毗婆舍那与四禅八定

毗婆舍那与四禅八定

编者按:马哈希尊者在《减损经讲记》对比了内观经验和四禅八定相似之处。按照阿毗达摩89种心的分类,无寻无伺的心,除了双五识,其余都是禅那心(色界或无色界心)。在这种意义上,这些内观经验被称作毗婆舍那禅那也是有道理的。《减损经》一开始讲安止定是现法乐住而不是减损烦恼。《减损经讲记》举出了一些误以为禅那为证悟涅槃的例子,提醒人们不要陷入这种错误,这里的对比也是为了避免基于毗婆舍那禅那的类似误判。

Absorption in Insight Meditation 毗婆舍那禅那

Insight meditation and absorption have some characteristics in common. When the practice of mindfulness is well established at the exploratory stage, i.e. knowledge by comprehension(sammasanañāṇa), there are initial application (vitakka), sustained application (vicāra), joy (pīti), bliss(sukha), and one-pointedness (ekaggatā). Thus, whenever the meditator observes any phenomenon, his insight meditation is somewhat like the first absorption with its five characteristics.
内观禅修(毗婆舍那)与禅那有一些共同的特质。在探索阶段,当能很好保持正念现前时,亦即思维智(sammasanañāṇa)阶段,就具有寻、伺、喜、乐和心一境性。因此,每当禅修者对任何现象作观照,他的内观禅修在某种程度上就像具有五禅支的初禅。

When the meditator gains insight-knowledge of the arising and passing away of all phenomena, he is fully aware of an arising object without initial or sustained application. He has intense joy, bliss, and tranquillity, thus his meditation is somewhat like the second absorption with its three attributes.
当禅修者获得生灭随观智时,他无寻无伺地对生起的目标目标全程觉知。他会有强烈的喜、乐和定。所以,他的禅修在某种程度上就像伴有这三个禅支的二禅。

The disappearance of the light, and so forth — the corruptions of insight (upakkilesa) — marks an advance in the insight-knowledge of the arising and passing away of phenomena. Then there is no joy, but bliss is very intense. The mind is tranquil and free from distractions. The meditator has the bliss and one-pointedness that are characteristics of the third absorption.
十种观的染如光等等消失了,表示进入高级的生灭随观智;那时没有喜,只有很强的乐;心寂静远离散乱;禅修具有乐和心一境性,那是三禅的特色。

The higher levels of insight-knowledge such as knowledge of dissolution (bhaṅgañāṇa), wherein the meditator sees only the passing away usually have nothing to do with joy. They are characterised by equanimity and one-pointedness. The former is especially pronounced at the stage of knowledge of equanimity about formations. At this stage the insight meditation is akin to the fourth absorption with its two attributes of equanimity and one-pointedness.
在更高的内观智层次诸如坏灭智,禅修者只看到现象的灭去,通常与乐毫无关系,其特色是舍和心一境性。在行舍智阶段舍特别突出;在此阶段,内观禅修类似于四禅,具有四禅的舍和心一境性。

Furthermore, at times the meditator’s whole body disappears, giving him the impression of being in space. At that moment he is like a person absorbed in ākāsānañcāyatana jhāna. At other times, attention is fixed exclusively on consciousness and then the meditator’s state of consciousness resembles viññāṇañcāyatana jhāna. On occasions, it seems as though he were noting nothingness, a state somewhat like ākiñcaññāyatana jhāna. Sometimes the consciousness may be so transcendental that it becomes non-existent, a state on par with that of nevasaññā-nāsaññāyatana jhāna.
进一步,禅修者有时整个身体消失了,会有在太空的感觉。在那一刻,他像住于空无边处禅那的人一样。另一些时间,注意力完全专注于识,而那时禅修者的心识状态和识无边处禅那相似。有时,他好像在观照空无所有,类似无所有处禅那的状态。有时候,心识可能如此超越以至于变成不存在,对等于非想非非想处禅那的状态。

These characteristics that insight meditation has in common with absorption often leads to complacency, which is an obstacle to spiritual progress. In meditation it is necessary to note these unusual experiences and reject them. In the Sallekha Sutta, the Buddha, after pointing out the misleading nature of absorption, proceeds to spell out the practice of effacement that is calculated to root out defilements.
内观禅修和禅那共有的这些特征,常常导致禅修者自满,形成禅修进展的阻碍。所以禅修时,需要标记这些不寻常的经验并放下它们。在《减损经》中,佛陀指出禅那误导的性质,接着清楚说明减损修行是设计来根除烦恼的。
http://www.aimwell.org/sallekha.html