanga consciousness arises all through our lives when there are no active thought moments or active thought processes arising

如果没有活跃的心路过程,有分心就会生起

kamma is so powerful that it can produce consciousness to arise all through our lives actually

业力十分强大,终我们一生,都能产生心

only when there are active thought moments do the bhavanga moments stop

只有当活跃的心识刹那产生时有分心才会停止

so bhavanga moments are like buffer zones between the active thought processes.

所以有分心就像活跃心路过程之间的缓冲区

and this bhavanga consciousness is the same as the rebirth linking consciousness

有分心与结生心一样

just as rebirth linking consciousness is a resultant consciousness, this bhavanga also is resultant consciousness

如同结生心是果报心有分心也是果报心

so it is said that bhavanga is a function of consciousness by which the continuity of individual is preserved

所以说,有分心的功能就是保存了个体生命的持续性

because the bhavanga cittas arise again and again and again

因为有分心不断重复生起

the continuity of an individual, continuity of the existence is preserved

个体的存续,生命的存续就是这样被保持着

this type of consciousness is most evident during deep dreamless sleep

此种心在无梦睡眠时最为显著

so when you are in sleep, in a dreamless sleep

当你在无梦睡眠时

the flow of bhavanga goes on and on and on

有分流不断持续

but it also occurs momentarily during waking life countless times between occasions of active cognition

但是在清醒的时候,它也会出现在活跃心路过程之间,有分心也会出现无数次

so between active thought processes, they intervene

所以在活跃的心路过程之中,它也会插入

so active thought processes do not follow one after another immediately

所以活跃的心路过程并不是一个立即紧随另一个

they are always intervened by the moments of bhavanga

它们之间经常会出现有分心

and this bhavanga or the bhavanga consciousness will arise and then it disappears

有分心生起,然后灭去

another bhavanga arises and disappears and it will go on like this

另外一个有分心生起,然后灭去,诸如此

like a stream until an object comes into the avenue of the senses

就像水流,直到目标出现于诸根之门

when the visible objects comes into the avenue of the eyes

当可见的目标进入眼根

it is said that the visible object strikes at the eye

就是色所缘撞击眼净色

and at the same time it strikes at the mind also

同时也会撞击到心

mind here means bhavanga

心这里指有分心

so when this visible object comes into the avenue of the eye

当色所缘进入眼根

it strikes at the bhavanga also

它也会撞击有分

and so bhavanga is disturbed

这样有分就被干扰

it is called shaking

被称为波动

that’s a vibration of bhavanga

就是有分波动

and then next moment bhavanga stops

然后有分就会中断

and after bhavanga stops active thought moments take on

有分中断之后,活跃的心识刹那就开始了

so bhavanga is just a flow of types of consciousness

所以有分只是一种心识之流

that are the result of the kamma in the past

是过去业果的果报

and that are identical with the rebirth linking of rebirth consciousness

与结生心是同一类型

and

而且

we said there is bhavanga or we can see bhavanga when we are in deep sleep

我们说我们在深度睡眠时也能看到有分心

we can see means there is bhavanga

能看到,意思就是存在着有分心

when we are in deep sleep mostly without dreams

当我们处于无梦睡眠时

so this is just what we called bhavanga

这就被称为有分

it’s a type of consciousness that has the function of reserving the continuity of an existence

这种心有保存生命持续的作用

and bhavanga moments take obscure objects

有分心的所缘是隐晦的

obscure objects means the kamma or sign of kamma or sign of destiny

这种隐晦的目标是:业、或业相、或趣相

now in order to understand that we must understand the process of that

要了解它,我们必须了解它的过程

when a person is near death

当一个人濒临死亡

to his mind

在他心里

the kamma which he did in the past

过去所造的业

or somethings connected with kamma

或者与业相关的东西

or somethings connected with the next existence he is going to be reborn

或者与下世投生相关的

so one of these three objects present itself to his mind

所以这三种所缘之一就会呈现于心中

so a person is about to die and he may remember his first kamma vividly

当一个人要死的时候,他可能清晰地记忆此世第一个业

or he may see in his mind the instruments or the things that connected with that kamma

或者看到心中与业相关的事情

for example

例如

if that kamma is a donation

如果此业是布施

then he may see the things that are donated

那么他可能看到布施之物

robes, food and so on

僧衣、食物等等

or he may see the recipients of the donation like monks and so on

或者看到接受布施物的人,例如僧人等等

such objects are called sign of kamma

这种所缘被称为业相

so sign of kamma may present itself to his mind

业相可能会呈现于他的心中

or sometimes he may see something of the future life

有时他可能见到下一世的事情

if he is going to be reborn as a human being

如果他要投生为人

he may see the wall of the womb of his mother

他可能会见到母亲的子宫

if he is going to be reborn in hell and he may see the hell wards or the dogs or something like that

如果他要投生到地狱,可能会见到狱卒,地狱的狗等等

or he is going to be in the celestial beings he may see celestial nymphs

如果他要投生到天界,可能会见到仙女

or celestial mansions and gardens

天上的宫殿和花园

so those are called sign of destiny

所以,这些被称为趣相

so anyone of these three objects will present itself to his mind when a person is nearing his death

所以这三个所缘之一会出现于濒死者之心

and when that person dies

当此人死后

these objects may be still present

所缘可能会继续呈现

so after his death when he is reborn

他死后会投生

the rebirth linking consciousness arises

结生心生起

and that rebirth linking consciousness takes those objects as objects.

结生心将这些目标作为所缘

the kamma or sign of kamma or sign of destiny as objects

将业、业相、趣相作为所缘

that is why in one life the kamma

这就是为什么在一期生命中:业、

the rebirth linking consciousness, life continuum consciousness

结生心、有分心

and also at the end the death consciousness are of the same type

死亡心,它们是相同类型的心

and their object is one of the three

它们的所缘是上述三者之一

kamma or sign of kamma or sign of destiny

业、业相或趣相

so these are the objects the bhavanga thought moments take

所以这些都是有分心的所缘

so we may call them obscure objects

所以我们可以称之为隐晦的所缘

because they are not so vivid as the objects we’re now seeing or experiencing

因为它们并不像我们当下看到或经历到的目标那样明显

and at the end

最后

the same type of consciousness arises at the end of life

在生命结束时,会生起同种类型的心

but its function is not to preserve the continuity of the individual

但是它的作用并不是要存续生命

but to end the life

而是结束生命

so it has the function of ending or passing away or death

所以它的作用就是结束生命,死亡

so one and the same type of consciousness performs three functions in the life of one individual

所以同一类型的心起三种作用

at the beginning, this type of consciousness functions as relinking

开始的时候,是结生

and then during life it functions as life continuum

生命期间它的作用是:有分

and then at the end it functions as death consciousness

生命结束的时候作用是:死亡

so in one life these three

所以一期生命之中,此三者

the relinking consciousness life continuum consciousness

结生心、有分心

and death consciousness are of the same type

死亡心,此三者都是相同类型

and during life this bhavanga may arise intermittently with the active thought processes

有分心可能会在活跃的心路中断断续续地生起

so we get now three functions performed by consciousness

我们现在学习了心的三种作用

now the next one is called āvajjana function

下一个作用是:转向āvajjana is translated as adverting

āvajjana意思是转向

that means turning to the object

意思是转向目标

now the object strikes at the bhavanga

目标撞击有分

and the bhavanga vibrates and then bhavanga stops

有分波动然后中断

now after bhavanga stops the active thought moments take over

有分中断之后,活跃的心识刹那接管

the first of these active thought moments is this adverting

第一个活跃的心识刹那就是转向

adverting means turning to the object

转向意思是:转向目标

formerly during the moments of bhavanga

在这之前,有分心阶段

consciousness has taken another object like kamma or sign of kamma or sign of destiny

心的所缘是:业、业相、趣相

but now a new object has come into the avenue

现在新的目标进入根门

and so the mind turns to that object

所以心转向那个目标

that turning to that object is one function of consciousness

这种转向是心的其中一个作用

so this function or the consciousness performing this function arises after the bhavanga has stopped

有分中断后,这种作用,或者说有此作用的心会生起

and this word is also translated as attention or paying attention

这个词也会翻译成:注意力,产生注意力

that means paying attention to the object

意思是:对目标产生注意

the pali word is āvajjana

巴利语是:avajjana so the āvajjana means turning or paying attention

这个词是:产生注意力

and also this word is explained to mean

这个词也被解释成

turning back or stopping

转回、中断

that means the bhavanga is flowing and then when this consciousness arises bhavanga stops

意思是有分流动,当这种心升起时,有分就中断

so that means this consciousness as it will stop the flow of bhavanga or push back the flow of bhavanga

意思是说这个心会中断有分流或者说把有分流推回去

so this function is let us say turning towards the object

所以这种作用就是转向于目标

and later on we will find out how many cittas have this function

稍后,我们会找出有多少心有此作用

now the next function is in pali dassana, seeing, seeing function

下一个作用是:看

now seeing function is easy to understand

看这个作用很容易理解

in the process of seeing

在看的过程中

that is turning toward the object and then seeing the object

即转向目标,看到目标

in the process of hearing then hearing the object and so on

听的过程,听到目标等等

so seeing is one function

所以看是种作用

and then the next one is savana hearing

下一个是:听

hearing is another function

听是另外一种作用

so when we hear a song, then there is a hearing

当你听一首歌,就是听

so that hearing consciousness performs the function of hearing

耳识的作用就是听

and next is called ghāyana, smelling, smelling function

下一个是:嗅的作用

so we smell something, there is smelling consciousness in our mind

我们嗅东西,鼻识生起

and that smelling consciousness performs the smelling function

鼻识的作用就是:嗅

and next is sāyana, tasting, tasting function or knowing the taste

下一个是尝的作用,就是知道味道的作用

so when we eat something there is tasting or knowing of the taste

当你吃东西的时候,就会知道滋味

performed by one type of consciousness you know that type of consciousness

这是由舌识产生的作用

and then the last one is phusana touching, touching function

最后一个是触的作用

when we have touched of something then there is the touching consciousness the body consciousness

当我们触碰到某物,就有身识的产生

and that body consciousness performs the touching function

身识起到触的作用

and next is sampaṭicchana, now you’re familiar with sampaṭicchana, receiving

下一个是领受

after seeing or after hearing after smelling after tasting after touching the object

看到、听到、嗅到、尝到、触到之后

the mind receives the object

心领受目标

or a type of consciousness arises that performs the function of receiving

或者说一种起到领受作用的心生起

then after receiving

领受之后

there is the function of investigating this is a logical sequence

按照逻辑顺序,就是推度

first you see an object and then you accept it

你先看到目标,然后领受

and then you investigate it

然后推度

you try to find out whether it is good or bad

你试着推度它是好是坏

so this is in pali it is called santīraṇa

巴利语这是santirana the investigating function

推度的作用

after santīraṇa, there is the function of votthapana

推度之后,就是确定的作用

now votthapana means determining votthapana意思是确定

so after investigating there is determination

推度之后,就是确定

this is a desirable object or this is undesirable object somethign like that

这是个可意的或不可意的目标等等

so a type of consciousness arises doing that function

所以有种心就会起到这个作用

and then the next one is javana

下一个是速行

with regard to javana

关于速行

this comprehensive manual says

概要精解是这样说的

javana is a technical term of abhidhamma usage

速行是阿毗达摩特有的用词

that is best left untranslated

最好不要翻译

because it is translated as impulsion

因为它被翻译成:冲力

it is more difficult than the word javana to me

这个对于我而言,比javana更难

impulsion

冲力

so he said here: it is best left untranslated

所以他在这里说:最好不要翻译

now literal meaning of the word is

这个词的字面意思是

running quickly running swiftly or the force

快速地跑,或者力量

when the javana type of consciousness arises

当速行心生起

it has something like a force something like power

就像一种力量

even if it arises only once, it has power

即便只生起一次,也有力量

it can perform many things

它可以执行很多事情

so javana means

所以速行意思是

that power, force or running swift

一种快速运动的力量

and this type of consciousness arises not just once

这种心不是仅仅生起一次

in a cognitive series, it arises normally seven times

在心路过程中,它一般生起七次

so the javana consciousness arises and disappears seven times

所以速行心生灭七次

so when it arises, it does the function of this force

当它生起时,它起到这种力量的作用

I call it full experience of the object

我称之为:对目标的完整体验

now the mind experiences the object fully only when it reaches this stage of javana

当心到达速行阶段,才有对目标完整的体验

before that it just sees it, then accepts it, investigates it and determines it

在此之前,仅仅是看到它,领受、推度、确定它

it has not yet enjoyed the flavor or taste of the object

并没有享受到目标的滋味

but when it comes to this seven moments of javana the object is fully experienced

当生起七次速行之后,目标才被完整地体验到

and the javana moments are very important ethically

速行阶段从道德上讲很重要

because it is during these javana moments that you acquire good kamma or bad kamma

因为只有在速行阶段,你才获得善业或不善业

during the previous moments

在之前的阶段

there is no good or bad, there is no wholesome or unwholesome

没有善、不善

most of them are just resultant consciousness

大多数都是果报心

some are functional consciousnesses some are resultant consciousnesses

有些是唯作心,有些是果报心

but when this process reaches the javana moments

但是到达速行阶段后

then when a person has what is called yonisomanasikāra right attitude towards things

如果如理作意

then he will have wholesome kamma

就会造善业

and if he has no correct attitude towards things

如果不如理作意

and he will have unwholesome kamma

就会造不善业

so wholesome kamma or unwholesome kamma is acquired only during these seven moments of javana

所以只有在这七个速行阶段,才会获得善业或不善业

and after the javana there is tadārammaṇa

速行之后是彼所缘

tadārammaṇa literally means having that as object

彼所缘,字面意思是以彼为所缘

that means having the object of javana as its object

意思是以速行的目标为所缘

so taking the object taken by javana

所以缘取速行的目标

that means it’s the follower of javana

意思是随速行之后

but it translated as registration

但是它被翻译为:登记注册

and it is said that when consciousness performs the function of tadārammaṇa or registration

据说当心执行彼所缘作用时

it arises twice it always arises twice

它总会生起两次

or none at all

或者不生起

so if it must arise it arise for two times

所以如果它生起,会生起两次

there is no such occasion as where tadārammaṇa arises only once

彼所缘不会只生起一次

so it will arise twice or it will not arise at all

要么生起两次,要么不生起

so this is called the tadārammaṇa or registration

所以这个被称为彼所缘

this is one function performed by some types of consciousness

有若干种心发挥此种作用

so altogether now we get 14 functions

所以我们一起有14种作用

so these are the functions performed by different types of consciousness

由不同的心所起的这些作用

but in the list given in the manual

但是在概要精解的列表里

the cuti or death is put the last after tadārammaṇa

死亡心被放在最后,在彼所缘之后

so these 14 are called the functions of consciousness

所以这14种被称为心的作用

now when a person does a function

当一个人发挥作用时

he does that function sitting at the table or standing at the place or so on

他坐在桌子旁,或站在某处等等

so there is a place where a person does the function

所以当人发挥作用时,有一个处所

so in the same way

同样地

there must be a place for consciousness to do the function

当心起作用时也有一个处所

actually that place is not real place but just a time

实际上,不是真正的处所,只是一段时间

between two moments of consciousness

在两段心识之间

between two moments of consciousness there is one space

在两段心识之间,有一个处所

just enough for one thought moment to arise and disappear

仅仅够一个心识的生灭

and that space is called place in regard to the functions

根据作用,这种处所被称为阶段

now

现在

a person may do different functions in one place

一个人可能在某处做不同的事情

so in the same way the consciousness does some functon in one place

同样,在某一处,心识可以起若干作用

now

现在

in a thought process

在心路过程里

the moments of consciousness run like this

心路过程就是如此运作的

first bhavanga and then the bhavanga vibrates and then it stops

先是有分心,有分波动,有分中断

and then the mind turns to the object and then sees it receives investigates it determines it and then enjoys it

然后心转向于目标,看到它,领受、推度、确定、品味它

now seeing function

看这个作用

comes between turning to the object and receiving

在转向和领受之间

so between this two is a space or time

所以在这两者之间有一个处所或阶段

for the seeing consciousness to arise

生起眼识

now in that place there can be hearing consciousness

在这个阶段,也可以是耳识

so when you hear something

所以当你听到声音

the sequences again

同样是这个过程

first bhavanga flowing then the sound strikes at the ear

有分流,声音撞击耳根

and also strikes at bhavanga and bhavanga vibrates and it stops

也撞击有分,有分波动然后中断

and then turning to the object receiving it

然后转向、领受

investigating it and so on

推度等等

so hearing consciousness takes place in the space between turning to the object and receiving

所以耳识发生的处所在转向和领受之间

so that spaces call place in connection with the functions

与作用相关,这种处所被称为阶段

so although there are 14 functions

虽然有14个作用

there are only how many places

但是只有多少个阶段?

patisandhi one place, bhavanga is one place

结生一个阶段、有分一个阶段

cuti is one place avajjana is one place

死亡一个阶段,转向一个阶段

dassana, savana, ghāyana, sāyana, phusana is one place, right?

看、听、嗅、尝、触一个阶段,对吧?

and then sampaticchana receiving is one place

领受是一个阶段

the others are one place each

剩下的,每个是一个阶段

so although there are 14 functions, there are only 10 places for those functions

所以虽然有14个作用,但是相应地只有10个阶段

ok, now we will study the classification of consciousness by functions

下面我们将依作用来给心分类

now we know there are 14 functions

我们了解了14种作用

and these 14 functions are performed by different types of consciousness

不同的心所起作用一共14种

and now we will find out what functions are performed by what type of consciousness

现在我们看看何种心起何种作用

so

所以

we can see the chart and we can find out

我们看表格,找出它们

so the first patisandhi that is relinking bhavanga, life continuum and cuti death

第一个是结生、有分、死亡

so these three functions are done or performed by how many cittas

有多少种心起这三个作用

altogether 19 cittas

一起是19种心

and those 19 are santirana upekkha investigating accompanied by neutral feeling

这19种是:舍俱推度心

and then kāmāvacara sobhana vipāka that means sense-sphere resultant consciousness

欲界果报心

and then mahaggata vipaka

然后是广大果报心

now rupavacara and arupavacara are called mahaggata

色界和无色界心被称为广大心

it is a collective name for rupavacara and arupavacara

这是对色界和无色界心的统称

so there are 9 mahaggata vipaka

所以有9个广大果报心

five rupavacara and four arupavacara

色界5个,无色界4个

so these types of consciousness 9 plus 8 plus 1

所以这种心的总数是:

9加8加1 yeah

santira upekkha is 2, right

舍俱推度心2个,对了

the investigation accompanied by neutral feeling there are two of them

舍俱推度心,有2个

so 2 plus 8 plus 9 there are 19 types of consciousness

所以2加8加9,一共是19种心

and these 19 types of consciousness do the function of relinking

这19种心起结生的作用

that means at the moment of conception or at the moment of rebirth

意思是在受孕或投生的时刻

one of these types of consciousness arise doing the function of relinking

其中的一个心生起,起结生作用

now later when you get to the fifth chapter

稍后学到第五章

you will find out which types of consciousness the relinking consciousness is for which type of being

你就会知道什么样的众生有什么样的结生心

so right now

现在

just note that these 19 types of consciousness do the function of patisandhi bhavanga and cuti

记住这19种心起的作用是:结生、有分、死亡

or relinking life continuum and death

结生、有分、死亡

now next one is avajjana, adverting

下一个是转向

adverting function is done by only two types of consciousness

只有两种心起转向的作用

and they are pañcadvārāvajjana five-sense-door adverting

它们是五门转向心

and manodvāravajjana, mind-door-adverting

意门转向心

now there are broadly two kinds of thought process

大体而言有两种心路过程

those that arise through the five doors

生起于五门

five doors means eyes, ears, nose, tongue and body

五门意思是眼耳鼻舌身

and also those that arise through mind

还有生起于意门

for those that arise through five-sense-doors, the pañcadvārāvajjana

生起于五根门的

does the function of turning, adverting

作用是转向

for those that arise through mind-door

生起于意门的

then manodvāravajjana, mind-door-adverting does the function of turning to the object

起转向目标的作用

so this avajjana function is done by two types of consciousness

所以有两种心起转向作用

the five-sense-door adverting and mind-door adverting

五门转向心、意门转向心

now seeing function

看的作用

seeing function is done by two types of consciousness

有两种心起看的作用

two is eye consciousnesses

两种都是眼识

one result of akusala and the other result of kusala

一个是不善果报心,一个是善果报心

so the seeing function is done by two

所以有两种心起看的作用

hearing function by two

两种心起听的作用

smelling by two, tasting function by two

嗅、尝也是两种心

touching function by two

触的作用也是两种心

and then receiving

然后是领受

receiving is done by again two

领受也是对应两种心

if you remember the rootless consciousness

如果你记得无因心

you will find that there are two receiving consciousnesses

你就知道有两种领受心

one among those that are result of akusala and the other among those that are result of kusala

一个是不善果报,一个是善果报

so these two types of consciousness do the function of receiving, receiving the object

这两种心起领受目标的作用

and then investigating

然后是推度

now you know that there are three investigating consciousnesses

你们知道有三种推度心

one among the result of akusala and two among the result of kusala

一个是不善果报心,两个是善果报心

and two are accompanied by neutral feeling

两个舍俱

and one is accompanied by joy

一个是悦俱

so these three

这三个心

do the function of investigating

起推度的作用

so three types of consciousness do the function of investigating

所以有三种心起推度作用

and next is determining or votthapana

下一个是确定

now votthapana or determining function is done by just one type of consciousness

只有一种心起确定的作用

which is actually manodvāravajjana or mind-door adverting

实际上就是意门转向心

so mind-door adverting consciousness has two functions

所以意门转向心有两个作用

when it arises through the five-sense-doors

当它通过五根门生起的时候

it has the function of determining this one

他的作用就是确定

but when it arise through the mind-door

当它通过意门生起时

it has the function of turning or adverting

它的作用就是转向

so the manodvāravajjana, mind-door-adverting has two functions

所以意门转向有两个作用

one adverting to the object when it arises through mind-door

一个是在意门生起,转向目标

and the other determining the object when it arises through the five-sense-doors

另外一个,当生起于五根门,就是确定目标

and then javana

接着是速行

now javana function is done by 55 types of consciousness

有55种心起速行的作用

and they are

它们是

akusala 12

不善心12个

and then hasituppada, smile producing

生笑心

and then kamavacara sobhana kusala wholesome sense-sphere

欲界善心

and then

然后

kamavacara sobhana kiriya, functional sense-sphere

欲界唯作心

and then mahaggata kusala

广大善心

that means of five rupavacara kusala and four arupavacara kusala

意思就是5个色界善心,

4个无色界善心

and then mahaggata kiriya

广大唯作心

five rupavacara kiriya and four arupavacara kiriya 5个色界唯作心,

4个无色界唯作心

and then eight lokuttara or supramundane cittas

然后是8个出世间心

so all together

所以一起是

there are 55 types of consciousness 55种心

that has the function of javana, that has the function of force or power

它们起速行的作用

now in order to remember the javana you may make a note

为了记住速行,你们可以记一下笔记

kusala, akusala, phala and kiriya

善、不善、果报、唯作

they are the ones that have the javana function

这些都起速行的作用

kusala, akusala, phala and kiriya

善、不善、果报、唯作

except two types, two, that are five-sense-door adverting and mind-door-adverting

除了两种,五门转向和意门转向

so kusala, akusala

所以,善、不善

phala, phala means fruit

果报

from the lokuttara or supramundane cittas

来自出世间的

and then all kiriya cittas, all functional cittas

然后是所有的唯作心

except two that are pañcadvārāvajjana and manodvārāvajjana

除了两个:五门转向和意门转向

so the others have the function of javana

其他的都有速行的作用

and then the last is tadārammaṇa taking the object of javana as its object

然后最后一个:彼所缘,以速行的目标为所缘

and this function is performed by santirana upekkha and santirana somanassa

由舍俱推度心和悦俱推度心起这个作用

that means three investigating consciousness

意思就是三个推度心

and then kamavacara sobhana vipaka

然后是欲界果报心

that means the resultant consciousness of sense-sphere

就是欲界的果报心

so three plus eight there are ten types of consciousness

所以3加8就是11种心

that have the function of tadārammaṇa or registering

它们的起彼所缘的作用

so this is the types of consciousness and their respective functions

这就是不同心起的不同的作用

here we can find out

我们在这里可以找出

the cittas that have only one function

起一种作用的心

cittas that have two functions that have three functions that have four functions that have five functions

起两种作用、三种作用、四、五种作用的心

now cittas that have only one function

只起一种作用的心

there are altogether 68 of them

一共是68种

you read the bottom

你们可以看页面底部

one kicca cittas equals 68

一种作用的心是68种

if you want to get 68

你想得出68这个数

then you add the numbers on the bottom line corresponding to number ones in the line above

将上面数字1下面对应的数字加起来

so if you add the numbers under the ones that means 2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2

所以如果你加1下面的数字

and then 1,1,8,8,9,1,8

然后再加

so if you add these numbers you get 68 that have only one function

如果你将这些数字加起来,一共是68种心,只起一个作用

and those that have two functions only two:

起两种作用的,只有两个

manodvāravajjana

意门转向心

and santirana somanassa

悦俱推度心

and three-function cittas nine

三个作用的心有9个

so the nine are mahaggata vipaka

这9种是广大果报心

means resultants of rupavacara and arupavacara

意思是色界果报心、无色界果报心

and four-function-cittas, eight

四种作用的心,8个

and they are kamavacara sobhana vipaka

它们是欲界果报心

resultant sense-sphere consciousness eight

欲界果报心,8个

and five kicca cittas, five-function cittas

五种作用的心

there are only two of them

只有两种

and they are santirana upekkha

它们是舍俱推度心

so when we read the bottom two lines

所以当我们看底部两行

then we can find out the cittas that have just one function that have two functions, three, four that have five functions

我们可以找出一种作用、二三四五种作用的心

now let us go to two-function cittas

我们看两种作用的心

now what are the two-function cittas

哪些是两种作用的心

investigating accompanied by joy

悦俱推度心

and mind-door-adverting

意门转向心

now they have two functions

它们有两种作用

so investigating accompanied by joy

所以悦俱推度心

has two functions, what are those two functions

有两种作用,哪两种作用

investigating and registering, santirana and tadārammaṇa

推度、彼所缘

and the two functions of manodvāravajjana are āvajjana adverting and votthapana determining

意门转向心的两个作用是:转向、确定

so we can find out that way

我们可以这样找出来

three-kicca cittas, three-functions cittas there are nine three-function cittas

三作用心,有9个

and what are the three

哪三种作用?

patisandhi, bhavanga and cuti

结生、有分、死亡

there are eight four-function cittas

有8个四种作用的心

they are kamavacara sobhana vipaka, the resultant sense-sphere

它们是欲界果报心

what are the four functions

哪四种作用

patisandhi, bhavanga, cuti and tadārammaṇa

结生、有分、死亡、彼所缘

five-function cittas, only two

五种作用的心,只有两个

you will find out five in the second part, one line

在第二部分找到5,一行

and then you read it you get santirana upekkha

你可以看到舍俱推度心

they have five functions and what are the five?

它们有五个作用,哪五个作用?

patisandhi, bhavanga, cuti, santirana and tadārammaṇa, right

结生、有分、死亡、推度、彼所缘

so we can find out that way

我们可以这样找出来

and we can put these on those diagrams also

我们同样可以将这些放进表格里

say patisandhi bhavanga cuti functions

例如结生、有分、死亡作用

then you have the 19 here

有19个

and then avajjana function

转向作用

seeing function, hearing function and so on

看的作用、听的作用等等

so you can have many of these diagrams

你可以有很多表格

and it is good to make those yourself

你们最好自己完成

so that you get more familiar with the teaching

这样你们就对这些很熟悉 so

所以

each type of consciousness has its function to do

每种心都有自己的作用

that is why although these arise rapidly one after another

所以虽然它们一个接一个飞快地生起

they have different functions to do

它们有不同的作用

and so that’s why they are not mixed with each other and they are clearly defined

这就是它们为什么不与其他心相混淆,可以清楚地被定义

and when they do their own function

当它们执行它们各自的作用

this is by their own nature and no one makes them do their function

这是出自它们的本质,而不是别人让它们这样做

that function is their nature function and so there is no body who tells them to do this function or that function

这种作用是它们自然的作用,没有人告诉它执行这个作用或那个作用

in the manual it is said

在概要精解里这样写道

those which perform one function are 68

一种作用的心有68种

and two functions 2, and three functions 9

两种作用的2种,三种作用的9种

four functions 8 and five functions 2, respectively

四种作用的8种,五种作用的2种

so you may find out these from the chart

你们可以从表格里找到这些

ok, we come to the end of section on functions

好,我们结束作用这节的学习

so this is very interesting

这非常有趣

you study the different functions of different types of consciousness

你们学习了不同心的不同作用

and some times you may read the book

有时候你们可以看看书

and that book will describe these functions

书里都写了这些作用

but if you have no previous knowledge of these functions through abhidhamma

但是如果学习阿毗达摩,你们没有这些预备知识

you may not know what things are going on in that passage

你们可能不能理解文本

so it is important that you have at least some knowledge of abhidhamma to understand them

所以至少具备一定的阿毗达摩知识,这样才能理解它们

now when Visuddhimagga describes the restraints

在清净道论里讲了律仪

it says there is restraints at the moments of receiving, there is no restraints at the moment of investigating, there is no restraints at the moment of determining

在领受、推度、决定阶段,没有律仪可言

but only when you come to javanas is there restraint and so on

只有在速行阶段才有律仪可言

and if you have no previous knowledge of these functions and thought process

如果你没有这些作用、心路过程的预备知识

you may not understand what the author saying there

你可能就不知道作者说什么

so

所以

the knowledge of abhidhamma is very helpful

阿毗达摩的知识非常有益

or we may say it’s essential to understand the suttas and to understand the explanations given in the commentaries

或者,我们可以说,对于理解经文、注释书的解释很关键

host: ok, it’s now two minutes to ten o’clock

主持:现在是十点差两分

instead we find for some questions, if anybody has questions for sayadaw please proceed to the mic in the center

如果你有问题问尊者,请走到中间的话筒处

student: hello, venerable my question is how come santirana somanassa doesn’t give a function for patisandhi, bhavanga and cuti?

学生:你好尊者,我想知道为什么悦俱推度心不能起结生、有分、死亡的作用

whereas santirana upekkha performs that function

而舍俱推度心却有此作用?

thank you

谢谢

sayadaw: santirana somanassa has a function of not just, it has a function of tadārammaṇa, right? and santirana

尊者:悦俱推度心的作用有两个彼所缘、推度,对吧?

it is the vipaka or

果报心

the resultant consciousness that does the function of patisandhi bhavanga and cuti

果报心起的作用才是结生、有分、死亡

and the santirana with upekkha is resolve for the patisandhis in the four woeful states

舍俱推度心执行作用让有情投生到四恶趣

that means when a person is reborn in hell as an animal and so on

意思是当一个人投生到地狱、畜生道等

now the santirana upekkha is the consciousness that does the function of patisandhi

这时候是舍俱推度心起结生作用

and I’m not sure of why

我不太肯定为什么

santirana accompanied by upekkha is assigned this function

舍俱推度心被分配这个作用

and not that accompanied by joy

为什么悦俱推度心没有分配这个作用

I think it is because

我想是因为

the santira upekkha is again for those who are reborn in four woeful states

舍俱推度心是关于生于四恶趣的

right? because they are, it is for those who are reborn in four woeful states

对吧?因为这些是关于生于四恶趣的

and so

所以

the santirana with somanassa or joy has no such function

悦俱推度心没有这个作用

so maybe we can say

或许我们可以说

it is the nature of the santirana with joy

这是悦俱推度心的本质

not to perform the function of patisandhi and so on

就不执行结生等作用

host: any more questions?

主持:还有问题吗?

student: venerable sir, you mentioned that

学生:你提到

patisandhi is the rebirth linking, bhavanga is the life continuum

结生是投生之连接,有分是生命之存续

and cuti is the death consciousness

死亡心是死心

and i’m curious for an arahant who has gained enlightenment

对于觉悟的阿罗汉

so after the cuti function arises or performs

死亡心起作用之后

does it mean that there will be still patisandhi but there wouldn’t be bhavanga to continue it

是不是意味着还有结生心,但是没有有分心继续

sayadaw: for an arahant?

尊者:阿罗汉?

student: who has gained enlightenment, that means there wouldn’t be bhavanga as life continuum but there still be patisandhi arise

学生:对于觉悟者,是不是说就没有有分心,但是要有结生心

sayadaw: no

尊者:不

the cuti is the end of an arahant

死亡心就是阿罗汉的终结

so for an arahant after cuti there is nothing

所以对于阿罗汉而言,死亡心之后,什么都没有

if there is patisandhi there will surely be bhavanga and so on

如果有结生心,那么肯定有有分心等等

student: my second question is

学生:我的第二个问题

I understand the point javana with a person experiences the so called full experience

我理解速行的时候,就是完整的体验

i don’t understand about the tadārammaṇa, what exactly does this function do?

但是我不理解彼所缘,它到底是什么样的作用?

sayadaw: those that are called tadārammaṇa

尊者:彼所缘

are eight resultants of sense-sphere

是欲界的8个果报心

and then santira the investigating consciousness

然后是推度心

but when they arise in that place

当它们生起时

when they arise after the javanas

在速行之后生起时

they do not have the santirana function

它们没有推度的作用

they do not have the patisandhi

它们也不执行结生

bhavanga and cuti function

有分、死亡的作用

but they have another function that is

它们有另外一个作用,就是

taking the object of the javanas

缘取速行的目标

so that itself is their function

这就是它的作用

student: so for this instance would there be kamma

学生:所以,它也会造业吗?

sayadaw: no, kamma is as I said before kamma is acquired only during the moment of javana

尊者:不会,我之前讲过,业只会产生于速行阶段

so after the javana there is no kamma and before the javana also there is no kamma

所以速行之后,不会造业速行之前,也不会造业

only during the moments of javana the seven moments

只有在速行阶段,七个速行阶段

normally

通常

when kamma is acquired

才会造业

host: tonight’s teaching will end here please rise and put your palms together, sayadaw and venerables will now take a leave

主持:今晚的课程到此结束请大家起立合十,恭送尊者和其他法师

disk01track15

today first I’d like to answer the questions that are put to me yesterday more detail

今天我想详细回答一下昨天的问题

first question was why investigation accompanied by joy does not have the function of re-linking

第一个问题是:为什么悦俱推度心没有结生的作用?

the brief answer is

简单的回答是

because the kamma that produces this kind of re-linking

因为产生此种结生的业

is so weak that it cannot produce the investigation accompanied by joy as re-linking consciousness

很弱,不能让悦俱推度心作为结生心

now in order to understand this

为了理解这个问题

we need to understand first the type of wholesome kamma

我们首先要理解善业的种类

here are types of wholesome sense-sphere kamma

现在介绍欲界善业的种类

and then the corresponding resultant consciousness that do the function of re-linking bhavanga and death

然后相应执行结生、有分、死亡作用的果报心

now there are four types of wholesome kamma

有四种类型的善业

they are three-root superior wholesome kamma

分别为:三因殊胜善业

three-root inferior wholesome kamma

三因低劣善业

two-root superior and two-root inferior wholesome kamma

二因殊胜、二因低劣善业

now when the consciousness is accompanied by non-greed, non-hatred and non-delusion

当无贪、无嗔、无痴伴随心的时候

then that wholesome consciousness is called three-root

这种心被称为三因善心

because it is accompanied by three roots

因为有三个因伴随它

and when it is not accompanied by three roots but just by non-greed and non-hatred

如果没有三因,只有无贪、无嗔

it is called two-root

就被称为二因

so sometimes when we do meritorious deeds we may do it sometimes we do without the understanding of law of kamma

有时候我们行善,但是不知道业果法则

and then our wholesome kamma is said to be with two roots

这种善业被称为二因善业

now understanding means understanding the law of kamma, understanding that

明白业果法则就是智相应

this act will give results in the future

明白这种行为会产生结果

this doing dana or attending to one’s own parents and so on

布施、侍奉父母等等

sometimes we do merits with three-root consciousness sometimes we do with two-root consciousness

有时候我们用三因心行善有时候用二因心行善

again, three-root consciousness is said to be superior when it is proceeded and followed by wholesome consciousness

如果用三因善心行善,就是殊胜的

now before doing the act, we may be happy about this act

做善事之前,我们可能为此感到高兴

we may have wholesome consciousness about this act

我们对此事可能产生善心

and after doing the merit also we have wholesome cittas about this merit that is we do not regret and so on

做完善事之后,我们也对此功德生起善心,不会感到后悔

so in that case that kind of wholesome kamma is called three-root superior

这种情况下,就被称为三因殊胜善业

if the wholesome kamma is not proceeded by, not followed by kusala consciousness

如果善业没有伴随善心

it is called three-root inferior

就被称为三因低劣善业

and two-root superior and two-root inferior should be understood in the same way

以此类推,二因殊胜善业,二因低劣善业,也是如此

if it is proceeded by and followed by kusala it is called superior

如果伴随着善心,就被称为殊胜的

if it is not proceeded and followed by kusala it is called inferior

如果没有伴随善心,就被称为低劣善业

so there are four kinds of kusala kamma

所以有四种善业

and three-root superior wholesome kamma gives three-root re-linking

三因殊胜善业能产生三因结生

now please remember the chart

请记住这个表格

and you may look at the chart, find the sense-sphere beautiful consciousness

你们可以看表格,找到欲界美心

so you see three columns comprising the sense-sphere beautiful consciousness and

你看到三列欲界美心

the middle column represents the resultant consciousness

中间一列表示果报心

among them number one and two the first and second are three-root

其中第1第2是三因的

because they are associated with knowledge

因为它们是智相应的

and three and four

第3第4 not accompanied by knowledge

智不相应

five and six accompanied by knowledge

第5第6智相应

seven and eight not accompanied by knowledge

第7第8智不相应

so the three-root superior wholesome kamma produces three-root patisandhi or three-root re-linking

所以三因殊胜善业产生三因结生

that is first second fifth and sixth

即第1第2第5第6 and three-root inferior kusala kamma or wholesome kamma produces two-root re-linking

三因低劣善业产生二因结生

although it is three-root, because it is inferior that is because it is not proceeded and followed by kusala

虽然是三因,但是因为是低劣的因为没有伴随善心

it cannot give three-root patisandhi as result

所以它不能产生三因结生

so it gives only two-root re-linking

只能产生二因结生

and two-root re-linking means third fourth seventh and eighth

二因结生意即第3第4第7第8 and two-root superior wholesome kamma produces again, two-root re-linkinng

二因殊胜善业也是产生二因结生

that is third fourth seventh and eighth

即第3第4第7第8 and the last two-root inferior wholesome kamma produces rootless patisandhi or rootless rebirth or rootless re-linking

最后二因低劣善业产生无因结生

now if you go to the rootless cittas

你们如果看无因心

there are three columns

有三列

and the first column represents the resultant of the akusala

第一列代表不善果报

and the second column the resultant of kusala

第二列是善果报

among them you find there are two investigating consciousness

其中你可以找到两种推度心

one accompanied by joy or somanassa another accompanied by upekkha or neutral feeling

悦俱和舍俱两种

now the two-root inferior kusala kamma is so weak

二因低劣善业很微弱

that it cannot produce the investigating consciousness accompanied by joy as result or as re-linking

不能让悦俱推度心执行结生作用

now the investigating accompanied by joy has the extremely desirable object as object

悦俱推度心的所缘是极可喜

so when the object is extremely desirable

只有所缘是极可喜的时候

the investigating consciousness accompanied by joy arises

才生起悦俱推度心

if the object is moderately desirable ordinarily desirable

如果所缘是中等可喜,或一般可喜

then the investigating consciousness is accompanied by neutral feeling

产生的就是舍俱推度心

now this kamma because it is so weak

这种业很微弱

it cannot present to the mind of a dying being the very desirable object

不能在临死者的心里产生极可喜的所缘

since there is no very desirable object when the re-linking takes place

当发生结生的时候,没有极可喜的所缘

it cannot be accompanied by joy

所以就不能是悦俱的

so the re-linking consciousness which is investigating here can be accompanied by upekkha or neutral feeling only

所以执行结生作用的只能是舍俱推度心

that is why out of the two investigating consciousness only one has the function of re-linking

这就是在两种推度心中只有一种可作为结生

and the other which is accompanied by joy cannot function as re-linking

悦俱的不能执行结生作用

so the main cause is because the two-root inferior kamma is very weak

所以主要原因就是二因低劣善业非常微弱

so weak that it cannot produce the investigating accompanied by joy as re-linking consciousness

微弱得不足以让悦俱推度心执行结生

and the other question is

另外一个问题是

rupavacara or form-sphere resultant consciousness

色界果报心

according to this chart

根据这个表格

the limitless ones arise with 28 types of consciousness

无量心所与28种心相应

the 28 are sense-sphere wholesome cittas 8

这28种包括欲界善心8个

and then sense-sphere functional 8

欲界唯作心8种

and form-sphere first jhana, second jhana, third jhana, fourth jhana

色界初禅、二禅、三禅、四禅

so among the jhana cittas

在禅那心中

there are resultant cittas

有果报心

so resultant cittas arise at the moment of re-linking as well as bhavanga and cuti

在结生、有分、死亡时,果报心生起

and how can there be compassion and sympathetic joy when the resultant consciousness arises

果报心生起的时候,怎么有悲、喜无量心所呢

now we must remember that

我们要记住

the compassion and sympathetic joy arise only occasionally only sometimes only

悲、喜二无量只是偶尔地生起

and when they arise they arise one at a time

当它们生起时,每次生起一个

so the resultant consciousness may not arise with these two altogether

所以果报心可以不与此二无量一起生起

or it may arise with one of them

也可以与其中一个生起

it can arise simply because the resultant consciousness is the exact replica of the wholesome consciousness

可以生起,是因为果报心是善心的完全复制品

since the wholesome consciousness is accompanied by one of these two the resultant consciousness which is like a mirror image

因为善心可以伴随此二者之一而果报心就像是镜像

has one of these two mental factors

也有此二心所之一生起

now I want you to look at this chart

现在我想请你们看这张表格

about the abstinences

离心所

now the abstinences or viratis arise with sense-sphere wholesome eight

离心所与欲界8善心相应

and then all supramundane consciousness or lokuttara cittas

与所有出世间心相应

they do not arise with sense-sphere resultant sense-sphere functional

它们不与欲界果报心、唯作心相应

and they do not arise with rupavacara, form-sphere

它们不与色界心相应

and arupavacara formless-sphere consciousness

也不与无色界心相应

now it is said that the abstinences have the nature of wholesomeness

三离心所具有善的性质

because when they arise you refrain from something, you refrain from telling a lie, you refrain from killing a being and so on

当它们生起时,你远离诸恶:妄语、杀生等等

so when you refrain from doing the misconduct

当你远离诸恶时

there is the nature of wholesomeness in it

其中即具有善的性质

since the viratis or abstinences

因为离心所

have only the nature of kusala

只有善的性质

they do not arise with the sense-sphere resultant, sense-sphere functional

它们就不与欲界果报、欲界唯作心相应

and then jhanas

然后不与色、无色界禅那心相应

and also

同时

the abstinences take as object what is to be transgressed

三离心所的所缘是诸恶

that means which regard to killing life of a being, with regard to stealing a property owned by another person and so on

就是与:杀生、偷盗等相关

but the sense-sphere resultant consciousness

但是欲界果报心

have what are called kamvacara object as object

将欲界目标作为所缘

you will learn this when we study the objects

稍后学到所缘的时候就会知道

so because there are not…the object is not the same

因为所缘不同

they do not arise with sense-sphere resultant

它们就不与欲界果报心同生

and sense-sphere functional cittas arise only in the arahants

欲界唯作心只在阿罗汉心里生起

and they do not have to refrain from the bodily and verbal misconducts

它们不必要远离身语恶业

because they have eradicated mental defilements altogether

因为他们已经断尽了心中的烦恼

they do not have occasion to break one of the rules

他们没有破戒的情况

and so since there is no need for abstinences from the bodily and verbal misconducts

所以没有从身语恶业生起离心所的必要

the abstinences do not arise with sense-sphere functional consciousness

离心所也不会与欲界唯作心生起

and they do not arise with jhana consciousness because they have different objects

它们不与禅那心同生是因为它们的所缘不同

the jhana consciousness take mostly the concept as objects

禅那心的所缘大多数是概念

and the abstinences take those that are to be transgressed as objects

但是离心所的所缘是诸恶

so there is a difference of objects between them and so they do not arise

所以它们的所缘不同,所以就不会生起

but with the supramundane consciousness it is said they arise

但是对于出世间心,它们会生起

and they arise always and they arise three together

它们总是三个一起生起

now you will remember that

你们要记住

these three abstinences when they arise with sense-sphere wholesome consciousness

这三离心所当它们与欲界善心同生时

they arise one at a time and they arise only occasionally

它们每次只生起一个而且是偶尔地生起

but when they arise with supramundane consciousness, they arise always

但是当它们与出世间心同生时它们总会生起

and they arise three all together

并且三个一起生起

that is because the magga has the power to cut off all the inclinations to transgress

因为道心有力量断除诸恶之倾向

once and for all

一次全部断尽

and so

所以

it is said to be refraining from all three at the single moment

在这一刻远离三恶

and the phala or fruition consciousness

果心

is just a shadow of path consciousness

只是道心的影子

and it further pacifies the inclination already eradicated by path consciousness

果心在道心将烦恼倾向断尽之后进一步让它安详

and so

所以

with these path consciousnesses and fruition consciousnesses

伴随着道心、果心

the three abstinences arise always

三离心所总是生起

and when they arise they arise three of them altogether

它们生起的时候,三个一起生起

and then with the apamaññas or limitless ones

对于无量心所

now apamañña arise with sense-sphere wholesome

无量心所与欲界善心相应

but not with sense-sphere resultant

但是不与欲界果报心相应

here also the objects are different

这里同样是所缘不同

the object of compassion is beings in suffering

悲无量的所缘是受苦的众生

and the objects of sympathetic joy is beings in prosperity or happiness

喜无量的所缘是快乐的众生

because their objects are different

因为它们的所缘不同

they can not arise together, they will arise only one at a time

它们不能同时生起,一次只能生起一个

and they will arise only when the compassion is practiced or sympathetic joy is practiced

只有当修悲无量或修喜无量的时候才生起

and sense-sphere resultant consciousnesses take the kamavacara objects

欲界果报心缘取欲界所缘

you will find kamavacara objects when you study the objects

后面学习所缘时,会讲到欲界所缘

so they take the kamavacara objects as objects

它们将欲界所缘作为所缘

and so there is difference of objects between them and

所以它们的所缘不同

so the illimitables or limitless ones do not arise with sense-sphere resultant

所以无量心所与欲界果报心不相应

but with sense-sphere functional they arise

但是与欲界唯作心相应

because sense-sphere functional can take both concepts and other objects

因为欲界唯作心可以将概念和其他所缘作为所缘

so there is no conflict between the objects

所以在所缘上,它们没有冲突

and so the apamañña or limitless ones can arise with sense-sphere functional consciousness

所以无量心所可以与欲界唯作心相应

and then with the first jhana, second jhana, third jhana, fourth jhana they can arise

所以它们与初禅、二禅三禅、四禅,它们可以生起

because these jhanas are accompanied by joy

因为这些禅那心是悦俱心

and compassion and sympathetic joy are always with joy when they reach the stage of absorption or jhana

在禅那阶段,悲、喜无量心所总是悦俱的

so they can arise with first jhana, second jhana, third jhana and fourth jhana

所以它们可以与初禅、二三四禅同生

but with fifth jhana they cannot arise because fifth jhana is accompanied by upekkha or neutral feeling

但是对于五禅,它们不能生起,因为五禅是舍俱的

and with the supramundane consciousness also they do not arise

它们也不能与出世间心同生

because the limitless ones take concept of beings as object

因为无量心所的所缘是众生的概念

and supramundane consciousness take nibbana as object

而出世间心的所缘是涅槃

since the object is different they can not arise together at one moment

它们的所缘不同,所以不能同时生起

so the limitless ones or apamaññas can arise only with sense-sphere wholesome

所以无量心所只能与欲界善心

sense-sphere functional and then fine-material sphere first jhana, second jhana, third jhana and fourth jhana

欲界唯作心、色界初禅、二三四禅同生

I was told that

有人告诉我

some people do not understand how to put colors dots

有些人不懂怎么给圆圈涂颜色

now first you look at this chart

首先你们看这张表

and from this chart you go to those circles

在这张表上,你看那些圆圈

and put colors in the circles

将颜色涂进圆圈里

so we will do now maybe the first four

我们先做前四个

so the first is for vitakka

第一个寻心所

and you will see that with vitakka there are 55 types of consciousness

你们看到寻与55个心相应

now if you look at this chart

如果你们看表格

and you read the vitakka column

看寻心所这一列

now you see that

你看到

the lobha mula or greed rooted number 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, they are all shaded

贪根心第1到8个,都用阴影表示

and also the hate rooted two are shaded

两个嗔根心也有阴影

and delusion rooted two are shaded

两个痴根心也有阴影

so all twelve akusala cittas are shaded

所以所有12个不善心都被用阴影表示

that means you have to fill in the colors in all akusala cittas the first column

意思是第一列的所有不善心你都要涂上颜色

so the first four you put in red color

你们把前四个涂上红色

and the second four blue color and the next two green color and the next two blue color

接着的四个蓝色,然后两个是绿色,再来两个是蓝色

and then you look at this chart again

你们再看这张表

and you see that sense consciousness ten

你们看10个根识

the blank there

都是空白的

so that means vitakka does not arise with these ten sense consciousness

这就是说寻心所不与10个根识相应

so ten sense consciousnesses are from the rootless consciousness

所以10个根识是无因心

two seeing consciousnesses, two hearing, smelling, tasting and two touching consciousnesses

两个眼识,两个耳识,两个鼻识,两个舌识,两个身识

so you leave those dots and cross without color

这些圆圈、带X的圆圈,你们不需要涂颜色

and then you read down the column

沿着这列看下去

receiving consciousness two shaded 2个领受心,带阴影

so you color the two receiving consciousnesses

所以给这2个领受心涂颜色

one in the resultant of akusala one in the resultant of kusala

一个是不善果报心,一个是善果报心

what colors, blue colors, right

什么颜色?蓝色,对 and then you read down the column

继续往下看这列

and there is investigating with equanimity

舍俱推度心

that means investigating with neutral feeling

就是中性感受的推度心

there are two of them

有两个

one in resultant of akusala and the other in resultant of kusala

一个是不善果报,一个是善果报

so you color these two

所以给这两个涂颜色

and then you go down and see investigating with joy

再往下悦俱推度心

there is only one

只有一个

in the resultant of kusala

善果报心

since it is with joy you put red color for this

因为是悦俱,所以涂上红颜色

then next you go down the column and see five-door-adverting, it is shaded

接着往下看这列,五门转向,带阴影的

so you put color in five-door-adverting

所以给五门转向涂颜色

and then you go down the column you read this chart you see mind-door-adverting

然后这张表继续往下看这列你看到意门转向

so you put color in mind-door-adverting, blue color

给意门转向涂上蓝色

and then smile producing you put in red color

然后是生笑心,涂上红色

and then sense-sphere wholesome consciousness all eight

然后是欲界善心,所有8个

so you put in color in those four red and four blue

其中4个红色,4个是蓝色

and then sense-sphere resultant consciousness eight

然后是欲界果报心8个

again four red and four blue

也是4个红色4个蓝色

again sense-sphere functional consciousness four red and four blue

欲界唯作心也是4个红色4个蓝色

now we come to rupavacara or form-sphere consciousness

然后是色界心

now the first jhana three are shaded

初禅三个,带阴影

so you color the first jhana three

所以给这3个初禅心涂颜色

but not second jhana three, third jhana three, fourth jhana three, fifth jhana three

但是二三四五的三个禅心不必要涂颜色

and not the arupavacara or formless cittas

无色界心不需要涂色

when you go to the supramundane again

然后是出世间心

first jhana four are shaded

初禅四个带阴影

and so you put colors in first jhana four

这4个初禅心涂颜色

and then among the fruit consciousness four first jhanas are shaded

然后果心,4个初禅有阴影

so you put colors in those also

所以涂上颜色

so when you have put the colors and then it is complete

这样涂上颜色,就完成了

so you put the colors checking with this chart

你对照这张表涂颜色

now the second chart

第二张表

the second is with vicara

第二个就是伺心所

so with vicara there are 66 types of consciousness

伺心所与66个心相应

that means

就是说

55 those are that with vitakka are also with vicara 55个与寻心所相应的,也与伺心所相应

so you put first those 55 and then add 11

然后你用这55个加11 second jhana consciousness three from rupavacara 3个色界二禅心

and eight from supramundane or lokuttara 8个出世间心

so when you have got the vitakka

只要你完成了寻心所

then vicara is easy

伺心所就很简单

so just add eleven more eleven second jhanas

只要加上11个二禅禅那心

now third one adhimokkha

第三个胜解

now we read the column down

我们往下看这列

and greed-rooted 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 are shaded

贪根心8个,都有阴影

and then hate-rooted 1 and 2 are shaded

然后嗔根心第1第2,有阴影

so you put colors in those ten circles

所以你给这10个圆圈涂颜色

and then delusion rooted number one is not shaded

然后痴根心第1个,没有阴影

so you leave that out and then number 2 is shaded and then you put color there

忽略它,然后第2个,有阴影,涂颜色

so you put color in 11 of the akusala cittas

所以不善心中11个涂颜色

and then sense-consciousness ten they are blank

然后10个根识,是空白的

you do not put any color in those circles and crosses

你不需要给这些圈和X涂颜色

and then you read down receiving two put color

然后接着向下,

2个领受心,涂颜色

investigating with equanimity or with neutral feeling you put colors

舍俱推度心,涂颜色

investigating with joy put color

悦俱推度心,涂颜色

five-sense-door-adverting, mind-door-adverting, so smile producing also put colors

五门转向、意门转向、生笑心这些都涂上颜色

and then sense-sphere wholesome 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 all you put colors

欲界善心1到8,都涂颜色

and then sense-sphere resultant, 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, colors

欲界果报心1到8,涂颜色

sense-sphere functional again, 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8

欲界唯作心也是1到8 now we come to form-sphere consciousness

然后是色界心

now first jhana three, color

初禅3心,涂颜色

second jhana, 3, third jhana 3, fourth jhana 3, fifth jhana 3, color

二三四五各3个,涂颜色

and then 12 formless-sphere consciousness or immaterial sphere consciousness color

然后是12个无色界心,涂色

and then supramundane

然后是出世间心

or first jhana, 4, second jhana, third jhana, fourth jhana, fifth jhana

初禅4个,二三四五禅

and again fruit consciousness all colors

果心,都涂颜色

so

所以

there are only ten, eleven that are blank

只有10,11个是空白

the other circles should be with colors

其他圆圈都要涂色

so altogether we get 78 or 110

所以一起是78或110个心

now next one

下一个

energy or viriya

精进

so you read down the column and you see all twelve unwholesome cittas are shaded

你往下看此列,

12个不善心带阴影

so you put colors in them

你给它们涂颜色

but among the rootless

但是在无因心之中

no colors in ten sense consciousness no color in receiving two 10个根识,2个领受心,不涂色

no color in investigating with equanimity

舍俱推度心不涂色

no color investigating with joy

悦俱推度心,不涂色

no color in five-sense-door-adverting

五门转向心,不涂色

so only two of them should be colored: mind-door-adverting and smile producing

只有两个要涂色:意门转向、生笑心

one blue and one red

一个蓝色,一个红色

and then the rest down to supramundane all should be colored

然后往下到出世间心,都要涂色

so we get 73 or 105

所以有73或105个

I think we stop there

我想我们到此为止

so now you know how to put colors in the dots

你们知道如何给圆圈涂色

now let us try roots

我们现在看看根

classification of consciousness by way of roots

根据因给心分类

so there are six roots

一共有六因

lobha, dosa, moha and alobha, adosa and amoha

贪嗔痴、无贪无嗔无痴

and lobha root is found in eight lobha mula cittas 8个贪根心都有贪根

so

所以

let us put the caption with lobha

我们将贪根标题下的涂色

then you will have to fill in the colors with eight lobha mula cittas

然后你要给8个贪根心涂色

four red and four blue

四个红色,四个蓝色

so that is for lobha

贪根心涂好了

and another diagram for with dosa

另外一个表是嗔根心

now with dosa, how many dots will you put in

嗔根,有多少需要涂?

only two and what color? green color

只有两个,什么颜色?绿色

then another diagram

再换一张表格

caption with moha

标题是痴根心

how many will you color? at the first twelve

要涂多少颜色?首先12个

four red, four blue

四红四蓝

two green, two blue

两绿两蓝

ok

next with alobha

下一个无贪

now you remember alobha is beautiful mental factor

你们记得无贪是美心所

since it is beautiful mental factor it will associate with all beautiful types of consciousness

因为它是美心所,它与一切美心相应

so

所以

from the sense-sphere beautiful consciousness

在欲界美心里

you put in colors all through so altogether there are 59 of them

你全部涂上颜色,所以是59个

12, 12, 27, 8 so here that the supramundane consciousnesses taken as eight

这里出世间心是按照8个计数

so if it is 40 then you will add how many? 32 to 59

如果按照40个,你加加,多少个?32加59 32+59=91 so 59 or 91 for alobha

所以有59或91个心与无贪相应

and with adosa the same

无嗔也是一样

so you can put two on one diagram with alobha and with adosa

所以你可以将无贪、无嗔放到一个表格

now next we come to amoha with amoha paññā接下来无痴(智)

with amoha we have to leave the twelve without colors

对于无痴,12个不需要涂颜色

so they are kamvacara sobhana ñāṇavippayutta that means sense-sphere beautiful without knowledge

它们是:欲界智不相应美心

without knowledge means 3, 4, and 7, 8, so you leave them out

智不相应意思是第3,4,7,8,不需要涂颜色

so you get 47 consciousness that are accompanied by paññā有47个心与智相应

if we take supramundane to be 40 then you add 32 to 47

如果将出世间心看成40个,就在47基础上加32 79 so in this way you can have many diagrams with these circles

这样你就有很多带圆圈的表格

and they will be very handy when you want to know which cittas have lobha with it, which cittas have dosa with them and so on

当你需要知道什么心摄贪根,什么心摄嗔根之类的,就很方便

you can look at the chart, you can look at this chart

你们可以参考这个表格

or you can look at the small chart with circles

你们也可以参考带圆圈的小表

so in this way you can put in for functions also

所以这样你也可以将作用做在表里

now those have the function of patisandhi bhavanga and cuti

具有结生、有分、死亡作用的心有多少

now there are how many of them?

有多少?

19? right? so you look at this kiccasangaha 19个?对吧?你们看作用之概要

and there are 19 that have the function of patisandhi, bhavanga and cuti

有19个心执行结生、有分、死亡作用

and there are santirana upekkha so investigating with neutral feeling and there are two

有2个舍俱推度心

and then kamavacara sobhana vipaka

然后是欲界善果报心

sense-sphere resultant consciousness eight 8个欲界果报心

and then rupavacara vipaka five 5个色界果报心

arupavacara vipaka four

无色界果报心4个

so you put colors in those dots

你给这些圆圈涂上颜色

santirana with neutral feeling two

舍俱推度心2个

blue dots

蓝色圆点

kamavacara sobhana eight 8个欲界美心

four red and four blue

四红四蓝

and rupavacara vipaka five, four red one blue

色界果报心5个,四红一蓝

and arupavacara vipaka four all blue

无色界果报心4个,全部是蓝色

so you can put in like that then you go to the next

你可以这样涂颜色,往下涂

function avajjana, dassana, savana and so on

转向作用,看、听等等

so

所以

I think now you can do it yourself

我想你们可以自己做了

it just takes time, it is not difficult actually

只是需要耐心,实际上并不复杂

so you look at the chart and then you fill in the circles

所以你们看表格,给圆圈涂颜色

after the function section on functions

作用这节学完了后

there is the section on doors, dvāra

然后就是:门

if you read down the lines you see cakkhudvāra, sotadvāra

你往下看,可以看到眼门、耳门

ghānadvāra

鼻门

jivhādvāra kāyadvāra and manodvāra

舌门、身门、意门

so dvāra means door dvara意思是门

cakkhu means eye, so cakkhudvāra means eye door cakkhu意思是眼,所以cakkhudvara就是眼门

now eye door really means the sensitive part in the eye

眼门实际上指眼睛的敏感部位

they are called door because they are like doors

被称为门是因为它们像门

now when there is a door, we can go in or we can come out

我们可以通过门进进出出

so people go in and come out through doors

所以人们通过门出入

in the same way

同样

the consciousnesses seem to go through the doors to the object

心通过门接触所缘

or the object enters our mind through the doors

或者说所缘通过门进入心

so when there is a visible object

所以当出现色所缘

it as it comes into our mind through the eye door, through the eyes

它通过眼门进入我们的心

or the seeing consciousness as it will

或者眼识

go out of the eyes and take the visible object

通过眼门缘取色所缘

so this sensitive part in the eyes, ear, nose, tongue and body are called doors

眼耳鼻舌身意里的敏感部分被称为门

and in pali they are called dvāra

巴利语被称为:dvāra now the pali word dvāra and the english word door are very close

门的巴利语和英语单词很像

now it is said that in the eye there is a place where the sensitive material properties are located

据说眼睛里有一个部位,有一种敏感的物质属性

so according to modern medical science it may be on the retina

根据现代医学,可能位于视网膜

so on the retina there are very small particles that are sensitive to light

在视网膜上,有一种微粒对光线很敏感

and they are called eye sensitivity

所以被称为眼净色

and through these material properties that are called eye sensitivity

通过这种被称为眼净色的物质属性

the seeing consciousness arises

眼识生起

taking the visible objects as objects

将色所缘作为目标

and sotadvāra, sota means ear, dvāra means door sotadvara,sota意思是耳朵,

dvara意思是门

so ear door

耳门

so ear means not the outside ear

耳朵不是耳朵的外部轮廓

but it is the inner ear

是内耳

where the vibrations of sound strike and where they are accepted, received

那个部位接受声音的振动

so in the inner ear there are sensitive material property

在内耳里面有敏感的物质属性

sensitive to sound or vibrations

对声音或振动敏感

and those are called sotadvāra or ear door

这些被称为耳门

so whenever we hear something we hear with our ears and not with our eyes and so on

只要我们听到什么,必定是通过耳朵,而不是眼睛之类

and then ghānadvāra, nose door

然后是鼻门

so nose door means in the nose in the cavity of nose there are places where the material property that are sensitive to smell are located

鼻门意思是在鼻孔里有一种物质属性对味道很敏感

so those are called ghānadvāra

所以被称为鼻门

and jivhādvāra, jivhā means tongue so tongue door

舌门,jivha意思是舌

there are taste buds in the tongue and these taste buds the sensitive material properties

在舌头上有味蕾,这是一种敏感的物质属性

and so through the sensitive material properties we know the taste

所以通过这种敏感的物质属性,我们能够知道味道

or tasting consciousness arises

或者说舌识生起

and kāyadvāra, kāya means body and dvāra means door, so body door kayadvara,kaya意思是身体,

dvara意思是门,所以是身门

although

虽然

the eye, ear, nose and tongue sensitivities are located in a limited place

眼耳鼻舌诸净色局限于某一处所

the kāyadvāra

但是身门

or body door or sensitive material particles of body

或者身净色

are said to be located all through the body

据说遍布全身

that is why we know the touch in all the places of the body

所以我们就能觉知全身的触受

except the tip of the hair and except the tip of the nails

只有毛发和指甲的末端没有觉知能力

so kāyadvāra or body sensitivity

身净色

is located in almost the whole of the body

几乎位于全身

and the last one is manodvāra

最后一个是意门

mano means mind and dvāra means door, mind door

意指心理,门就是门

mind as door

意之门

so mind door is defined as bhavanga so bhavanga is called mind door

有分被称为意门

because

因为

it is through the bhavanga that the objects are presented to the mind

通过有分,所缘呈现于心中

or the types of consciousness arise through the mind

或者心才生起

because the bhavanga is like the door to the active thought moments

因为有分就像活跃心识刹那的门

now bhavanga moments are inactive thought moments

有分就是不活跃的心识刹那

and then when think of something

当我们思虑某事

when we see something in our mind

当我们的心看某物

then that object is presented through the mind-door which is bhavanga

那个所缘通过意门即有分得以呈现

so the bhavanga moments or bhavanga consciousness are called manodvāra

所以有分心被称为意门

and one commentary of the abhidhammatthasangaha

在摄阿毗达摩义论的一个注释说

only the arrested bhavanga that means closest to the active thought moment is called manodvāra or mind door

只有有分断,也就是离活跃心识刹那最近的那个才被称为意门

but the common opinion of teachers is that the bhavanga moments are called manodvāra

但是主流的看法是有分被称为意门

so the objects are presented to us through these six doors

所缘通过这六门得以呈现

or the consciousness arises in these six doors

或者说心通过此六门生起

or through these six doors

或者说通过此六门

taking their respective objects as objects

心缘取所缘

so in abhidhamma or in the teachings of the buddha

在阿毗达摩里,或者佛陀的教法里

there are not five but six doors or six senses

不是五门,是六门,或者说六种官能

nowadays they are called senses

现在人们称之为官能

eye is a sense, ear is a sense and so on sense organ

眼耳等等都是官能,感觉器官

so people talk about only five senses not six senses

人们一般说五种官能,不是六种

and when we say six senses

当我们说六种官能时

they understand in a different way

他们有不同的理解

but according to buddhist teaching sixth sense means manodvāra or mind door or the bhavanga thought moments

根据佛教,第六种官能是意门或者说是有分心识刹那

so these six kinds of sensitive material and the bhavanga mind functions as doors

所以这六种敏感物质和有分起门的作用

functions as places through which the objects are presented

作为所缘呈现的处所

or through which the consciousness corresponding to these objects arises and takes the object

或者通过它们,与所缘相应的心生起,并缘取所缘

now the last is not the dvāra

最后一种不是门

dvāravimutta, that means free from dvāra free from door

离门,意思是不需要门

actually they’re themselves doors

实际上,它们自己就是门

and so they’re said to be free from doors

所以他们不需要门

they do not need any of the doors to arise they just arise

它们不需要任何门就会生起

now among the six doors, five are material

这六门之中,五种属于色法

now cakkhudvāra or eye door means the sensitive material particles in the eye and so on

眼门,意思就是眼中的净色

so eye door, ear door, nose door, tongue door and body door are physical

眼门,耳门,鼻门,舌门,身门,这些属于色法

only mind door or manodvāra is mental

只有意门属于名法

so these six act as the doors through which consciousness arises and so on

这六种作为门,通过它们心得以生起等等

now we will study the classification of consciousness according to the doors

我们现在按照门来给心分类

that means how many types of consciousness arise through the eye door

就是说多少种心通过眼门生起

how many through ear door, how many through say mind door, how many through no door

多少通过耳门,多少通过意门,多少离门心

so we look at the chart and we see now

我们现在来看表格

vertical columns

竖列

pañcadvārāvajjana, five-sense-door adverting

五门转向心

cakkhu viññāṇa eye consciousness, sotaviññāṇa ear consciousness

眼识,耳识

ghāṇaviññāṇa nose consciousness, jivhāviññāṇa tongue consciousness,

鼻识,舌识

kāyaviññāṇa body consciousness

身识

sampaṭicchana receiving consciousness two 2个领受心

santīraṇa upekkha investigating accompanied by neutral feeling, two

舍俱推度心,2个

santīraṇa somanassa investigating accompanied by joy one

悦俱推度心,1个

votthapana or mind….manodvāravajjana

确定……意门转向

this is only one, one citta

这是1个,一个心

and then kamavacara javana 29

然后是欲界速行心29个

so in order to understand kamavacara javana you have to go back to the functions

所以,为了理解欲界速行心,你们要回到作用那节

so when you go back to the functions you will see that there are 29 kamavacara javanas

回到作用那节,你们就知道有29个欲界速行心

yesterday i gave you a hint for javana

对于速行昨天我有所提示

what types of consciousness have the javana function

什么样的心是速行作用

kusala, akusala, fruit, phala

善、不善、果报

and kiriya except two āvajjanas

还有唯作,除了两个转向

so there are 29 kamavacara javanas

所以有29个欲界速行心

that means 12 akusala or 12 unwholesome cittas

就是12个不善心

and from among the ahetukas you get only one hasituppāda

无因心中,只有生笑心

then from the sense-sphere beautiful

然后欲界美心

eight wholesome sense-sphere beautiful, and eight functional sense-sphere beautiful 8个欲界善心,8个欲界唯作心

so we get altogether 29 they are called kamavacara javana sense-sphere javanas 29

所以一起是29个,被称为欲界速行心

and the next column is appanā javana

下一列是安止速行

now appanā javana means rupavacara javanas arupavacara javanas and lokuttara cittas

安止速行即:色界速行、无色界速行、出世间速行

they are called appanā统称为安止速行

now this is a term we will meet many times when we read books on abhidhamma

我们如果阅读关于阿毗达摩的书,这个词我们将会遇到很多次

sometimes appanā means jhana

有时候安止意思就是禅那

rupavacara and arupavacara

色界、无色界

sometimes appanā means magga or phala

有时候安止意思是道心、果心

sometimes it may mean all

有时候它指以上所有

so altogether there are 26 appanā javanas

所以一起是26个安止速行

from rupavacara how many javanas

色界有多少速行?

five wholesome and five functional, ten 5个善心,5个唯作心,10个

from arupavacara, how many?

无色界,多少个?

four wholesome and four functional 4个善心,4个唯作心

and from supramundane all

出世间,所有的

now here we use a word mahaggata kusala

这里我们用一个词:广大善心

now you may remember mahaggata is the name of rupavacara and arupavacara together

你们可能记得广大心是色界和无色界心的统称

so

所以

if we take rupavacara and arupavacara together

我们将色界和无色界放在一起

then we get five wholesome from rupavacara and

色界5个善心

four wholesome from arupavacara

无色界4个善心

so we get mahaggata kusala nine

所以我们得到9个广大善心

and also we get mahaggata kiriya functional

同样我们有广大唯作心

rupavacara and functional arupavacana 9

色界无色界唯作心9个

five plus four, five plus four, nine 5加4等于9 and

并且

we take lokuttara or supramundane as eight

我们将出世间心看成8个

and so we get 26 appanā javanas

我们得到26个安止速行

and the next column is kamavacara vipaka, resultant sense-sphere

下一列是欲界果报心

and then mahaggata vipaka resultant rupavacara and arupavacara

然后是色界无色界广大果报心

so there are nine in number

所以它们是9个

now we can read the chart

我们看图表

now we want to know how many types of consciousness arise in or through eye door

有多少心通过眼门生起

now pañcadvārāvajjana one

五门转向一个

five-sense-door adverting it arises through eye door

五门转向通过眼门生起

and then eye consciousness or seeing consciousness

然后是眼识

and then

然后

receiving consciousness and then investigating consciousness

领受心,然后推度心

and then votthapana, now votthapana means determining

确定

if you go back to function diagram

如果你回到作用图表

you will see that manodvāravajjana has two functions

你可以看到意门转向有两个作用

manodvāravajjana has avajjana function and votthapana function

意门转向有:转向、确定,两个作用

now that means when manodvāravajjana arises in the five sense doors

意思是当意门转向心生起于五根门

it has the function of determining so it is called votthapana

它的作用是确定

but when it arises in manodvāra or mind door

当它生起于意门

it has the function of turning

作用是转向

so it has two functions

所以它有两种作用

and it arises in the five sense doors

它可以生起于五根门

and also the mind door

也可以生起于意门

so here we get votthapana or manodvāravajjana as arising through or in eye door

所以确定心或意门转向心,生起于眼门

and the next is kamavacara javana 29

下一个是欲界速行29个

so 29 kamavacara javana cittas arise through eye door 29个欲界速行心生起于眼门

so they will arise through ear door and so on too

它们也可以生起于耳门等等

and then appanā javana, no appanā javana arise through eye door

然后是安止速行,没有安止速行生起于眼门

so appanā javana means jhana javanas and supramundane javanas

安止速行意思是禅那速行和出世间速行

and they arise through mind door only

它们只能于意门生起

so they do not arise through eye door or ear door nose door tongue door or body door

所以它们不能生起于眼耳鼻舌身诸门

and next is kamavacara vipaka they arise through eye door

下一个欲界果报心,能生起于眼门

and mahaggata vipaka they do not arise through eye door or ear door and so on

广大果报心,它们不会生起于眼耳等门

they do not arise through any door actually

实际上它们不会生起于任何门

so we get 46 types of consciousness that arise through eye door

所以生起于眼门的心一共是46个

if you know the types of consciousness that arise through eye door

如果你们知道生起于眼门的心的种类

you can easily know the types of consciousness that arise through ear door and so on

你们就很容易知道生起于耳门等等的心的种类

because you just substitute eye consciousness with ear consciousness nose consciousness tongue consciousness and body consciousness

因为只要将眼识替换成耳识、鼻识、舌识、身识

the others are the same

其他的都是一样的

so how many types of consciousness arise in body door

所以生起于身门的心有多少种?

46 and they are five-sense-door adverting

它们是:五门转向心

and body consciousness 2

身识:2个

receiving two

领受心2个

investigating three

推度心3个

and votthapana or determining one

确定心1个

and kamavacara javanas 29

欲界速行心29个

and kamavacara vipaka 8

欲界果报心8个

so 46 types of consciouseness

所以46种心

now if you add the types of consciousness up to kāyadvāra

如果你将这些能生起于眼门到身门的心加起来

you get 54 types of consciousness

你就能得到54种心

and these 54 types of consciousness are just the kamavacara consciousness

这54种心刚好就是欲界心

now when we divide the consciousness into kamavacara rupavacara arupavacara and lokuttara

当我们将心分为欲界心、色界心、无色界心、出世间心

sense-sphere, form-sphere, formless sphere and supramundane

欲界、色界、无色界、出世间

we know that there are 54 types of consciousness that are called kamavacara consciousness

我们知道有54种心被称为欲界心

these 54 kamavacara consciousness are just these we are now studying

这54种心就是我们刚学习的

those that arise through eye door ear door and so on

就是生起于五门的心

so if we add all of them not taking what has been taken

如果我们全部加起来,不计重复的心

then we get 54 that

一共得到54种

means let us say

意思就是

those that arise through eye door 46

生起于眼识的是46个

and then we look at the ear door

然后看耳门

only the sotaviññāṇa or ear consciousness are different and the others are the same so we take these two

只有耳识是不同的,其他的都相同,所以加2 and then ghānadvāra nose door, nose consciousness

然后鼻门,鼻识

tongue door, tongue consciousness

舌门,舌识

and body door two body consciousness

身门,身识

so we add them all up we get 54

全部加起来,就是54个

and these 54 are none other than the 54 kamavacara cittas

这54个就是54欲界心

and then manodvāra

然后是意门

we want to know the types of consciousness that arise through mind door not through ear door and so on

我们来了解生起于意门的心不是生起于耳门之类的

so they are santirana upekkha investigating accompanied by neutral feeling

它们是:舍俱推度心

two

两个

and santirana somanassa investigating accompanied by joy

悦俱推度心

and then

然后是

manodvāravajjana here we call manodvāravajjana mind door adverting one

意门转向心,一个

and then

然后

29 kamavacara javanas 29个欲界速行心

26 appanā javanas that means rupavacara arupa vacara and lokuttara 26个安止速行:即色界、无色界、出世间

and then kamavacara vipaka so altogether there are 67 types of consciousness that arise through mind door

然后欲界果报心,一起就是67种心生起于意门

that means when we think of something when we are not seeing hearing smelling tasting and touching

即,当我们思虑某事时,当我们不是看听嗅尝触的时候

but when are thinking of something when we are practicing meditation and so on

当我们思虑或者禅修等时候

then these types of consciousness arise through mind door

这些心生起于意门

but when we see something and we are mindful of seeing then that is different

但是当我们看某物,或者专注于看时,情况就不同

so these types of consciousness arise through mind door and there are 67 of them

所以这些心通过意门生起,一共是67种

now there are 19 types of consciousness that arise not through any door

有19种心不生起于任何门

and they are call dvāravimutta or door free

它们被称为离门心

so there are 19 door-free types of consciousness and they are the same as those that have the function of patisandhi, bhavanga and cuti

有19种离门心,它们与结生、有分、死亡作用的心是一样的

so these types of consciousness that have the function of re-linking, life continuum and death

所以,这些心的作用是:结生、有分、死亡

do not arise through any of the six doors

它们不生起于任何六门之一

actually they are themselves doors

实际上,它们自己就是门

so they are said to be free from door or in pali they are called dvāravimutta

所以我们说他们是离门心

so they are 19 dvāravimutta or door-free consciousness

有19种离门心

so now you can see the relation between the functions and doors

你们现在可以看到作用、门之间的关系

and later on when you study the thought processes

稍后当你们学习心路过程时

and these will come into play again

又会重新见到这些

especially the door and the functions

特别是门和作用

so now we get the 46 types of consciousness that arise through eye door and so on

我们现在有46种心通过诸门生起等等

and 67 types of consciousness that arise through mind door 67种心通过意门生起

and 19 that arise through no door 19种心不生起于任何门

and later on we will find out

稍后我们会找出

how many types of consciousness arise through one door only

有多少种心只生起于一种门

or five doors only or six door only

或者生起于五种门或者生起于六种门

sometimes six door sometimes door-free and so on

有时候是六门,有时候是离门等等

these we will find out after the break

我们休息一下再说

disk01track16

first, akusala consciousness, how many doors?

首先,不善心,多少门?

now can you find the unwholesome cittas in the chart

你们能在表上找到不善心吗?

unwholesome cittas in the chart are included in the kamavacara javana

表中的不善心被包括在欲界速行里面

29 29个

so the first akusala citta arises through

所以第一个不善心生起于

eye door, ear door,

眼门,耳门

nose door

鼻门

tongue door, body door

鼻门,身门

and mind door

意门

so all six doors

所有六门

so this one type of consciousness arises through all six doors

这种心生起于所有六门

sometimes through eye door and so on

有时候生起于眼门等

then what about the second

第二个呢?

the same

一样的

third, fourth, fifth and so on, until the twelfth

第三、第四、第五等,一直到第十二

so all these twelve types of consciousness arise through six doors

所有这12种心生起于六门

that means not at once or at the same time but they arise through eye door or ear door and so on

意思即:不是一次性同时生起于眼门、耳门等等

now let us go to the rootless

现在来看无因心

the first column

第一列

resultant of akusala seeing consciousness

不善果报心,眼识

so how many doors for eye consciousness or seeing consciousness

眼识对应多少个门?

only seeing consciousness, what is seeing consciousness? cakkhuviññāṇa, only one door

只有……眼识只对应一个门

and then for hearing consciousness, one door

然后是耳识,一个门

and smelling consciousness, one door

鼻识,一个门

tasting consciousness or tongue consciousness, one door

舌识,一个门

and then body consciousness, one door

身识, 一个门

respective doors are eye door, ear door, nose door, tongue door and body door

相应的门:眼门、耳门、鼻门、舌门、身门

we go to sampaṭicchanas receiving consciousness

我们现在看领受心

there are two receiving consciousnesses

有两种领受心

so how many doors do they go through?

它们生起于多少门?

sampaṭicchana five doors

领受心,五个门

so that means eye door, ear door, nose door, tongue door and body door

意即:眼门、耳门、鼻门、舌门、身门

so they do not arise in or through mind door only through five doors

所以它们不生起于意门只生起于五门

and then santirana, now santirana we divide it in two

然后是推度心,我们将推度心分为两类

accompanied by neutral feeling and accompanied by joy

舍俱、悦俱

so first santirana upekkha, so how many doors?

第一种舍俱推度心,多少门?

eye door, ear door, nose door, tongue door, body door, mind door and no door

眼门、耳门、鼻门、身门、意门、离门

so that means sometimes they arise through six doors and sometimes they arise without door

意即:有时候它们生起于六门有时候它们不生起于任何门

so sometimes six doors, sometimes door free

有时候六门、有时候离门

and then santirana somanassa the red dot

然后是悦俱推度心,红点

it arises through six doors

生起于六门

so all six doors

所有六门

but not door free

但没有离门

and then we go to the last column of the rootless

我们看最后一列无因心

five sense door adverting

五门转向心

how many doors?

有多少门?

you follow the name, five sense doors

按照这个名字,五根门

and then next one manodvaravajjana or votthapana

下一个意门转向心或确定心

how many doors

多少门

six doors

六个门

you see the votthapana or manodvaravajjana column

你看确定或意门转向这列

so all six doors no door free

所有六门,没有离门

and then the last one smile producing

然后最后一个,生笑心

now smile producing where do you find smile producing

生笑心,在哪里找

in which column do you find smile producing?

哪一列可以找到生笑心

or in which column it is included?

在哪一列?

among the kamavacara javana 29

在欲界29速行里面

so you see that column and give the answer

所以你看那一列,进行作答

so smile producing arises through all six doors

生笑心生起于所有六门

that means when an arahant sees, hears, smells, tastes, touches or thinks, it can arise

就是说阿罗汉看、听、嗅、尝、触、想的时候,它就可以生起

and then let us go to sense sphere wholesome consciousness 8 the first column

我们看欲界8善心,第一列

now where do you find these 8?

在哪里找这8个?

in the diagram I mean

我的意思在图表里找

there are included in kamavacara javana 29

它们被包括在29欲界速行里面

so they arise through how many doors, six doors and no door free

它们生起于多少门?六门,没有离门的

and then the middle column the resultant sense-sphere consciousness

中间那一列是欲界果报心

kamavacara or vipaka

欲界果报心

so according to that column the eight resultant sense-sphere conscious arise through

这列8个欲界果报心生起于

six doors as well as door free

六门、离门

so they can arise door free or they can arise through six doors

它们生起于离门,也可以生起于六门

now here we can relate it with the functions

我们在这里也可以将它与作用联系起来

when they arise with no door, or when they are door-free, what function do they perform?

当它们生起于离门,它们执行什么作用?

patisandhi, bhavanga and cuti

结生、有分、死亡

but when arising through eye door and so on, they perform what?

当它们生起于眼门等等,执行什么作用?

you have to go back to functions

你们得回到作用那一节

ok, how many functions do they have?

它们有多少作用?

the kamavacara vipaka 8 how many functions? 8个欲界果报心,多少作用

four functions, right?

四个作用,对吧?

patisandhi, bhavanga, cuti and tadārammaṇa registering

结生、有分、死亡、彼所缘

so when these 8 arise through six doors

当这8个心生起于六门

they have the function of tadārammaṇa or registering

它们的作用是彼所缘

but when they arise through no doors they have the function of re-linking, bhavanga, life continunm and death

当它们生起于离门,作用是:结生、有分、死亡

now we go to the third column the functional sense-sphere consciousness

我们看第三列:欲界唯作心

now where do you find them?

在哪里?

among the kamavacara javanas

在欲界速行里面

they arise through how many?

生起于多少门?

six doors

六门

from cakkhudvara to manodvara and no door-free

从眼门到意门,不生起于离门

now we go to the rupavacara

再看色界

now rupavacara wholesome five 5个色界善心

how many doors? where do you find the rupavacara wholesome

多少门?色界善心在哪里?

appana javana, right

安止速行,对

so these five are included in appana javana, 26

所以这五个被包括在26安止速行里

so

所以

looking that column you can say

看那一列,你可以说

how many doors do they arise through?

它们生起于多少门?

only one door and that is mind door

只是一个门:意门

so jhana cittas arise through mind door

所以禅那心生起于意门

not through the eye door or ear door or nose tongue or body door

不生起于眼门、耳门、鼻门、舌门、身门

so they arise through mind door

它们只生起于意门

and then five resultant consciousness of form-sphere

然后是五个色界果报心

how many doors?

多少门?

where do you find them?

在哪里?

the last column mahaggata vipaka

最后一列广大果报心

so they arise through zero door no door at all

它们生起于离门,不生起于任何门

they do not arise through any of the doors

它们不生起于任何门

and what function do they have?

它们执行什么作用?

re-linking, life continuum and death

结生、有分、死亡

and then functional five

然后是五个唯作心

so where do you find functional five? or in what are they included?

五个唯作心在哪里?被包括在哪里

appana javana 26 26个安止速行里

so they arise through mind door

所以它们生起于意门

now we go to arupavacara, arupavacara wholesome four

我们再看无色界心,4个善心

they are included in appana javana and so mind door

被包括在安止速行里,所以生起于意门

and then four resultants

然后是4个果报心

there are included in mahaggata vipaka

被包括在广大果报心里

so they do not arise through any of the doors

不生起于任何门

they are door free, so zero door

它们是离门心

and then functional formless-sphere consciousness

然后是无色界唯作心

you find them included in appana javanas

被包括在安止速行里

so they arise through mind door

所以它们生起于意门

now we come to supramundane consciousness

再看出世间心

supramundane consciousnesses are included in appana javana 26

出世间心被包括在26安止速行里

if we take them as eight

如果我们把它们按照8个算

so all these 8 or 40 types of consciousness supramundane consciousness arise through what door?

所有8个或40个出世间心生起于什么门?

mind door only

只生起于意门

so

所以

you look at this card and then practice

你们看这张卡,然后练习

looking at the individual dot

看每一个点

and say this is five door, or six door or mind door or no door

指出这是五门、六门或意门或离门

so when you can look at this and say the doors

当你可以对着这个表说出对应的门

then you are thoroughly familiar with the door section

就说明你彻底熟悉了门这节

so now let us

现在我们

read the two bottom lines

看底下两行

one dvara etc and total cittas so we will look at these two

一门等等,所有的心我们看着两个

now five means this consciousness arises in five doors 5意思是这个心生起于五门

so one means this consciousness arises in only one door and so on 1意思是这个心仅生起于一个门等等

so now we want to find out one dvara citta

我们先找出一门心

that means citta that arise through one door only

即仅仅生起于一门的心

so they are said to be 36

有36个心

now if we want to get 36 we must add the numbers under the ones

如果想得到36这个结果可以将1下面的数字加起来

so you look the ones you see 2,2,2,2,2

你看1下面,可以看到

2,2,2,2,2 and then 26

然后是26个

so 26 plus 2 plus 2 plus 2 plus 2 plus 2 altogether 36

所以26加2加2加2加2加2 these 36 types of consciousness arise through one door only

这36种心只生起于一门

but one door means one door not at the same door

但是一门并不是说同样的门

the seeing consciousness arises through eye door

眼识生起于眼门

hearing consciousness arises through ear door and so on

耳识生起于耳门等等

and then five door citta

然后五门心

consciousness that arises through five doors

生起于五门的心

they are three

有三个

so you find out the fives in the first line

你在第一行看到数字5 and then add the numbers beneath them

然后把它们下面的数加起来

so we get one pañcadvārāvajjana

我们得到一个五门转向心

and then two sampaṭicchana receiving

然后两个领受心

so two receiving consciousnesses and one five-sense-door adverting

两个领受心,一个五门转向心

so these three arise in five doors

这三个生起于五门

and five doors are eye door ear door and so on

五门就是眼门耳门等等

now six dvara citta it means always

现在看六门心,即总是生起于六门

six dvara citta always 31

总是生起于六门的有31个心

that means they arise in six doors only and not door-free

意思是它们只生起于六门,不是离门心

so we add the numbers under the sixes

所以将6下面的数字加起来

without the line beneath them

带下划线的不要加

so we get six one two

所以我们有6门心:1,2 and then 29, 31

然后29,31 these 31 cittas arie in six doors always

有31个心总是生起于六门

that means they are never door-free

意思是它们不会生起于离门

and then six dvara citta as sometimes

然后是偶尔生起于六门的心

that means sometimes they arise in six doors and sometimes they are door free

意思即有时候生起于六门有时候也会生起于离门

so that means you add the numbers under the sixes with lines beneath them

意思就是你把6下面带下划线的数字加起来

so we get two and eight ten types of consciousness

我们得到2加8,10种心

and then zero door cittas sometimes the same ten

然后是有时候生起于离门的心,同样的10个

and zero door cittas always the last nine

然后是总是生起于离门的心,最后9个

mahaggata vipaka or rupavacara vipaka or arupavacara vipaka

广大果报心、色界果报心、无色界果报心

so they are always door free

这些心总是离门心

and their functions are re-linking, life continuum and death

它们的作用就是:结生、有分和死亡

so

所以

this is the classification of consciousness according to doors

这就是根据门来给心分类

and when we study the doors we also must relate it to functions

当我们学习心时,我们也要将它们与作用相联系

and if we can remember the functions and door together

如果我们能将作用和心一起记住

our memory will be much better

我们的记忆就更有效了

now you know a certain type of consciousness arises in a certain door

你们知道何种心生起于何种门

and then functioning doing a certain function

执行何种作用

sometimes the change of door will change the function

有时候生起于不同的门,就会执行不同的作用

for example we take manodvaravajjana

例如:意门转向心

now manodvaravajjana has two functions

意门转向心有两个作用

in this kiccasangaha chart we see that manodvaravajjana has two functions

在作用之概要表里,我们看到意门转向心有两个作用

the one is avajjana and the other is votthapana

一个是转向,另一个是确定

now when you relate it to this dvarasangaha

你将它与门之概要联系起来

we know that when it functions as avajjana

我们知道当它执行转向作用的时候

that means it arises in five doors and it does the function of votthapana

说明它生起于五门时,执行的是确定作用

but when it arises in mind door it functions as manodvaravajjana

当它生起于意门,执行的是意门转向作用

so we relate these two together and try to find out the functions and doors of these types of consciousness

所以我们将这两者联系起来,找出这些心的作用和生起的门

now the next is the objects

下面我们讲所缘

now object means something that we experience

所缘就是我们体验到的东西

that we respond to with our mind

它让我们的心对之做出反应

now here is a cup

这里有一个杯子

so i look at the cup and i see the cup

我看到这个杯子

when i see the cup there is a seeing consciousness in me

当我看杯子的时候,生起了眼识

and that seeing consciousness takes this cup as object

眼识将这个杯子作为所缘

so this cup is called an object

所以这个杯子被称为所缘

so whatever mind can take it’s called an object

只要是心能缘取的,就被称为所缘

and there are six kinds of objects taught in abhidhamma

阿毗达摩里讲授了六种所缘

sometimes the object is not physical

有时候所缘不是色法

or the object is not present

或者不是现在的所缘

but still the past object also we can think of or our mind can take

我们的心也可以缘取过去所缘

and the future object also our mind can take

我们的心也可以缘取未来所缘

so the object may belong to present time or past time or future time

所以所缘可以属于现在、过去或未来

now there are six kinds of objects taught in abhidhamma

阿毗达摩里讲授了六种所缘

first is visible object

第一种是色所缘

that means something that can be seen

就是我们可以看到的东西

now

现在

I said i see this cup

我说我看到这个杯子

what i really see with cakkhuviññāṇa with eye consciousness is the visible datum in this cup

我用眼识真正看到的是杯子里可见数据

actually I do not see the cup with eye consciousness

实际上我并非用眼识看杯子

what I see with consciousness is visible object in this cup

我用眼识看的是杯子里的可见所缘

I see the cup with my mind

我用我的心看到杯子

now we will come that later when we talk about the thought process

当我们学到心路过程时,我们再讨论这个

so that visible datum in this cup

杯子里的可见数据

is what we call visible object

我们称之为色所缘

the next is let us call it sound

下一个是声音

sound is one object

声音也是个所缘

and then smell is another object

然后是气味是另外一个所缘

taste, another object

味道是另外一个所缘

and touch, another object

触,另外一个所缘

so we get five objects

所以我们有五个所缘

corresponding to the first five doors

对应前五门

so visible objects the eye door

色所缘对应眼门

audible objects or sound to the ear door

声所缘对应耳门

smell to the nose door

香所缘对应鼻门

taste to the tongue door

味所缘对应舌门

and touch to the body door

触所缘对应身门

now

现在

touch is said to be a combination of three primary elements

触所缘是由三大界所组成

so now

所以

we must understand the primary elements first

我们必须先了解大界

in abhidhamma

在阿毗达摩里

28 types of matter

有28种色法

or 28 material properties are taught

或者讲授了28种物质属性

so there are altogether 28 material properties

一共是28种物质属性

they may be comparable to elements in chemistry

可以类比于化学中的元素

so there are 28 material properties

所以有28种色法

and these 28 material properties can be found in living beings 28种色法可以在有情里找到

and outside only 8 of them can be found

无情里面只能找到8种

now among the 28 the first four are said to be primary elements

这28种之中前四个就是大界

and these four are the element of earth, element of water, element of fire, element of air

这四个是:地界、水界、火界、风界

and element of earth means not the earth itself

地界并不说指地球本身

but the quality inherent in the earth

而是指从地引申出的属性

so when you touch the earth you feel the hardness or softness of it

当你触摸地面的时候,你感受到它的坚硬或柔软

so hardness or softness is what we called earth element

所以坚硬性或柔软性我们称之为地界

and water element

然后是水界

means not necessarily the water

并不必定指水

but the quality inherent in the water

而是从水引申出的性质

that is trickling or cohesiveness

即黏性

so that is what we call water element

这就是我们所说的水界

and fire element mean heat or cold

火界指热或冷

because heat and cold are relative terms

因为热、冷是相对的词

and then air element means the extension

风界指延展性

or supporting

或者支持

now when you put the air in the balloon the air keep the balloon extended

当你将气体置于气球中,气体将气球撑开

if you let the air out then the balloon collapse

当你放出气体,气球就瘪下去

so the characteristic of the air element is extending

所以风界的特性就是延展性

so extending is what we call air element sometimes it is called pressure

所以延展就是风界的性质有时候我们称之为压力

now these four elements are called primary elements

这四个界被称为四大界

and the other 24 always depend on these four

其他24个总是依赖于这四个

for their arising and existing

才能生起并存在

now what we call touch or tangible object

我们所称的触所缘

is the combination of earth element fire element and air element

是地水火三界的组合

in abhidhamma

在阿毗达摩里

water element is taught as not touchable

水界是不可触的

so we can not touch the water element

所以我们不能触摸到水界

we can touch the other three elements but water element the cohesiveness we can not touch

我们可以触摸到其他三界,但是黏性,我们触不到

we may put our hand in the water and we may feel the hotness or coldness of the water

我们可以将我们的手放到水里会感受到热、冷

and that is not water element that is fire element

这不是水界,而是火界

we may feel the softness of the water that is the earth element

我们可能感受到水的柔软性,这是地界

and water stays in that way because there is air to keep it in its shape

水存在的形态,是因为风界保持了它的形状

and so we can feel air element also

所以我们也可以感受到风界

but water element we cannot touch or we cannot feel

但是水界我们不能触到,也不能感受到

we can touch only with our mind

我们只能用心感受水界

so what we call touch is just the combination of three primary elements

所以我们称之为触所缘的只是三大界的组合

it is said that the primary elements are something

据说大界

like heart, bases

就像心脏、处

and others are said to be soft

其他色法据说是柔性的

so now we get how many objects? five kinds of objects

我们现在有多少所缘?五种所缘

visible objects or sight, sound, smell, taste and touch

色所缘、声所缘、香所缘、味所缘、触所缘

and the last one is called dhamma object

最后一个是法所缘

now it is very important that we know what dhamma means

明白“法”的意思很重要

the word dhamma has many meanings

“法”这个词有很多意思

and in different context, it has different meanings

不同的语境,不同的含义

so we cannot translate this word with just one English word

所以我们不能将这个词简单对应一个英语词

sometimes dhamma means nature

有时候“法”的意思是属性

sometimes the teaching

有时候是指“教导”

sometimes dhamma means understanding

有时候“法”的意思是理解

or dhamma means things in the world and so on

“法”也可以指世界万事万物等

so

所以

the word dhamma cannot be translated like the word javana

“法”这个词不能被翻译,就像“速行”这个词一样

so we just use the word as it is in pali language

所以我们就用它的巴利语

here also i prefer to use dhamma object

我还是喜欢用“法所缘”的巴利语

rather than mental object, some teachers translate it as mental object

不用心理目标,有些老师翻译成心理目标

but that is not accurate

但是那样不准确

and so i just want to retain the pali word and call dhamma object

所以我保留巴利语原词

in this classification dhamma object means

在这个归类里,法所缘指

five sensitivities

五种净色

sixteen subtle matter

十六微细色

eighty nine cittas

八十九种心

fifty two cetasikas

五十二心所

nibbana and paññatti

涅槃和概念

so there are six kinds of dhamma objects

所以有六种法所缘

five sensitivities that means ear sensitivity

五种净色即:耳净色

i mean eye sensitivity, ear sensitivity and so on

我的意思是,眼净色、耳净色等等

so they are called dhamma objects

这些被称为法所缘

so when you take the eye sensitivity as object

当缘取眼净色时

then you are taking the dhamma object as object

你实际上是缘取法所缘

and so on

诸如此类

and sixteen subtle matter

十六微细色

if you cannot wait, if you don’t want to wait

如果你迫不及待

you go to the sixth chapter and read it

可以翻到第六章看看

about the subtle matter

关于微细色

so some material properties are called subtle and some are called gross

一些色法被称为微细色,一些被称为粗重色

and then eighty nine cittas you already know

你们已经知道89种心

fifty two cetasikas you already know 52心所你们也知道

nibbana you already know

涅槃你们也知道

and paññatti, paññatti means concepts

概念也讲了

so these are called dhamma objects

它们都被称为法所缘

and these can be the objects of the mind

这些都可以作为心的所缘

now among them you find citta 89 and cetasika 52

其中有89心和52心所

here they are objects

在这里它们是所缘

but they are also subjects

但是它们也是能缘

mind can take another mind as object

心可以缘取心

when you talk about your mind or my mind is running wildly or my mind is going out very often

当你提到你的心妄念纷飞时

then you are taking the mind as object, your mind is taking the other mind as object

你就是将心作为所缘

so citta can be both subject and object

所以心可以是能缘,也可以是所缘

and cetasika the same

心所也是一样的

now these six kinds are called dhamma object here in the classification of objects

在这里所缘的分类中这六种被称为法所缘

but in the mahasatipatthanasutta

但是在大念处经里

the discourse on the four foundations of mindfulness

讨论了四念处

you will find the word dhamma there also

我们也能见到“法”

and there dhamma object means not exactly the same as this

意思并不是跟这里的“法”意思完全一样

there dhamma object means five mental hindrances

此经里的“法所缘“指五盖、

five aggregates of clinging

五取蕴

twelve bases

十二处

seven factors of enlightenment

七觉支

and four noble truths

四圣谛

in the Mahasatipatthanasutta there are called dhamma objects

这些在大念处经里被称为法所缘

but here in abhidhamma

但是在阿毗达摩里

these six beginning with sensitive matter and so on are called dhamma objects

净色等等六种被称为法所缘

so there are these six kinds of objects

有六种所缘

we will study which types of consciousness take which kinds of objects

我们要学习何种心缘取何种所缘

now before going there we need to know the terms kamavacara objects

在学到那里之前,我们要知道欲界所缘

mahaggata objects

广大所缘

nibbana objects and paññatti or concept objects

涅槃所缘、概念所缘

now kamavacara object means 54 kamavacara cittas or sense-sphere cittas

欲界所缘指54欲界心

52 cetasikas and 28 rupas or mateiral properties 52心所、28色法

so they are called kamavacara objects the sense-sphere objects

它们被称之为欲界所缘

and mahaggata objects means 27 mahaggata cittas

广大所缘指27个广大心

that is 15 rupavacara cittas and 12 arupavacara cittas

即:15个色界心,12个无色界心

and then cetasikas going along with them

然后是伴随它们的心所

they are called mahaggata objects

它们被称之为广大所缘

and nibbana object is nibbana

涅槃所缘即涅槃

but the last one is

但是最后一个

the last one consists of many

最后一个包括很多

so paññatti what we call paññatti here, ten kasina objects

概念,我们称之为概念:十个遍处

ten asubha, asubha means unlovely

十不净

unlovely objects

不净所缘

and then koṭṭhāsa objects that means 32 parts of the body

然后是三十二身分

such as head hair, body hair, nail, teeth, skin and so on

例如头发、身毛、指甲、牙齿、皮肤等等

and then ānāpāna, objects of ānāpānasati

然后是安般,也就是安般念的所缘

that means breathing in and breathing out

就是出入息

and that four kinds of concept of being

四种众生的概念

which are objects of metta, karuna, mudhita and upekkha

就是慈悲喜舍的所缘

now four kinds of concept of being means

四种众生的概念指

being in general

一般性的众生

beings that are in suffering, beings that are in happiness

受苦的众生、受乐的众生

and again beings in general

一般性的众生

and then concept infinite space and nothingness

然后是空无边、无所有的概念

now you know that the

你们知道

some types of consciousness among the arupavacara cittas

无色界的有些心

take infinite space as object

以空无边为所缘

and nothingness of the first arupavacara citta as object

以第一个无色界心的无所有为所缘

so there are many kinds of paññatti

所以有很多种概念

and when you come to the ninth chapter you will find them again

当你学习到第九章,你会再次碰到它们

among them the visible object and dhamma object

其中有:色所缘、法所缘

many of the dhamma objects and kamavacara objects, mahaggata objects

许多法所缘、欲界所缘、广大所缘

have time

具有时间性

they may be present or past or future

它们或是现在、过去或将来

but nibbana is said to be time free

但是涅槃据说是没有时间性的

since nibbana has no beginning

因为涅槃没有开始

it has no end

没有结束

and so we cannot say nibbana is present or past or future

所以我们不能说涅槃是在现在、过去或未来

and paññatti also is said to be time free

概念也没有时间性

that means out of time

意思是超越了时间

we cannot say a paññatti arises at this moment and it disappears at that moment

我们不能说概念在某时生起,在某时消失

so and also paññatti is time free because it has no individual existence of its own

同样概念没有时间性,因为它没有独立的存在

it only exists in our imagination

它只是存在于我们的想象

it will be very interesting or

这个很有意思

people will think it is very strange to say that this is not real

人们可能觉得说它是真实的很奇怪

it exists in my imagination only

它只是存在于我的想象中

what i see with the eye is the visible object

我们眼睛看到的是色所缘

visible particles of matter in this cup

这个杯子的可见色法微粒

and when i see a cup i see it with my mind and not with my eyes

当我看到一个杯子时,是心在看,不是眼睛在看

this cup is called paññatti it has no existence of its own

这个杯子被称为概念,它没有独立的存在

it is an illusion

它是一个幻象

so these are the kinds of object we will be meeting in this section

这就是我们在这节遇到的所缘

so the first five are easy

前五个很容易

the visible object, audible object and so on

色所缘、声所缘

only the fifth one the tangible object is the combination of the three primary elements

只有第五个,触所缘是由三大界组成

that means

就是说

earth element

地界

fire element and air element

火界、风界

and dhamma object [inaudible] as the object

法所缘[听不清]为所缘ārammaṇasangaha

所缘之概要

so this is the analysis of objects

这就是对所缘的分析

now here you see the word ārammaṇa

你们看到arammana这个词

and it is translated as object

被翻译成所缘

now the literal meaning of ārammaṇa is

这个词的字面意思是

something that mind takes delight in

心所取乐的目标

mind or consciousness must always have an object

心总是需要一个目标

and when it finds a object, it is delighted

当心找到目标,就以之为乐

so an object is called ārammaṇa

所以这个目标就被称为:所缘

somewhere where mind takes delight

就是心所取乐的地方

something where mind takes delight

心所取乐的目标

now the parks where people go for

公园就是人们去的地方

leisure or recreation

去休闲娱乐

are called ārāma in pali

这个巴利语是arama so the word ārāma and the word ārammaṇa are related

这两个词是相互关联的

a park is called ārāma because people take delight in

公园被称为arama

因为人们以之为乐

people go there for enjoyment

人们到那里玩乐

and there is another word

还有一个词

that means object

意思是所缘

and that is ālambana

就是alambana you will find the word in the manual

你们可以在概要精解里看到它ālambana the word ālambana means something to hold onto

这个词意思是:钩取之物

that means our mind is always taking an object

意思是心缘取目标

and so when the mind takes an object

当心缘取目标时

it is as it were holding on to the object

就像是钩住了目标

that means without an object there can be no consciousness or no mental factors

即没有所缘,就没有心,也没有心所

so consciousness and mental factors or mind needs an object always

所以心和心所总需要所缘

and so it is said to be holding on to the object

所以要钩住所缘

and so object is something that mind holds on to

所缘就是心钩取的目标

they are compared to a stick

所缘可以被比喻成棍子

some people depend on say when they walk

人们依靠它行走

say when you get older and you can not walk properly upright then you have to use a stick

老人们不能正常行走,要用一根拐杖

so that stick is like the object here

这个拐杖就像是这里的所缘

just as an old man

就像一个老人

relied on the stick

依靠拐杖

or hold on to the stick

握住拐杖

so mind holds on to the object

所以心握住目标

but sometimes it is compared to a line

有时候也被比喻成一根绳子

that a man who is invalid or a man who is blind takes hold of when he wants to go to places

如果一个病弱的人,或者盲人可以依靠这根绳子行走

so these are called ārammaṇa or ālambana in pali

这就是所缘的两个巴利词

and these are the objects that mind can take actually

这些就是心能够真正缘取的目标

and then you see the word ārammaṇika

你们可以看到能缘这个词

now ārammaṇika means one that has ārammaṇa

能缘意思就是:具有所缘的

one that takes ārammaṇa

以所缘为目标的

so ārammaṇika means actually consciousness and mental factors

所以能缘实际上指心和心所

because they take objects

因为它们缘取所缘

now here I use the word subject

这里用主观这个词

so

所以ārammaṇika is subject and ārammaṇa is object

能缘是主观,所缘相当于目标

subject means something that does something, here that takes object

能缘意即缘取所缘

now cakkhuviññāṇa two two types of seeing consciousness of eye consciousness

两种眼识

what is the object of these two seeing consciousnesses

这两种眼识的所缘是什么

present visible object

现在的色所缘

so

所以

the object of eye consciousness is the present visible object or sight

眼识的所缘是现在的色所缘

and object of ear consciousness is present audible object or present sound

耳识的所缘是现在的声所缘

and the object of nose consciousness two nose consciousnesses

两个鼻识的所缘

nose consciousness is present odorous object or present smell

鼻识的所缘是现在的香所缘

and the object of tongue consciousness is present sapid object or taste

舌识的所缘是现在的味所缘

an object of body consciousness is present tangible object or touch

身识的所缘是现在的触所缘

so the object of these five sense consciousnesses is present

所以这五个根识的所缘是现在的

present visible object, present audible object and so on

现在的色所缘、现在的声所缘等等

so I see something that means i see the visible data in something

我看见某东西意思是我看到这个东西的可见数据

and that is called the present visible object

这个就被称为现在的色所缘

so we see the present visible object with eye consciousness

所以说我用眼识看到现在的色所缘

the same with ear consciousness and so on

对于耳识之类也是如此

next that is the word manodhātu

下一个,这个词是:意界

you must be familiar with this word

你们一定很熟悉这个词

manodhātu is a name

意界这个词

of three types of consciousness

指三种心

and these three are five-sense-door-adverting and two receiving consciousnesses

这三种是:五门转向心、两个领受心

so these three are called manodhātu

这三者被称为意界

we may translate it as mind element

我们可以翻译为:意界

so these three types of consciousness called manodhātu

这三种心被称为意界

take present five objects

缘取现在的五个所缘

that mean present visible object, present audible object and so on

即现在的色所缘、现在的声所缘等等

now they will become clearer when you study the thought process

当你们学习心路过程后就更清楚了

now the eye consciousness takes present visible object as object

眼识缘取现在的色所缘为目标

but in the process of seeing

在看的过程中

there are the three types of consciousness called manodhātu

有三种心被称为意界

when you hear something there is hearing consciousness

当你听到声音时生起耳识

and what you hear is the present audible object

你听到的是现在的声所缘

in that thought process we find the three manodhātu consciousnesses

在这个心路中,我们可以找到三个意界心

so three manodhātu consciousnesses arise in all five-sense doors

所以三个意界心生起于所有的五根门

that is why here they are said to take present five objects

所以这里说它们缘取现在的五所缘

but not that their take five objects at one time

并不是一次性缘取五个所缘

each object as one time

每次只缘取一个

but in all they take five objects

总数是五个所缘

and then santirana three

然后是三个推度心

hasituppāda one

一个生笑心

kamavacara vipaka eight

八个欲界果报心

santirana means investigating

推度心

Hasituppāda, smile producing

生笑心

and kamavacara vipaka sense-door resultant

欲界果报心

altogether 3 plus 1 plus 8, 12

一起3加1加8,12 take kamavacara citta 54

缘取54欲界心

cetasika 52 and rupa 28 52心所,28色法

as objects

作为所缘

so here

所以这里

on the subject side

从能缘上讲

there are types of consciousness

它们是心

and the object side also

所缘角度,也是如此

there are types of consciousness and also the material properties

有心,也有色法

so from these we know that

从这里我们知道

the citta can take citta as object

心可以缘取心

citta can take cetasikas as object

心可以缘取心所

citta can take rupas matter as object

心可以缘取色法

and next group is 12 akusala

下一组12不善心

and kamavacara sobhana ñāṇavippayutta kusala sense-sphere beautiful wholesome consciousness not accompanied by knowledge

欲界智不相应善心

so there are four of them

有四个

and also sense-sphere beautiful functional consciousness not accompanied by knowledge

欲界智不相应唯作心

there are again four

也是四个

so 4 plus 4 plus 12

四加四加十二

altogether 20 types of consciousness

一共是二十种心

now these 20 types of consciousness take lokiya cittas mundane cittas 81

这二十种心缘取81个世间心

and cetasikas 52 52心所

rupa 28, 28 material properties 28色法

and paññatti or concept as object

概念

so on the subject side there are akusala cittas

所以从能缘角度,有不善心

and then

然后

8 cittas from kamavacara sobhana or sense-sphere beautiful consciousness

欲界美心中有8个

so they take lokiya cittas 81 as consciousness and so on

所以它们缘取81世间心等等

so now you see here the akusala 12

你们现在看到12不善心

can take lokiya cittas as object and so on

可以缘取世间心之类的

but they can not take supramundane consciousness as object

但是它们不能缘取出世间心

it is not their domain of object

这不是它们的所缘范围

and it is explained that just as a fly will not sit on a hot iron rod

根据解释,就像苍蝇不能停留于火红的铁棒

so this akusala cannot take supramundane cittas as objects

不善心不能缘取出世间心

now the next group five types of consciousness

下一组心五个

kamavacara sobhana ñāṇasampayutta kusala the sense-sphere beautiful wholesome accompanied by knowledge, there are four 4个欲界智相应善心

and then kusala abhiññā然后是善神通心

now

现在

the fifth rupavacara consciousness when specially developed

已经娴熟于色界五禅之后

becomes what is called abhiññā就会获得神通

abhiññā is translated as direct knowledge

神通翻译成:直接的智慧

with the help of abhiññā借助神通

one can fly through the air one can show miracles

可以飞行,表演神变

one can read minds of others

可以有他心通

remember past lives and so on

宿命通等等

so that knowledge is called in pali abhiññā这种智巴利语称之为abhiññā

we may call them supernormal knowledge

我们可以称之为神通

or direct knowledge

或者直接的智慧

and that direct knowledge function is performed by the fifth rupavacara jhana

这种直接的智慧的作用是由色界第五禅心执行

so here kusala abhiññā means fifth rupavacara kusala fifth form-sphere wholesome consciousness

这里的善神通心指色界第五善心

so these five take 87 cittas

所以这五种心缘取87心

89 minus arahatta-magga and phala

也就是89减去阿罗汉道心、果心

and 52 cetasikas 28 rupas, nibbana and paññatti 52心所、28色法、涅槃、概念

so these can take more objects than the last 20

这些可以缘取的心比20个心那一组更多

now the next group 6

下一组六个心

kamavacara sobhana ñāṇasampayutta kiriya four so sense-sphere beautiful functional cittas accompanied by knowledge four

四个智相应的欲界唯作心

kiriya abhiññā one rupavacara fifth jhana functional consciousness

一个唯作第五禅神通心

and votthapana that is manodvaravajjana

确定心,即意门转向心

these six can takes all objects

这六个心可以缘取所有所缘

89 cittas 52 cetasikas 28 rupas or 28 material properties 89心、52心所、28色法

nibbana and paññatti

涅槃、概念

so these six take all objects there are

这六个心缘取所有所缘

and so they have the widest range of taken objects

它们有最多的所缘

the second and fourth arupavacara cittas

第二、第四无色界心

now the second is

第二是

one having consciousness as object

以心为所缘

and the fourth again one having third arupavacara consciousness as object

第四个也是以第三无色界心为所缘

so these second and fourth arupavacara cittas altogether six

所以第二与第四无色界心一共6个

take mahaggata or first and third arupavacara cittas respectively

以广大心,即分别缘取第一第三无色界心

now if you remember the chapter on cittas

如果你们记得心这一节的内容

you will see that the second arupavacara citta takes the first arupavacara citta as object

就知道第二无色界心以第一无色界心为所缘

and fourth arupavacara citta takes the third arupavacara citta as object

第四无色界心缘取第三无色界心

since the first and third arupavavara cittas belong to the 28 mahaggata cittas that

因为第一第三无色界心属于28广大心

that means 15 rupavacaras and 12 arupavacara cittas

即15色界心、12无色界心

they are called mahaggata cittas

它们被称为广大心

and then rupavacara cittas 15

色界心15个

that means first jhana, second jhana, third jhana, fourth jhana, fifth jhana

即:五禅、二三四五禅

and first and third arupavacara cittas

第一第三无色界禅心

that have infinite space as object and that has concept of nothingness as object

以空无边、无所有的概念为所缘

altogether 21 types of consciousness

一起是21种心

they take paññatti as object

以概念为所缘

now detail on different sheet

另外一张表上有详解

so these 21 take paññatti or concept as object

所以这21种心以概念为所缘

and then the last lokuttara 8, 8 supramundane consciousness take nibbana as object

最后出世间8种心,以涅槃为所缘

now paññatti in detail

详细的概念

go to paññatti objects and there are subjects in detail

翻到概念所缘,对业处有详细介绍

just for your reference because

供大家参考,因为

until you reach the ninth chapter you may not understand easily this chart

只有你们学到第九章才容易理解这张表

now there are 40 types of samatha meditation subjects

有40种修止禅的业处

and there are jhana consciousness that arise taking these subjects as objects

禅那心以之为所缘生起

so there are kasinas ten

其中有十遍

that means disk meditation, looking at the disk, memorizing it

就是用圆盘修禅,就是凝视圆盘,忆念它

so that one can see the disk with one’s mind eye and so on

最后通过意识之眼看到它等等

so there are ten kinds of disk meditation

其中包括十种圆盘修法

and ten kinds of asubha, unloveliness of the body meditation

十种对身体的不净修法

now these ten kinds of asubha meditations are practice when one goes to a cemetery and look at the corpse

这十种不净修法,就是去墓地观察尸体

in its different stages of decay

看它腐败的不同阶段

but nowadays, it is very difficult to see a corpse

但是现代社会,很难见到尸体

and even when you go to funerals

即便你参加葬礼

the dead body is so made up

尸体都是经过美容的

that you do not get the sense of unloviness

你不能获得不净的感觉

you think he or she is sleeping

你觉得他/她就像是在睡觉

it is very difficult to practice this type of meditation

这种修法就很难实现

even you go to a cemetery you don’t see the dead bodies

即便你去墓地,也看不到尸体

but during the time of the buddha

但是在佛陀时代

dead bodies are just left at the cemeteries to be eaten by dogs and birds so you can see different stages of decay

尸体被放在墓地,让狗和鸟吃掉你就可以看到它腐败的过程

and practice this meditation on them

借此修习不净观

now the next is koṭṭhāsa

下一个是身分

koṭṭhāsa parts of the body

身体的部分

there are 32 parts of body to contemplate on

三十二身分观

as head hairs, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin and so on

头发、身毛、指甲、牙齿、皮肤等等

and try to see them as loathsome

观察它们的不净

and then ānāpāna you all know ānāpāna

然后是出入息念,大家都知道

the breathing in and breathing out as an object of meditation

将出入息作为禅修的所缘

and then unlimited beings

然后是无量众生

this is the object of metta

这是慈的所缘

so when you practice metta, you send metta thought to unlimited beings

当你修慈的时候,你将慈心散布到无量众生

that is why metta, karuna, mudita and upekkha are called limitless one

所以慈悲喜舍被称为四无量

limitless one means their objects are unlimited

无量指它们的所缘是无量的

so unlimited beings, object of metta, unlimited beings, object of karuna compassion

慈的所缘是无量众生悲的所缘是无量众生

unlimited beings, object of mudita

喜的所缘是无量众生

and unlimited beings, object of upekkha

舍的所缘是无量众生

unlimited beings means concept, concept of unlimited beings

无量众生指无量众生的概念

and then concept of infinite space

然后是空无边的概念

now you know that the space that remains when the counterpart sign disappears

你们知道当似相消失后留下的空间

and then concept of nothingness of the first arupavacara jhana citta

然后是无色界初禅心无所有的概念

so that is also one

这也是一个

so altogether there are how many?

所以一共有多少?

20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 so 28 kinds of concepts 28个概念

and these concepts are taken by different jhanas

这些都被不同的禅那心缘取

so rupavacara first jhana

色界初禅

their objects of rupavacara first jhana is 25 kinds of concepts

色界初禅缘取25种概念

and they are ten kasinas, ten unloviliness, one koṭṭhāsa, one ānāpāna one unlimited beings and so on

即:十遍、十不净、一身分、一出入息、一无量众生等等

so these 25 types of concept are the object of first jhana

所以初禅的所缘是25种概念

of the second jhana

二禅

only 14

只有14种

no asubhas or unloveliness and no koṭṭhāsa

没有不净、没有身分

and the objects of third jhana 14 objects of fourth jhana 14

三禅的所缘14,四禅的所缘14 but objects of fifth jhana only 12

但是五禅只有12种所缘

because

因为

fifth jhana takes the unlimited being of objects as objects

五禅的所缘是无量众生

to develop upekkha

发展舍

and when fifth jhana arises

当五禅生起时

upekkha is with it

就是舍俱

and but the other metta, karuna and mudita

但是慈、悲、喜

when they reach jhana, they are always with somanassa or joy

当它们获得禅那,总是悦俱

so fifth jhana takes only ten kasinas, ānāpāna or breathing and unlimited beings as objects only twelve

所以第五禅只是缘取十遍、出入息、无量众生,

12个所缘

and the arupavacara first citta takes concept of infinite space as object

无色界初禅心以空无边的概念为所缘

and arupavacara third citta takes concept of nothingness of first arupavacara citta as object

无色界的三禅以无色界初禅的无所有概念为所缘

this is a chart that shows which concept can be the object of which jhana

这张表显示哪种概念可以被哪种心缘取

this section is a little more involved

这节有点复杂

and also some terms used maybe new to you like manodhātu

有些词,例如意界可能对你们是新词

now

现在

let us say look at the basic chart

我们来看原始表格

and say the first akusala citta

第一个不善心

can you find out what objects are taken by first akusala citta

你们可以找出第一个不善心的所缘吗?

first akusala citta takes 81 mundane consciousness 52 cetasikas 28 material properties and concept as object

第一个不善心的所缘是:

81个世间心、52个心所

28个色法、概念

that you find out from this handout

你们从这个资料上可以找到

with the title ārammaṇasangaha

标题是:所缘概要

then let us go to ahetuka

再看无因心

seeing consciousness what is the object of seeing consciousness or what is the object of eye consciousness

眼识的所缘是什么?

present visible object

现在的色所缘

and what is the object of body consciousness

身识的所缘呢?

present tangible object, yes

现在的触所缘,对

then what is the object two receiving consciousness

两个领受心的所缘呢?

two receiving consciousnesses are included in manodhātu

两个领受心被包括在意界里

manodhātu three, mind element three

意界包括三个心

so they take present five objects

它们缘取现在的五所缘

and then santirana

然后是推度心

investigating three

三个推度心

they take kamavacara, 54 kamavacara cittas, 52 cetasikas and 28 rupa as object

它们缘取54欲界心

52心所、28色法

and then pañcadvārāvajjana or five-sense-door adverting

然后是五门转向心

it is included in manodhātu

这也是被包括在意界里

so it takes present five objects

也是缘取现在的五个所缘

and then manodvāravajjana mind-door adverting

然后意门转向心

where do we find manodvāravajjana? among the six

意门转向心在哪里?在那六个里面

it is called votthapana here

它在这里被称为确定心

so manodvāravajjana can take all objects

所以意门转向心可以缘取所有所缘

89 cittas, 52 cetasikas 28 rupas, nibbana and paññatti 89心,52心所、

28色法、涅槃、概念

and then smile-producing

然后是生笑心

now smile-producing can take kamavacara, 54 kamavacara cittas, 52 cetasikas and 28 material properties and so on

生笑心可以缘取:54欲界心、

52心所、28色法等

so you find out from this handout

你从这些下发资料找

what objects are taken by a given citta or given types of consciousness

何种心缘取何种所缘

so this is the analysis according to objects

这就是根据所缘来分析

or in this section we find out what objects are

通过这节我们学习了所缘

and also we find out what consciousness takes what object

也学习了何种心缘取何种所缘

so they have their own objects and we should know what objects they take

所以它们有各自的所缘,我们应该了解这些所缘

and taking objects means our mind as it were goes to the object

缘取所缘,意思是我们的心投向所缘

and tastes on it or it is put on the object

品尝所缘的味道

so that is how mind takes the object

心就是这样缘取所缘的

and for the mind to take an object there must be an object

必须有所缘,心才能缘取

and that object must be presented to the mind through six-sense doors

这个所缘必须通过六根门呈现于心中

and different kinds of object are presented through different doors

不同的所缘通过不同的门呈现

and so have their own respective doors, present visible objects through eye door

所以它们有各自的门,现在的色所缘通过眼门

present audible object through ear door and so on

现在的耳所缘通过耳门等等

and now we know that on the subject side there are consciousness and mental factors only

我们现在知道了能缘只有心、心所

so we do not find any material property on the subject side or on the ārammaṇika side

能缘不能是色法

but on the object side we find cittas, cetasikas, material properties, concepts and nibbana

但是所缘有:心、心所色法、概念、涅槃

so all these things are objects

所以这些都可以是所缘

and these objects are taken by consciousness and mental factors only

这些所缘只能被心和心所缘取

so rupa or matter does not take objects

色法不能缘取所缘

concepts do not take object, nibbana does not take object

概念、涅槃也不能缘取所缘

because nibbana is an object, concepts are objects

因为涅槃、概念是所缘

and 28 material properties are objects 28色法是所缘

but they do not take any other object

它们不能缘取任何所缘

but the consciousness and cetasikas are different

但是心、心所则不同

concsciousness and cetasikas can be both subject and object but not at the same time

心、心所可以作为能缘、所缘但不能同时作为能缘、所缘

now when you practice meditation and you make notes of your mind going out

当你禅修时给心作标记

that means one mind is taking another mind as object

就是说一个心缘取另一个心

you are noting mind

你给心作标记

or noting consciousness is taking the wandering consciousness as object

就是作记号的心缘取妄念

and then you are making note as wandering, wandering, or going out, going out

你这样作标记:妄念、妄念、走开、走开

so

所以

mind or consciousness can take consciousness as object

心可以缘取心

consciousness can take mental factors as objects

心可以缘取心所

and it can take material properties, concept or nibbana as object

心也可以缘取色法、概念、涅槃

so this way we understand the relationship between mind and matter, mind and mind

这样我们理解了名色的关系也理解了名法与名法的关系

they are all related as subject and object

它们的关系就是能缘、所缘

and how they are related can be understood through the study of the Paṭṭhāna, the seventh book of abhidhamma

它们是怎样联系起来的可以通过阿毗达摩第七论书也就是《发趣论》来了解

now we have not yet gone into any book of abhidhamma yet

我们还没有进入阿毗达摩的任何一部论书

[laughs] [笑] we are trying to the door of abhidhamma

我们正试图进入阿毗达摩之门

even it takes a long time

即便要花费很多时间

so one day we will be able to get into the real abhidhamma and see what treasures there are in that storehouse

终有一天,我们终将进入真正的阿毗达摩,看看宝库里到底有什么宝藏

ok, thank you

好,谢谢大家

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yesterday we learned about the different kinds of objects

昨天我们学习了不同的所缘

and the types of consciousness that take the different kinds of objects

不同的心缘取不同的所缘

so we learn that there are six kinds of objects

我们学习了六种所缘

and also there are objects called kamavacara objects, mahaggata objects and so on

还学了欲界所缘、广大所缘等等

now today we will relate the doors the classification of doors with the objects today

今天我们将门与所缘相联系

so if you look at the chart for dvarasangaha

如果你们看门之概要的表格

the forty six types of consciousness arise through eye door

由眼门生起的心有46种

these forty six types of consciousness take the present visible objects as objects

这46种心缘取现在的色所缘为所缘

and forty six types of consciousness that arise through ear door

有46种心生起于耳门

so they take present sound as object

缘取现在的声所缘

and forty six types of consciousness that arise through nose door 46种心生起于耳门

take present smell as object

缘取现在的香所缘

and again forty six types of consciousness that arise through tongue door 46种心生起于舌门

take present taste as object

缘取现在的味所缘

and forty six types of consciousness that arise through body door 46种心生起于身门

take present touch as object

缘取现在的触所缘

now touch means the combination of earth element, fire element and air element

触就是地界、火界和风界的结合

so three primary elements together is called touch or tangible object

三大界一起称之为触或触所缘

now we come to the mind door

现在看意门

types of consciousness that arise through mind door

生起于意门的心

so there are altogether sixty seven according to the chart

根据这个表格一共是67种

the objects of these mind door consciousnesses or types of consciousness that arise through mind door

生起于意门的心,它们的所缘

are not just visible objects or sound

不仅仅是色所缘、声所缘等等

but all six kinds of objects

而是所有六种所缘

yesterday we learn that there are six kinds of objects

昨天我们学习了六种所缘

visible object, sound, smell, taste, touch and dhamma objects

色所缘、声、香、味、触、法所缘

and then we learn that dhamma objects are of six kinds

然后我们学习了法所缘有六种

so go back to the handout the five sensitivities, subtle matter

我们回到资料:五种净色、微细色

cittas, cetasikas, nibbana and pannati are called dhamma objects

心、心所、涅槃、概念这些被称为法所缘

now the objects of the types of consciousness that arise through mind door

通过意门生起的心的种类

the types of consciousness are sixty seven

是67种心

so the objects of these are all six kinds of objects

它们的所缘就是所有六种所缘

and there are sometimes present, sometimes past and sometimes future

有时候是现在的所缘有时是过去的,有时是未来的

and also sometimes independent of time

有时候是不依赖于时间的

when they take concepts as objects

当它们将概念作为所缘时

and when they take nibbana as object

当它们将涅槃作为所缘时

the concept and nibbana are said to be timeless or independent of time because we cannot say nibbana is past or present or future

概念和涅槃是没有时间性的我们不能说涅槃属于过去或属于现在、或属于未来

and the same with the concept we cannot the concepts are present, past or future

概念也是如此,我们不能说概念是现在的、过去或未来的

nibbana is not present, or past or future because nibbana has no arising and so it has no disappearing

涅槃不是现在、过去或未来的因为涅槃不生也不灭

and concept is said to be independent of time because it has no real intrinsic nature

概念独立于时间,因为它没有真实的内在属性

so actually the object of the sixty seven types of consciousness that arise through the mind door

所以实际上,通过意门生起的

67种心,它们的所缘

is all six kinds of objects and also belonging to all three times present, past and future and also those that are out of time that are independent of time

是所有六种所缘,可以具有时间性属于现在、过去、未来也可以是超越世间性的

now we come to the last one dvaravimutta

我们现在看最后一种也就是离门心

so there are nineteen types of consciousness that are door free

有19种心是离门心

that means they do not arise through the doors

意思就是它们不通过门生起

there are six doors but they do not arise any of the doors

它们不生起于六门之中任何门

actually there are themselves doors

实际上,它们自己就是门

so there are nineteen of them and these nineteen are those that have the function of re-linking, life continuum and death

这19个就是具有结生、有分、死亡作用的

so we relate different sections together

这样我们将不同章节关联起来

so these nineteen types of consciousness function as re-linking, life continuum and death

所以这19种心作用是:结生、有分、死亡

and the objects of these nineteen types of consciousness are said to be kamma or kammanimitta

这19种心的所缘是:业或业相

or gatinimitta

或趣相

you will the explanation of this in the manual

你会在概要精解里看到解释

so their object is kamma or kammanimitta or gatinimitta

所以它们的所缘是:业或业相或趣相

you will find the explanation on page 138 of the manual

你们可以在概要精解第138页看到解释

the object of the door free consciousness in any given existence is generally identical with the object of the last cognitive process in the immediately preceding existence

一世当中的离门心所缘必定与前一世最后一个心路过程的所缘相同

when a person is on the verge of death, in the last phase of active consciousness

当人临命终时,在他最后一个心路过程中

some object will present itself to the cognitive process

某个目标即会呈现于心路过程

determining by previous kamma and present circumstances

由过去业与当时的情况决定

these objects can be one of three kinds

这种所缘可以是以上三种之一

in order to understand this fully, you need to understand the thought process of death and rebirth

为了完全理解,你们要理解死亡和结生的心路过程

so

所以

that process will taught at the end of the fifth chapter

这个过程将在第五章末尾讲解

now when a person is about to die, it is said that to his mind

一个人临终时,在他的心中

kamma or kammanimitta or gatinimitta is presented

出现业或业相或趣相

that means when a person is approaching death

意即一个人即将死亡时

the kamma he did in the past may come back to his mind

过去所作的业可能重现于他的心中

and he will experience that kamma as though he will do it again

他会经历那个业,就好像是重做一遍

and that kamma is the past kamma he did in the past

那个业就是他过去作的业

now in this manual it is said it can be a kamma a good or evil deed performed earlier during the same life time

在这本概要精解里讲了这个业可以是这一世早些时候作的善业或恶业

actually not the same life time

实际上也可以不是这一世

during the past time that means it can be of past life as well as some kamma he did in this life

这一世的业,或者是过去世的业

so

所以

even the kamma he did in his past lives can become evident to him

即便是过去世他作的业也可以显现

when he is approaching death

当他临命终的时候

so that is called kamma which is the object of these nineteen types of consciousness that are door free and that have the function of re-linking, life continuum and death

这就是这19种离门心的所缘之业这些心起的作用是:结生、有分、死亡

now when that, now in this case, kamma, when that kamma is presented to the mind of a dying person

当那种,在这个例子中,是那种业,呈现于临终者的心中

his death proximate moments take that kamma as object

他临死时以此业为所缘

and then he dies and is reborn in another life

死后投生到另外一生

so reborn in another life means a re-linking consciousness arises in the new life

投生到另外一生意思是结生心在新的生命中生起

and that re-linking consciousness takes the object of the last moments in the previous life

结生心缘取前生的最后一刻目标

so that is why it is said here identical with the objects of the last cognitive process in the immediately preceding existence

所以这里说:与前一世最后一个心路过程的目标相同

again when a person is about to die

又,当一个人临命终时

the kamma will become evident to his mind

业就在他心里明显起来

and this kamma will be the object of his death proximate thought moments

这个业是他临死时心识刹那的所缘

and he dies from that existence and is reborn in another existence

一期生命结束投生到另一世

so when he is reborn one of these nineteen types of consciousness arises in that new life

当他投生时,这19种心之一就会在新生命生起

and that consciousness is called re-linking consciousness

这个心就被称为结生心

that re-linking consciousness takes the object of the death proximate thought moments in the previous life immediately preceding existence

这个结生心的所缘就是前一世临死时心识刹那的目标

so that is called kamma, it may be a good kamma or it may be a bad kamma

这种业可能是善业,也可能是恶业

it may be kusala kamma, or akusala kamma or wholesome kamma or unwholesome kamma

它可能是善业或不善业

this is one kind of object that is taken by these types of consciousness that are called door free

这就是离门心所缘取的目标之一

immediately after the disappearance of re-linking consciousness

结生心消失之后,立即

the same type of consciousness is produced and that type of consciousness is called bhavanga or constituent of life or cause of life

产生相同类型的心,这种心被称为有分心

and that bhavanga arises many times

有分心生起很多次

and that bhavanga also takes the object of the re-linking consciousness

有分心的所缘与结生心一样

so if the re-linking consciousness takes the past kamma as object

如果结生心以过去的业为所缘

then the life continuum consciousness also takes that kamma as object

有分心也以那个业为所缘

and it will go on through life

终其一生都是如此

and then they will come to the end of one life

它会持续直到生命终结

so at the end of the life there arises the same type of consciousness

在生命终结时,同类的心会生起

but this time it has a function of passing away or dying

但是此时,它执行死亡的作用

and that consciousness takes the same object that is taken by re-linking consciousness and life continuum consciousnesses through the life

那个心缘取的目标与结生、有分相同

and the kamma that becomes evident at that moment

那个时刻显现的业

is the one that will produce rebirth

就会产生结生

so there is rebirth and that rebirth takes the object of the death proximate thought moments and immediately preceding existence

投生时缘取上一世临死的所缘

now there is another kind of object called kammanimitta or sign of kamma

还有一种所缘称之为业相

that means if kamma does not become evident to that person, the dying person

意思就是如果业没有在临终时显现

then a sign of kamma may come to his mind

那么业相就可能出现在他心中

and a sign of kamma means an object or image associated with a good or evil deed

业相指与善业或恶业相关的目标或影像

that is about to determine rebirth

它将决定下一世的投生

or an instrument used to perform it

或是造该业的工具

so the sign of kamma is associated with kamma

所以业相与业相关

when a person performs that kamma he may use something

当一个人造作此业的时候他可能会使用工具

for example if the kamma is of dana

例如,当这个业是布施时

then he may see a monk or he may see the robe

他可能会看到僧人或者僧袍

and these are called kammanimitta or sign of kamma

这些就被称为业相

for example a devout person may see the image of a monk or temple

例如虔诚的信徒可能会看到僧人或寺院的影像

a physician may see the image of patients, a butcher may hear the groans of slaughtered cattle

医生可能会看到病人的影像,屠夫可能会听到被杀牲口的哀鸣

or see an image of a butcher knife

或者看到屠刀的影像

so the things that are intrumental in performing that kamma

用来造作此业的工具

will appear to his mind or to the mind of a dying being

就会在临死者的心中显现

so those objects which are presented to him are called sign of kamma

这些呈现于他心中的目标被称为业相

so sign of kamma means things that are associated with the performance of that kamma

业相意思就是与那个业的造作相关联的事物

since that kamma can be good or evil

因为业可以是善或恶的

the signs of tha kamma are also good or evil

业相也是善或恶的

so the image or a monk or a temple or a buddha image are good signs of kamma

僧、寺、佛的影像是善的业相

and the groans of the slaughtered cattle or butcher knife are the evil signs of kamma

被屠杀的动物的哀鸣、屠刀是不善的业相

so

所以

if kamma does not appear to his mind, then the sign of kamma will appear ot his mind

如果业没有显现于他的心中,那么业相就会显现于他的心中

now the third kind of object

第三个所缘

that presented itslef to the mind of a dying being is called sign of destiny or sign of destination

显现于临终者的心里,被称为趣相

that means, destination means the next existence

“趣”意即下一世

so the sign of next existence

即下一世的景象

that is a symbol of the realm into which the dying person is about to be reborn

是临终之人下一世投生处所的象征

so he may see the kamma or he may see the sign of kamma or he may see the sign of destination

他可能会看到业或业相或趣相

so that also the destination may be good destination or bad destination

趣相也可能是善的或不善的

the four woeful states are bad destination and the realms of human beings and celestial beings are good sign of destination

四恶道是不善的趣相,人界、天界是善的趣相

so for example a person heading for a heavenly rebirth may see celestial mansions

例如,投生到天界的人可能会看到天宫

he may see in his mind the celestial mansions or celestial nymphs

他可能在心中看到天宫或天女

and a person heading for an animal rebirth may see forests or fields

而投生为畜生的人可能看到森林或田野

a person heading for a rebirth in hell may see hell-fires or wardens of hell or dogs running after him.

投生到地狱的人可能看到地狱的火、狱卒,或者一群狗追逐他

and so on

诸如此类

so these appear to the mind of a dying person or dying being

这些出现在临终之人的心中

so it is told in abhidhamma that

根据阿毗达摩的教导

one of these objects are presented to mind of a dying being

这些所缘之一会出现在临终者的心中

then when he approaches death

当一个人快要死掉的时候

this object becomes the object of his thought moments

这个所缘就成为他心识刹那的目标

and then there are last thought moments they are called again javanas

最后一个心识刹那被称为速行

and it is said that javanas run for only five times

据说这时的速行只生起五次

not seven times as usual

不像平时那样生起七次

because at that time his body is very weak

因为此时他的身体非常虚弱

so after five moments of javana they are called death proximate javana

五个临终速行这些速行被称为临终速行

after five moments of death proximate javana death may take place

这五个速行发生之后,人就死了

or there may be two registering moments and then death may take place

或许有两个彼所缘,才会死

or there may be the life continuum moments one or two moment and then death takes place

也可能是经过一两个有分心路过程,然后死亡

and immediately after death there is rebirth

死亡之后,立即就结生

so it is taught in abhidhamma that there is no interim realm or interim existence between death in one life and rebirth in another

根据阿毗达摩的教导在死亡和结生之间没有中间阶段

a being is immediately reborn after death

死亡之后立即结生

a being may be reborn thousands of miles away

一个众生可能会投生到千万里之外

but immediately after death rebirth will arise

死亡之后,立即会投生

so according to the teachings of abhidhamma there is no interim period between death in one life and rebirth in another life

所以根据阿毗达摩的教导,在死亡和投生之间没有中间阶段

but most of us think or believe that there is a period of seven days of forty nine days before a dead person get into another life

但是我们大多数人认为或相信一个人死后,在投生之前有7天或49天的阶段

sometimes a dead person may be reborn as a ghost

有时候人死了会投生为鬼

and then again he maybe reborn as a human being

然后再投生为人

now that the existence as a ghost is one life for him it is not an interim period, it is one life

投生为鬼也算一期生命并不是过渡阶段

so according to abhidhamma

所以根据阿毗达摩

that is no interim period between death in one life and rebirth in another

在死亡和结生之间没有中间阶段

so rebirth immediately follows death even though a person may be reborn thousands of miles away

所以死后立即结生,即便投生到千万里之外

even a person may be reborn as a celestial being in the realms of devas

即便投生到欲界天

so with regard to this sign of destiny or even sign of kamma

所以就趣相、甚至是业相而言

we can do something to help people who are nearing or approaching death

我们可帮助临终的人

we can create some conditions for that person to remember the buddha or to remember the dhamma to remember the good kamma he did in the past

我们可以创造一些条件,让那个人忆念佛、法、忆念他过去所作的善业

we may remind him of his good deeds he did in the past

我们可以提醒他过去所作的善业

or we may do some meritorious deeds at that time

我们也可以在那时做一些善事

and let him know about it and rejoice at it

让他知道,并且随喜

so in this way we can help the dying people

这样,我们可以帮助临终之人

now there is a story in our commentaries that

在注释书里有一个故事

there was a hunter and he has been a hunter for all his life

有一个猎人,终生捕猎

he had a son who was an arahant

他有一个儿子,是阿罗汉

so when he was old

当他年迈时

the son arahant got him to ordained and so he became a monk

他的阿罗汉儿子让他出家为僧

but when he was about to die

但在他临终的时候

the sign of destinies appear to his mind and he was saying: oh, son son, please help me

趣相显现于他的心中,他说:儿子啊,来帮帮我

the dogs are running after me and so on

一群狗在追逐我,诸如此类

so when the son who was an arahant heard these groans

他的阿罗汉儿子,听到他的哀求

he knew that these are the signs of hell and so his father is about to be reborn in the hell

他知道这些是地狱之相,他父亲要投生到地狱去

so he had his pupils the novices collect flowers

所以他让他的弟子那些沙弥拿一些花朵过来

and then he brought the old monk the dying monk to a shrine to a cetiya

他让他要去世的父亲来到佛像前

and then spread the flowers on the terrace of the stupa

让后将花朵供于佛塔之前

then telling his father that

他告诉他的父亲

this is his dana to the buddha

这是他对佛陀的布施

and so he should rejoice at that dana

他应该随喜这次布施

so the mind of the dying father the monk was changed

他临终的父亲的心发生了改变

now he had the shrine in his mind and he was offering flowers to the shrine

他的心里是佛像,他在给佛像供花

so this is an wholesome act and so immediately the sign of destiny changed

这是件善事,所以立刻趣相就改变了

now he was seeing celestial nymphs

他现在看到了天女

so now he was saying: son, your mother-in-laws are coming

他说:儿子啊,你的丈母娘来了

so when the arahant heard this he knew that his father was about to be reborn as a celestial being

当阿罗汉听到这个之后他知道他父亲要投生到天界

and he died and he was reborn there

然后他父亲去世了,投生到天界

that is how people can help those who are approaching death

这就是人们帮助临终之人的方法

so it is very important that we do not do anything to disturb their mind at that very critical moment

所以在那个关键时刻,不要做任何事干扰他们的心,这很重要

so we must try as much as we can to create favorable conditions for his mind to get pacified and

我们必须尽力创造条件让临终者的心安详

to remember the buddha to remember his good kamma he did in the past

忆念佛陀、忆念他过去所作的善业

so this is how we can help dying people according to the teachings of abhidhamma

这就是根据阿毗达摩,我们如何帮助临终的人

so one of these three kinds of objects always appear to the mind of a dying being

所以这三个所缘之一总会生起于临终者的心里

they are one kamma and two sign of kamma and three sign of destination

即:业、业相、趣相

so one of these three always appear to the mind of a dying being

这三者之一总会出现于临终者之心

by the force of that kamma he did in the past by the force of that kamma which is about to give results

来自于过去业的力量,或者能带来结果的业的力量

so in one life the object of re-linking consciousness life continuum consciousness and death consciousness is identical

所以在一期生命里,结生心、有分心、死亡心的所缘是相同的

if rebirth consciousness takes kamma as object

如果结生心以业为所缘

then for the whole of the life the

那么在整个一生中

life continuum consciousnesses also take kamma as object

有分心也以业为所缘

and then at the end death consciousness also takes that kamma as object

最后,死心也以业为所缘

so in one life these three types of consciousness take the same identical object

所以,在一期生命中,这三种心的所缘是一样的

the object of sign of kamma, then the sign of kamma of re-linking then that sign of kamma will be the object of the life continuum thought moments and death moment

如果结生的所缘是业相,那么有分心识刹那和死亡时的所缘也是业相

if the sign of destiny also the life continuum will take the sign of destiny

如果是趣相,那么有分的所缘也是趣相

that particular sign of destiny and the death consciousness also takes that particular sign of destiny

那个特定的趣相,也会是死亡心的所缘

so these are the three types of objects that nineteen thought nineteen types of consciousness that have the function of re-linking life continuum and death take

这三个所缘,是19个执行结生、有分、死亡作用的心所缘取的

now

现在

this is the normal circumstance

这是通常的情况

but there are beings in high… in the brahma worlds

但是有的众生在梵天界

who had only the physical body

只有色身

and they have no mind or mental activity let us call them mindless beings

没有心或者心理活动我们且称之为无心众生

so mindless beings are brahmas

这些无心众生是梵天众生

they are reborn in that realm as the result of the jhanas they obtained before death

他们因为在死前获得禅定状态的结果,所以就投生到梵天界

now there are people who think that because we have the mind

有些人认为因为我们有心

we know things and we suffer

我们就了知事物,就会痛苦

if we do not have mind we do not suffer

如果我们没有心,就不会痛苦

so what if we are just physical body and have no mind at all

如果我们只是色身,没有任何心

so they develop that disgust for mind

所以他们培养对心的厌恶

and they are the opposite of those who practice meditation to reach arupavacara jhanas

还有人修无色界禅,这两者是相反的

and so as the result of their meditation

作为他们禅定的结果

when they die they are reborn as mindless beings

当它们死后,他们投生为无心众生

since there is no mind there can be known re-linking consciousness, life continuum consciousness or death proximate consciousness

因为没有心,所以没有结生心、有分心、死前之心

they will be there for five hundred worlds cycles

他们会在那个境界呆五百大劫

long long time so they will be there like statues

很长很长时间他们像雕像一样

and then after five hundred world cycles they will die from that existence and they will reborn as devas or human beings

五百大劫后,他们死亡然后投生到欲界天或人类

so when they are reborn as devas and human beings then there arise re-linking consciousness

他们投生到欲界天或人类时就生起了结生心

but there was no mental activity in the immediately previous existence

但在前一世他们没有任何心理活动

so in that case the

所以在这种情况

re-linking consciousness when they are reborn as the human being

当他们投生为人类的时候,结生心

cannot take the object that has been taken by the death proximate consciousness in the immediate past life

缘取的所缘,不能是上一世的临死心的所缘

so in their case by the power of kamma they did in the past another kind of object will present itself to their mind

这种情况下,通过过去的业力另一种所缘出现在他们的心中

so not those taken by death proximate javanas in the immediately preceding existence

所以并不是前一世临死速行心的所缘

so but for most beings the re-linking consciousness takes the objects that has been taken by the death proximate javanas or near death thoughts of a person who is dying

对于大多数人结生心的所缘就是前一世临死的速行心所缘

now there is one thing important when we talk about death and rebirth

当我们谈死亡、结生时有一件事很重要

now we say that rebirth immediately follows death

我们说结生紧随死亡

many people think that rebirth is the result of death

许多人认为结生是死亡之果

there is death there is rebirth

有死亡,所以才有结生

so death brings about rebirth or something like that they would say

所以他们可能会说死亡导致结生之类的

but that is not true

但是并非如此

because death consciousness is a resultant consciousness vipaka consciousness

因为死亡心是果报心

so death consciousness cannot produce anything because it is not kamma

所以死亡心不能造成任何结果,它不是业

it is the result of kamma

它是业的结果

since it is the resultant consciousness it cannot produce anything

因为它是果报心,它不能有任何造作

but the re-linking consciousness that arises immediately after it

但是随后生起的结生心

is the result of some kamma he did in the past in that life or in previous life

是这一世或过去世所造业的结果

so this we must understand clearly

我们必须明了这点

sometimes people say death conditions rebirth

有时候,人们说:死缘生

so what do you think of that, death conditions rebirth?

你们怎么认为的,死亡造成了结生?

in one sense, it is true

在某种意义上,这是对的

because there are many kinds of conditions twenty four kinds of conditions taught in the seventh book of abhidhamma

所以在《发趣论》里讲了24缘

now one of these twenty four conditions is called proximate condition

这24缘里有一个叫:无间缘

and that means simply giving place to another consciousness

意思是给另外一个心让出位置

that means death consciousness disappears

即:死亡心消失

so that rebirth consciousness can arise

这样结生心就可以生起

if death consciousness does not disappear

如果死亡心不消失

then rebirth consciousness cannot arise

结生心就不能生起

so in this case death consciousness ceases

这个意义上,死亡心停止

so that the patisandhi or re-linking consciousness can arise

结生心才能生起

so in that sense the rebirth is conditioned by death

这个意义上讲,死亡心造成了结生

but this is just like giving place to another person

但是这像给另外一个人让位

so I vacate this chair so that you can sit in it something like that

我让出这个位置,你就可以坐下有点类似这个

so that is also called causal relationship in abhidhamma in the seventh book of abhidhamma

在阿毗达摩里《发趣论》里这种因果关系

in pali it is called anantara paccaya

被称为无间缘

so death is that proximate cause or proximate condition for rebirth

所以死亡是结生的近因

but we are not to understand by that expression that rebirth is caused by death

但是不能因此而认为结生是死亡造成的

as I explained death consciousness is a resultant consciousness and so it can not give any result.

我讲过死心是果报心,不能造作任何结果

but the rebirth consciousness is also a result

但是结生心也是果报心

this rebirth consciousness is the result of some kamma in the past

结生心是过去业的果报

and not the result of death consciousness

不是死亡心的果报

so death consciousness simply disappears

所以死亡心消失

so that re-linking consciousness can arise

结生心才能生起

so in that sense only we can say that death consciousness conditions rebirth consciousness or rebirth consciousness is conditioned by death

只有在这个意义上我们能说死亡心造成了结生心

so death is one thing and rebirth is another

所以死亡是一回事结生是另外一回事

with regard to the objects also they take different objects

它们的所缘也不同

death in let us say previous life takes the object of the re-linking in that previous life

死亡心,前一世的死亡心所缘是前一世结生心的所缘

but rebirth in the next existence

但是下一世的结生心

takes the objects of

缘取的所缘

the death proximate moment not the death moment itself, but those moments that precede death

不是死亡那一刻的所缘而是死亡之前心路过程的所缘

so although the kind of object can be the same that means kamma or kammanimitta or gatinimitta, kamma or sign of kamma or sign of destiny, they are different

虽然这种所缘种类可以是一样的意思是业、业相、趣相这些种类但它们是不同的所缘

so we must here definitely understand death is not the cause of rebirth

所以我们在这里必须完全理解,死亡并不是结生的原因

it can be a condition for rebirth, only when we understand it to mean that proximity condition or just giving place to another consciousness to arise

只有当我们把死亡看成近因,或者是给结生心让位时才能说死亡心是结生心的条件

ok now the these nineteen types of consciousness arise without the help of doors or they do not arise through doors

这19种心离门而生起

and they have the function of re-linking life continuum and death

它们执行结生、有分、死亡的作用

and they take one of the three kinds of objects and they are kamma, sign of kamma and sign of destination

它们缘取以下三种所缘之一:业、业相、趣相

next we will go to the section on bases

我们看下一节:依处

this chart vatthusangaha

这个表格:依处之概要

now we have studied consciousness and mental factors

我们学习了心、心所

and also we know that consciousnesses and mental factors take objects

我们也知道心和心所缘取所缘

and the objects they take maybe another consciousness and mental factors and also 28 material properties and concept and nibbana

所缘可以是另外一个心、心所、

28色法、概念、涅槃

but in order for a consciousness to arise

心的生起

we need some kind of base

我们需要依处

that means when it arises in beings like human beings beings that have physical body

意即当人或者其他有色身的众生生起心的时候

so in the realms where beings with physical body

对于具有色身的众生

consciousnesses and also mental factors need something to depend on for their arising

心、心所需要依处才能生起

and that something that they depend for their arising is called vatthu

它们所依赖而生的处所即巴利语的vatthu and it is usually translated as base

通常被翻译成:依处

so a base is a physical support for the occurance of consciousness when we say consciousness we also mean mental factors

依处是心产生的物质支持这里的心包括心所

and there are six bases taught in abhidhamma

阿毗达摩里讲到了六种依处

and they are

它们是:

cakkhuvatthu eye base, sotavatthu ear base

眼依处、耳依处

ghanavatthu nose base

鼻依处

jivhavatthu tongue base and kayavatthu body base

舌依处、身依处

and eye base means eye sensitivity, sensitive part in the eye

眼依处即眼净色

and ear base means sensitive material particles in the ear and so on

耳依处即耳净色等等

and body base means sensitive part in the whole of body

身依处即全身的净色

only when there are sensitive particles in the eye can seeing consciousness arise

只有当眼睛里有眼净色眼识才能生起

so in order for seeing consciousness arise this base is required

要生起眼识,这个依处是必须的

now you see these five bases correspond to the five doors

你们看到了:这五个依处对应五门

eye door means eye sensitivity eye base means eye sensitivity

眼门即眼净色,眼依处即眼净色

so they correspond to the five doors

所以它们对应于五门

but there is a difference

但是是有不同的

now there are forty six types of consciousness that arise through eye door

有46种心生起于眼门

but not all these forty six types of consciousness depend on eye base

但是这46种心的依处并非都是眼依处

now when you see something there is a thought process in that thought process we can find 46 types of consciousness

当你看到某物,有一个心路过程这个过程中可以找到46种心

all of these forty six types of consciousness arise through eye door

所有这46种心在眼门生起

but not all of them depend on eye base for their arising

但是它们并非全部依赖于眼依处而生起

only one of them or let’s say two of them the seeing consciousness

只有一个,或者说两个眼识依赖于眼依处

only seeing consciousnesses depend on eye base

只有眼识依赖于眼依处

the other consciousnesses depend on the heart base it will come later

其他心依赖于心所依处稍后我会讲

so this is a difference although they are the same

所以这就是不同,虽然它们相符

although eye base and eye door are the sensitive material property in the eye

虽然眼依处和眼门都是眼净色

they have a different role to play in the origination of consciousness

但是在心的生起中,它们扮演不同的角色

so consciousness arises through doors consciousness arises depending on bases

所以心通过门而生心依赖依处而生

again forty six types of consciousness arise through eye door

有46种心通过眼门生起

but not all of them depend on eye base for their arising

但是并非它们都依赖于眼依处才生起

only the seeing consciousnesses depend on eye base

只有眼识依赖于眼依处

but the other types of consciousness depend on the heart base for their arising

但是其他心依赖于心所依处生起

so there are five vatthus or five bases

这就是五个依处

now the sixth base is called hadayavatthu

下面是第六个:心所依处

hadaya means heart, so heart base

“心”指心脏,即心所依处

now with this heart base there is something to say

关于心所依处,要讲一下

according to the pali commentators the heart serves as a physical support for all cittas other than the two sets of fivefold sense consciousness

根据巴利论师,除了双五识之外心脏是所有其他心的物质支持

which take their respective sensitivities as their bases

双五识以相应的净色作为依处

in the canonical abhidhamma the heart base is not expressly mentioned

在阿毗达摩原典中并没有明确提到心所依处

now

现在

I always said that there are twenty eight types of material properties, right?

我经常说有28种色法,对吧

twenty eight rupa, twenty eight rupa 28色法,28色法

now the first book of abhidhamma is the book where all cittas cetasikas rupas are mentioned

但是在《法聚论》中,介绍了所有的心、心所、色法

we find eighty nine or one hundred and twenty one types of consciousness in that first book

在《法聚论》我们看到89或121心

we find fifty two cetasikas in that book

我们也看到了52心所

and we find only twenty seven material properties mentioned in that book

但是在那本书里,我们只看到27种色法

one is missing

缺一个

but our teachers the commentators

但是我们的论师说

said that there is a material property called hadayavatthu or heart base

有一个心所依处

although it is not mentioned in the first book of abhidhamma they said it is mentioned in the seventh book of abhidhamma

虽然没有在《法聚论》里介绍但是在《发趣论》里有介绍

but when we read the seventh book of abhidhamma

但是当我们检视《发趣论》的时候

we do not find that

并没有发现:心所依处

buddha did not expressly mentioned the word hadaya there

佛陀并没有在那里明确提及“心脏”这个词

he just said

他只是说

depending on a certain material property

依赖于某种色法

the mind element and mind consciousness element arise something like that

意界和意识界得以生起,诸如此类

so buddha did not expressly used the word hadaya for that material property

所以佛陀并没有明确地用“心脏”来指这个色法

he said depending on a certain type of matter consciousness arises and so on

他说:依赖于某种色法,心生起诸如此类

and that certain type of matter is interpreted to mean hadaya or heart by our ancient teachers

那种色法被古代的法师解释成“心脏”

so following our ancient teachers we say there are twenty eight types of material properties

所以按照古代法师的讲法我们说有28种色法

and among them this heart, you know the heart

其中就包括:心脏,大家知道心脏

actually it is not the heart itself but the cavity in the heart and there is blood in the heart so that is what we call hadayavatthu, heart base

实际上,不是心脏本身而是心脏里的孔隙,里面有血液这就是我们所说的心所依处

and many types of consciousness abhidhamma teaches depend on that heart base

阿毗达摩告诉我们,许多种心依赖于心所依处

now seeing consciousnesses depend on eye base

眼识依赖于眼依处

hearing consciousnesses depend on ear base and so on

耳识依赖于耳依处

touching consciousnesses depend on body base

身识依赖于身依处

and all other types of consciousnesses almost all other depend on heart base

其他所有,几乎所有其他心依赖于心所依处

and some depend on heart base always

有一些总是依赖于心所依处

and some on it sometimes only

有一些是有时候依赖于心所依处

so we have two groups of consciousness

所以有两组心

that depend on heart base always and that depend on heart base sometimes only

总是依赖于心所依处、只是有时候依赖于心所依处

and also there are types of consciousness that depend on no base at all

同样有一种心不依赖于任何依处

now you know the brahamas that are without physical body

你们知道有的梵天众生没有色身

they have only consciousnesses and mental factors

他们只有心、心所

for these brahmas they don’t need a physical base or they don’t have a physical base for consciousness to arise

对于这些梵天众生,他们的心的生起不需要色身他们也没有色身

so some material, some types of consciousnesses that arise only in the realms of immaterial existence

所以有些心只是生起于无色界

they do not need any base so they do not depend on any base they are always free from base

它们不需要任何依处,它们不依赖于依处

like door free of consciousness we may call them vatthu free types of consciousness

就像离门心,我们可以称之为:离处心

so we will find out what these types of consciousness are

我们将找出这些心各是哪些

now before we find out what consciousness depends on what vatthu or base

在找出什么心依赖于什么依处之前

we must understand the classification of cittas in seven categories

我们必须了解心的七组分类

so they are given on the sheet

它们都列在表格上

now there are eighty nine or one hundred and twenty one types of consciousness

有89或121种心

and they are divided into seven groups

它们被分成7组

now you see the names, one cakkhuviññāṇadhātu

你们可以看到名称:第一、眼识界

eye consciousness element

眼识界

now when we hear the word element we think that it is only material only material things are called element

当我们听到“界”的时候我们觉得只有色法才称为:界

but in abhidhamma mental states are also called element

但是在阿毗达摩里,名法也被称为界

so here consciousness is called element

在这里心也被称为界

so the first element is cakkhuviññāṇadhātu

第一个是:眼识界

cakkhu means eye viññāṇa means consciousness so eye consciousness element cakkhu即眼,vinnana即识所以叫做:眼识界

and eye consciousness element

眼识界

means two eye consciousnesses

即指:两个眼识

and number two is sotaviññāṇadhātu

第二:耳识界

ear consciousness element

耳识界

ear consciousness element means two ear consciousnesses or hearing consciousnesses

耳识界意即两个耳识

and then number three is ghānaviññāṇadhātu nose consciousness element

第三:鼻识界

and nose consciousness element means ghānaviññāṇa two, two types of nose consciousness

鼻识界指两个鼻识

number four jihvāviññāṇadhātu tongue consciousness element

第四:舌识界

there are two tongue consciousnesses

就是两个舌识

and then number five kāyaviññāṇadhātu

第五:身识界

body consciousness element and there are two body consciousnesses

身识界指两个身识

now number six manodhātu we met manodhātu yesterday

第六:意界,我们昨天讲过

so manodhātu is the name mind element manodhātu is the name of three types of consciousness

意界包括三种心

sampaṭicchana two and pañcadvārāvajjana one

两个领受心、一个五门转向心

the two receiving consciousnesses and one five sense door adverting

两个领受心,一个五门转向心

so these three types of consciousness are collectively called manodhātu or mind element

这三个心统称为意界

and the rest the remaining seventy six cittas are called number seven manoviññāṇadhātu

剩下的76种心被称为意识界,第七个界

mind consciousness element

意识界

so we divide the eighty nine types of consciousness into seven elements

我们将89心分为七界

seven consciousness elements

七识界

again there are eye consciousness element ear consciousness element

它们是:眼识界、耳识界

nose consciousness element tongue consciousness element body consciousness element

鼻识界、舌识界、身识界

mind element and mind consciousness element

意界、意识界

and also these six bases are found in the sense world all of these six bases are found in the world of senses

这六依处在欲界可以找到

that means in the world of human beings and lower celestial beings called devas

即在人界、欲界天

and also in the world of woeful states

和恶趣

in these existences in these realms

在这些界

all six vatthus can be found

可以找到所有六依处

so let us say a human being

我们以人为例

so a human being has the eye the ear the tongue the nose and the body

人类有眼耳鼻舌身

so these five bases are found in human being

所以可以在人身找到这五个依处

and then human being has mind or consciousness

人也有心

and so these consciousnesses other types of consciousnesses depend on the heart base

所以心、其他心依赖于心所依处

so we can find heart base in human beings also

所以从人类也能找到心所依处

so all these six bases are found in the world of senses or in the kamavacara world

所以所有这六依处可以在欲界找到

but in the rupavacara world in the world of brahmas with body

但是在色界,在有色身的梵天世界

three are missing

缺三个

and those three are

缺少的三个是

nose base, tongue base and body base

鼻依处、舌依处、身依处

so these three are missing in the brahmas the material brahmas

所以这三个在色界梵天是没有的

now it is explained in the commentaries that although these three are missing in the brahmas

在注释书里讲,在梵天没有这三者

they still have nose tongue and body

他们仍然有鼻、舌、身

so what is missing is the sensitive parts in the nose and the tongue and in the body

缺少的只是鼻舌身里面的净色

so they may look like human beings with nose tongue and body

所以他们可能依然看起来像人类有鼻、舌、身

but they have no sense of smell no sense of taste and no sense of touch

但是他们没有嗅、尝、触的官能

now these three are missing for them because they do not think they are necessary

这三者之所以缺失是因为他们觉得这三个没必要

they even find fault with these

他们甚至找到了这三者的过患

they have no noble purpose say to perform the nose and so on

鼻子等等不需要发挥什么神圣的目的

so they develop disgust for these three bases

所以他们培养出对这三个依处的厌恶

and they practice meditation so as a result this meditation when they are reborn as brahmas

他们禅修,禅修的结果就是投生到梵天界

then these three that they don’t like are missing in their bodies

这三个他们不喜欢的依处从身体上消失了

so they may look human beings but they have no sense of smell taste and touch

所以看起来可能像人类但是他们没有嗅、尝、触的感官

in the world of formless beings arupavacara loka

对于无色界众生

there is no base at all because you see bases are all material properties

没有任何依处,因为依处都是属于色法

since there are no mateiral properties in the arupavacara brahmas or immaterial brahmas

因为在无色界梵天,不存在色法

so then none of these six can be found in the world of immaterial beings

所以这六个依处不能在无色界出现

so we human beings have six bases

所以我们人类有六个依处

but the rupabrahmas have only three bases

但是色界梵天只有三个依处

eye, ear, and heart base

眼依处、耳依处、心所依处

now eye base they think it is useful because we can see the buddha

眼依处他们觉得有用因为可以用来看佛陀

and ear base is also useful because we can hear the dhamma

耳依处也有用,可以用来闻法

and heart bases for the other types of consciousness to depend on

心所依处,可以让其他心依赖而生

so they do not develop disgust for these three types of material properties or three types of bases

所以他们不开发对三个色法或三个依处的厌恶

so when they are reborn they are reborn with only three bases and the other three nose tongue and body

当他们投生的时候,只有三个依处没有其他三个:鼻、舌、身

now let us find out the types of consciousness that depend on these bases

现在我们找出何种心依靠何种依处

now lobha mula citta eight lobha mula cittas eight types of consciousness rooted in lobha 8个贪根心

they depend on hadayavatthu S

他们依赖于心所依处S S means sometimes so they depend on hadayavatthu sometimes only S的意思是有时候,所以它们只是有时候依赖于心所依处

not always

并非总是这样

now when they arise in human beings and rupa brahmas

当它们生起于人类和色界梵天时

they depend on heart base

它们依赖于心所依处

but they arise in a mind of formless beings

但是它们在无色界生起的时候

they do not depend on heart base

并不依赖于心所依处

so they depend on heart base sometimes only

所以它们只是偶尔地依赖于心所依处

now the next dosamula

下一个嗔根心

two types of consciousness accompanied by ill will

两种嗔根心

they depend on heart base always

它们总是依赖于心所依处

that is because they do not arise in the minds of arupavacara brahmas

因为它们不在无色界生起

so they are said to depend on heart base always

所以它们总是依赖于心所依处

and then mohamula two two rooted in moha

然后是两个痴根心

they depend on heart base sometimes only

它们只是有时依赖于心所依处

so among the twelve akusala consciousness

所以12个不善心

ten depend on heart base sometimes only and two depend on heart base always 10个有时依赖于心所依处

2个总是依赖于心所依处

then seeing consciousness or eye consciousness two

眼识,两个

two eye consciousnesses depend on eye base

两个眼识依赖于眼依处

two ear consciousnesses depend on ear base

两个耳识依赖于耳依处

and two nose consciousnesses depend on nose base, two tongue consciousnesses depend on tongue base

两个鼻识依赖于鼻依处两个舌识依赖于舌依处

and two body consciousnesses depend on body base

两个身识依赖于身依处

now we come to manodhatu

现在看意界

so manodhatu means sampaṭicchana and pañcadvārāvajjana

意界指领受心和五门转向心

sampaṭicchana and pañcadvārāvajjana

领受心、五门转向心

so manodhatu means the receiving consciousness and five-sense-door-adverting

意界指领受心和五门转向心

so these three always depend on heart base

这三个心依赖于心所依处

because they do not arise in the mind of arupavacara brahmas

因为它们不生起于无色界梵天心中

and then santirana investigation three depend on heart base always

然后是推度心三个,总是依赖于心所依处

and then

接着

manodvaravajjana one manodvaravajjana mind door adverting

意门转向心一个

mind door adverting depends on heart base sometimes only

意门转向心只是有时依赖于心所依处

so when it arises in the arupavacara brahmas it does not depend on heart base

当它生起于无色界梵天时它不依赖于心所依处

so it depends on heart base sometimes only

所以它只是有时依赖于心所依处

and then hasituppāda smile producing consciousness

接着是生笑心

smile producing consciousness depends on heart base always

生笑心总是依赖于心所依处

because they do not arise in arupavacara brahmas

因为它们不生起于无色界梵天

in order to smile you need to have a body

你得有身体才能笑

but if you have no body there can be no smile

如果你没有身体,就没有笑

so smiling consciousness or smile producing consciousness depends on heart base always

所以生笑心总是依赖于心所依处

let’s have a break

我们休息一下

disk01track18

so now we go on with the chart

我们现在来看图表

after hasituppāda you find kamavacara sobhana kusala sense-sphere wholesome

生笑心之后,你们找到欲界善心

so sense-sphere wholesome eight depend on heart base sometimes

欲界8个善心有时依赖于心所依处

and then kamavacara sobhana vipaka eight depend on heart base always

欲界8个果报心总是依赖心所依处

because they do not arise in the arupavacara realm

因为它们不生起于无色界

and then kamavacara sobhana kiriya eight depend on heart base sometimes

欲界8个唯作心有时依赖于心所依处

and then rupavacara fifteen depend on heart base always

色界15个心总是依赖于心所依处

because they do not arise in arupavacara brahmas

因为它们不生起于无色界梵天

when you get the arupavacara jhanas then you don’t get the rupavacara jhanas

当你获得无色界禅那你就没有色界禅那

they do not arise in the arupavacara realm

它们不生起于无色界

and so they depend on heart base always

所以它们总是依赖于心所依处

and then arupavacara kusala

无色界善心

depend on heart base sometimes

有时依赖于心所依处

because arupavacara kusala can arise in human world or in rupa brahma world also

因为无色界善心也可以在人界和色界梵天生起

they depend on hadayavatthu sometimes only

它们只是有时候依赖于心所依处

but arupavacara vipaka four

但是四个无色界果报心

they arise in arupavacara brahmas only

它们只是生起于无色界梵天

and so here they do not depend on any base so no vatthu

所以它们不依赖于任何依处

and then arupavacara kiriya the same they depend on heart base sometimes

然后同样,无色界唯作心它们有时依赖于心所依处

and then sotāpattimagga, now sotāpattimagga is singled out from the other lokuttara consciousnesses

然后须陀洹道心,被单独从出世间心中列出来

so sotāpattimagga here depend on hadayavatthu always

所以须陀洹道心总是依赖于心所依处

that means sotāpattimagga cannot arise in the arupavacara realm

意即:须陀洹道心不能生起于无色界

and the remaining seven supramundane consciousnesses can arise in arupavacara realm

剩下的7个出世间心可以在无色界生起

and so they depend on hadayavatthu heart base sometimes only

所以它们只是有时依赖于心所依处

so sometimes only means when they arise in kamavacara realm and rupavacara realm

只是有时,即当它们生起于欲界和色界的时候

they depend on heart base

它们依赖于心所依处,

and when they arise in arupavacara realm they do not.

当它们生起于无色界时,他们不依赖于心所依处。

They depend on hadayavatthu sometimes only.

它们只是有时依赖于心所依处。

so this is how the different types of consciousness depend on different bases

如此即是,不同的心依赖于不同的依处。

so actually those that depend on heart base always

实际上,总是依赖于心所依处的心

are those that do not arise in the arupavacara realms

它们不生起于无色界

they are dosamula two consciousnesses associated with ill will

它们是:两个嗔根心

they do not arise in arupavacara realm

它们不生起于无色界

so they depend on heart base always

所以它们总是依赖于心所依处

and then manodhātu three the receiving and five sense door adverting they do not arise in the arupavacara realm

然后是三个意门心:领受心、五门转向心,它们不生起于无色界

santirana investigating three also

三个推度心也是如此

and hasituppāda do not arise in arupavacara

生笑心不生起于无色界

and then kamavacara sobhana vipaka they do not arise in arupavacara realm they arise in kamavacara realm only

然后是欲界善果报心,它们不生起于无色界,它们只生起于欲界。

and then rupavacara fifteen they do not arise in arupavacara realm so they always depend on heart base

然后是15个色界心它们不生起于无色界,所以它们总是依赖于心所依处

and then the last one is sotapattimagga

最后一个是须陀洹道心

now sotapattimagga cannot arise in the arupavacara realm because

现在须陀洹道心不能生起于无色界,因为

in order to become sotapanna you need to hear from someone

要想成为须陀洹,你需要听闻

so if you hear means hear the dhamma or hear the instructions

“听闻”意思是:“闻法”或“闻教”

if you do not hear the dhamma if you do not hear the instructions

如果你不闻法,也不闻教,

you cannot get sotapattimagga or you cannot become a sotapanna

你就不会有须陀洹道心,你就不能成为须陀洹

so sotapattimagga cannot arise in the arupavacara realm

所以须陀洹道心不能生起于无色界

so it depends in hadayavatthu or heart base always

所以它总是依赖于心所依处

now if we read the diagram across

现在如果我们横着看表格

so we know that

我们知道

the two types of consciousness depend on eye base and they are seeing consciousnesses

两种眼识依赖于眼依处

and two depend on ear base two on nose base, two on tongue base and two on body base

两种耳识依赖于耳依处两种鼻识依赖于耳依处两种舌识依赖于舌依处两种身识依赖于身依处

and then with regard to heart base

对于心所依处而言

we have two varieties

有两种类型

and one is depending on heart always the other depending on heart sometimes only

一种总是依赖于心所依处一种有时依赖于心所依处

so those depending on heart always are altogether 33 types of consciousness

总是依赖于心所依处的一共有33种心

and those that depend on heart base sometimes only are 42

只是有时依赖于心所依处的心是42种

and those that never depend on any base

不依赖于任何依处的心

are only 4, they are 4 arupavacara vipaka

只有4种,就是4种无色界果报心

now let us go to this basic chart

现在我们看基本的表格

ok the first citta of lobhamula

第一个贪根心

so depend on what base?

所以,依赖于什么依处?

depend on heart base sometimes

有时依赖于心所依处

and then second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth depend on heart base sometimes

然后第二三四五六七八有时依赖于心所依处

and then the first of the two associated with ill will

第一个嗔根心

so it depends on heart base always

总是依赖于心所依处

and the second one also heart base always

第二个,也是如此总是依赖于心所依处

and then the other two those rooted in moha

然后是两个痴根心

depend on heart base sometimes

有时依赖于心所依处

and then let us take the two seeing consciousnesses together

现在一起看两个眼识,

so two seeing consciousnesses depend on eye base the next ear base, nose base, tongue base, body base

两个眼识依赖于眼所依处,其他分别依赖于耳所依处,鼻所依处,舌所依处,身所依处

now the two blue circles

现在看两个蓝色的圆圈

they are receiving consciousnesses so they depend on hadayavatthu i mean heart base always

它们是领受心,总是依赖于心所依处

and then the red one it is santirana or investigating

红色的是推度心

so it depends on heart base always

总是依赖于心所依处

and then the other two always

其他两个推度心也总是依赖于心所依处

now we go to five sense door adverting, five sense door adverting

我们现在看五门转向心

depend on heart base

依赖于心所依处

always or sometimes?

总是还是有时?

sometimes? always.

有时?总是。

so where do you find the pañcadvārāvajjana in the chart

在这个表格里,五门转向心在哪里?

it is included in manodhatu, right?

它属于意界,对吧?

so it depends on heart base always

所以它总是依赖于心所依处。

and then manodvaravajjana depends on heart base sometimes

然后是意门转向心,有时依赖于心所依处

and smile producing consciousness depends on heart base always

生笑心总是依赖于心所依处

then the eight sense sphere wholesome

然后是8个欲界善心

depend on heart base sometimes

有时依赖于心所依处

and eight resultant heart base always 8个果报心,总是依赖于心所依处

and eight functional sometimes 8个唯作心,有时依赖于心所依处

and then all fifteen rupavacara cittas, heart base always

接下来所有15种色界心,总是依赖于心所依处

and then arupavacara the first four wholesome

然后是无色界,首先的4个善心

so arupavacara kusala heart base sometimes

无色界善心有时依赖于心所依处

and the four vipakas or resultants no base at all

四个果报心,没有任何依处

and then four arupavacara kiriya or functional

然后是4个无色界唯作心

sometimes

有时依赖于心所依处

now let us take the first column as sotapattimagga

我们现在把须陀洹道心作为第一列

so that sotapattimagga heart base always or sometimes? always

须陀洹道心,总是还是有时?总是依赖于心所依处

and the remaining seven, sometimes

然后剩下的7个,有时

so you can exercise with the chart also

你们也可以用这张表进行练习

looking at the chart and say sometimes, always sometimes always

看这张表,念叨:有时、总是,有时、总是

so with this we come to the end of chapter three

这样我们结束了第三章的学习

now chapter three deals with feeling, roots, function, doors, objects and bases

第三章介绍了受、因、作用、门、所缘、依处

so

所以

cetasikas are not mentioned here

在这里没有介绍心所

but if you want to, you can find out the cetasikas by using the chart for citta and cetasika combination

但是如果你要找,你可以通过心-心所的组合找出心所

so we have come to the end of three chapters

这样我们就结束了前三章的学习

and we can review the three chapters

我们可以复习一下这三章

or we can review what we have learned in three chapters with help of this handout

我们可以通过这份材料来复习学习过的三章

so there are three chapters at a glance it’s very easy when you have these charts

当你有这些表格时,对前三章就一目了然

now we will not go through all of them because they are many

我们就不一一复习了,因为数量实在是太多

but there are some pages we have to make corrections

但是,有些地方,我们要进行纠正

now the number… the first page three chapters at a glance

请看第一页的前三章概要

now first it’s the name of citta all in pali

首先是所有心的巴利语名字

and second is citta group whether akusala, lobha mulu or kusala, ahetuka and so on

第二是心的分组,善、贪根、不善、无因等等

and then the cetasikas they arise together with

然后是与心同生的心所

just the number of them

只是它们的数量

and then vedanā feeling they are associated with

然后是俱生的受

and then hetu roots

然后是因或根

kicca functions

作用

and dvara doors

门ārammaṇa objects

所缘

and vatthu bases

依处

so for each type of consciousness

对于每一种心

we must be able to say which group each type of consciousness is

我们要能够说出每种心属于哪一组

and how many cetasikas go with it and so on

有多少心所与之共生

this is another way of making ourselves more familiar with what are taught in all three chapters

这是另外一种让我们更熟悉这三章的方法。

so the first one is called somanassa-sahagata diṭṭhigatasampayutta asaṅkhārika this is pali

这是第一种心的巴利语

so that means with joy with wrong view unprompted

悦俱邪见相应无行心

and this is akusala consciousness

这是不善心

and it is lobhamula consciousness rooted in lobha

这是贪根心

and nineteen cetasikas arise with this consciousness

有19个心所伴随这个心

and this consciousness is associated with somanassa or joy

这个心是悦俱的

and how many hetus go with it? lobha and moha

它有几个因呢?贪和痴

and what function does it do? javana

执行什么作用呢?速行

and then what door does it arise through? six doors always

它生起于哪些门?总是生起于六门

and then what object does it take?

它的所缘有哪些?

eighty one lokiya, lokiya means mundane 81世间心

eighty one mundane cittas fifty two cetasikas twenty eight rupas and paññatti 81世间心,52心所,

28色法,概念

now when we say a certain type of consciousness

当我们提到某种特定的心

a certain citta takes something as object

这个心缘取目标

when must understand that the cetasikas going along with that citta take the same object

我们要明白,与此心同生的心所缘取相同的目标

so with the first type of consciousness there are nineteen cetasikas

所以与第一个心同生的有19个心所

these nineteen cetasikas also take eighty one lokiya cittas and so on as object

这19个心所,也以81个世间心等作为所缘

so among the nineteen there is lobha

这19个心所之中,就有贪

so lobha can take eighty one lokiya cittas fifty two cetasikas twenty eight rupas and paññatti as object

贪心所的所缘可以是:52心所,

28色法、概念

and there is diṭṭhi among the nineteen cetasikas 19心所之中有:邪见

so diṭṭhi can take again eighty one lokiya cittas

所以邪见可以缘取81世间心

fifty two cetasikas twenty eight rupas and paññatti as object 52心所、28色法、概念,作为它的所缘

what about pride or māna?那么慢呢?

is it among the nineteen?

在19个心所之中吗?

you have to go back to another chart, it’s ok

你要回头去看另外一张表,没问题

so in this way you understand cetasikas also

这样,你就同时理解心所了。

that a certain cetasika takes a certain type of object

这样特定的心所缘取特定的目标

now

现在

in the seventh chapter the different categories will be taught

在第七章,将会学习到其他类别

what I want to say here is the name five aggregates of clinging

我在这里想说的是:五取蕴

now you find this expression in the first sermon taught by the buddha

在佛陀初转法轮时,你们可以看到这种表达

when buddha explained the first noble truth, the noble truth of suffering

当佛陀宣讲第一圣谛,即,苦圣谛的时候

buddha said, birth is suffering, old age is suffering, disease is suffering, death is suffering and so on

佛陀说,生是苦,老是苦,病是苦,死是苦等等

and at the end buddha said in brief five aggregates of clinging are suffering

最后,佛陀说:要而言之,五取蕴是苦。

now

现在

it is taught that diṭṭhi is called clinging and lobha is called clinging

我们知道:邪见是“取”贪也是“取”

we cling to things by lobha or by diṭṭhi

通过贪、邪见,我们执着事物。

that means we cling to thing by being attached to that thing or by wanting to possess that thing

意即,我们执着于某物或欲求拥有某物就是对它的“执”

and also we cling to that thing by taking it to be permanent and so on

同样,如果认为它是永恒的,也表示我们“执”于它。

now

现在

aggregates of clinging means

五取蕴意思是

aggregates that are the objects of clinging

“蕴”是“取”的所缘

now here we have two terms

这里有两个名相

aggregates and aggregates of clinging

蕴、取蕴

when we say aggregates we mean all those that are called aggregates

当我们说“蕴”的时候,就是指那些“蕴”

how many aggregates are there?

一共有多少蕴?

five

五种

aggregate of matter, aggregate of feeling, of perception, of mental formations of consciousness

色蕴、受蕴、想蕴、行蕴、识蕴

now aggregate of consciousness consists of how many cittas

识蕴包含多少心?

eighty nine or one hundred and twenty one cittas ok 89心,或者121心。好

now in the name aggregate of clinging

在取蕴这个名称里

or aggregate of clinging means aggregates that are the object of clinging

取蕴意思是“取”的目标。

so

所以

since lobha and diṭṭhi are called clinging

因为“贪”和“邪见”被称为“取”。

and their object we see as eighty one lokiya cittas

它们的所缘是81世间心、

fifty two cetasikas twenty eight rupas and paññatti 52心所、28色法、概念

that means no supramundane citta

意思是说:没有出世间心

so supramundane cittas are outside of the range of lobha and diṭṭhi

出世间心在“贪”和“邪见”的范围之外

so when we say aggregate of clinging

当我们谈到“取蕴”时

we mean those that are object of lobha and diṭṭhi

指“贪”、“邪见”的所缘

so eighty one lokiya cittas fifty two cetasikas twenty eight rupas and paññatti

所以是81世间心、52心所、

28色法、概念

but when we say just aggregate

当我们谈到“蕴”的时候

we must take all

就是指所有的

that means all eighty nine or one hundred and twenty one cittas fifty two cetasikas twenty eight rupas and paññatti

“所有”的意思是89或121心、

52心所、28色法、概念法。

now

现在

when you practice vipassana meditation

当你进行内观禅修时

you take these five aggregates of clinging as object

你以这“五取蕴”为所缘

so the object you put your mind on must be one of these five aggregates of clinging

你的心缘取的目标必须是五取蕴之一

that means one of these eighty one lokiya cittas or fifty two cetasikas twenty eight rupas no paññatti here

就是81心、52心所、

28色法之一,这里没有概念

so that means you cannot take supramundane consciousness as object when you practice vipassana meditation

就是说当你内观禅修时,你不能将出世间心作为所缘。

that is because you have not experienced the supramundane consciousness yourself

因为你自己不能体验到出世间心

and so it is out of the range of your mind to take them as the object

不能作为心的所缘,因为它已经超出了你心的范围

so when you understand the object and those that take these objects

所以,当你们理解了所缘、能缘

you can understand what the aggregate of clinging means what aggregate means

你们可以理解“取蕴”是什么意思,“蕴”是什么意思?

you know the difference between aggregate and aggregate of clinging

明白了“蕴”和“取蕴”的区别。

so when we say aggregate we mean all eighty nine cittas cetasikas rupas and paññatti

所以,当我们说“蕴”的时候,我们的意思是89心、心所、色法和概念。

but when we say aggregate of clinging we must leave out the supramundane consciousness

当我们讲“取蕴”的时候,我们得排除出世间心

so we have only eighty one mundane cittas cetasikas rupas and paññatti

所以只有81世间心、心所色法、概念

now let’s go to the second, second citta is called somanassa-sahagata

我们现在看第二个悦俱心,

diṭṭhigatasampayutta sasaṅkhārika saṅkhā means prompting, sasaṅkhā means with prompting, so prompted saṅkhā 指“行”,

sasaṅkhā指“有行”

and it is akusala citta and it is lob