加拿大 佛陀教法中心 出版
(Buddha Sāsana Yeiktha)
公元 二○○八年 八月
(Sayādaw U Kuṇḍalābhivaṃsa)
- PRACTICAL / WORKING INSTRUCTIONS ON VIPASSANĀ MEDITATION
- Observing and Noting While in the Sitting Posture
- Observing and Noting While in the Walking Posture
- Observing and Noting on the General Details
- Maxims For Recollection
- Short Biography
本书的原作者，是缅甸昆达拉毗旺沙禅师(Sayādaw U Kuṇḍalābhivaṃsa)，又称为沙达马然希禅师 (Saddhammaraṃsi Sayādaw)。「昆达拉」(kuṇḍala)是禅师出家时的巴利法号，字义有「耳环」、「戒指」等环形宝饰之谓。巴利语「阿毗旺沙」(abhivaṃsa)的意思是「胜种」，这是年轻时通过高阶巴利语考试方能够获得的荣誉头衔。巴利语「沙达马然希」的意思，则是「正法光」或「妙法光」，这是禅师所创建、驻锡的禅修中心之名称。
昆达拉毗旺沙禅师是二十世纪内观禅修运动之父——马哈希尊者(Mahāsi Sayādaw, 1904–1982)的著名弟子之一，长久以来一直是仰光马哈希禅修中心总部的「导师」(Nāyaka)之一。生于一九二一年的禅师，九岁时出家，一九四O年受具足戒，曾于不同的著名寺院学习经教，在闻名的梅迪尼林寺教学长达二十年之久。禅师于一九五六年与一九五八年分别通过不同的巴利语考试，先后取得了两个「法阿阇黎」(Dhammācariya)的头衔。禅师于一九七七年跟随马哈希尊者修习毗婆舍那，于一九七八年被任命为禅修指导老师。一九七九年时，禅师在马哈希尊者的祝福下，于仰光市建立了沙达马然希禅修中心。之后，禅师分别于一九九三、一九九四及一九九五年创立了另外三个禅修中心。禅师的缅文著作相当丰富，代表作如《发趣论与毗婆舍那》(二册)。已被英译的著作则有《法的许愿树》(Dhamma Padetha)、《法的宝石》 (Dhamma Ratana)，以及《强化内观行者诸根的九个要素》(The Nine Essential Factors which Strengthen the Indriya of A Vipassanā Meditating Yogi)。
中译本翻译自沙达马然希禅师原著，凯玛南荻(Daw Khemānandi)英译，加拿大「佛陀教法禅修中心」(Buddha Sāsana Yeiktha)于一九九九年出版、流通的Practical/Working Instructions on Vipassana Meditation。
本书的英译者是旅居加拿大的凯玛南荻法师(Sister Khemnānandi)。法师于一九三一年出生在缅甸传统的佛教家庭。一九五二年毕业于仰光大学，一九五五年获得美国宾州大学华顿学院的商业管理硕士学位。法师自一九六二年起便开始自己看书学习禅修，当时她是已有两个小孩的职业妇女。法师第一个正式的禅修老师是著名的韦布尊者(Ven. Webu Sayādaw, 1896–1977)。后来，韦布尊者去世，法师便改而跟随其他长老学习，直到在马哈希念处内观禅法中找到自己的归依处。
法师在一九八○年离开缅甸。在新加坡工作了八年后，于一九八八年移民加拿大。一九九四年时，法师在班迪达禅师(Paṇḍita Sayādaw)的勉励之下，供献出个人的住所，建立了「佛陀教法禅修中心」(The Buddha Sāsana Yeiktha)。一九九六年法师于美国加州「如来禅修中心」(TMC)在班迪达禅师引领下剃度出家，之后便一直担任「佛陀教法中心」的导师。一九九七年，法师到缅甸「沙达马然希禅修中心」接受沙达马然希禅师的指导，密集禅修一年。后来，她又跟随禅师至海外，参加了两次禅修营。在这之后，她又到沙达马然希禅师的禅修中心，进行了两次更密集的禅修训练。
经验不同移动〔即提起、推出之时〕的「轻盈感」，表示体验到了「火界」(tejo dhātu)的特性—冷、热的性质，以及与「风界」 (vāyo dhātu)的特性—移动的性质。经验到〔脚〕下降移动的「沉重感」，表示体验到「地界」 (pathavī dhātu)的特性—粗、硬的性质，以及「水界」(āpodhātu)的特性—流动、凝结的性质。经验这些现象时，表示禅修者开始体验「法」了。关于一步做三个标记，以上的说明，已相当完整。
The Most Ven.
BUDDHA SĀSANA YEIKTHA
Of all those who practice Vipassanā meditation, those who have not experienced the dhamma would like to experience the dhamma very quickly. Those who have experienced the dhamma would like to make further progress in the dhamma quickly. They would like to realise the Noble dhamma quickly. Thus, for those who would like to experience the dhamma quickly, to make progress in the dhamma quickly and to realise the Noble Dhamma quickly, you must first listen to the Practical Instructions in such a way that you will be able to recall them thoroughly when you do your practice. You will have to read and study them. Then only you will reach your goals of realizing the dhamma.
One cannot practice Vipassanā meditation by making physical effort. One cannot do it by making verbal recitations. It has to do with the mental faculty or mind.
Thus, it is absolutely crucial that one knows how to:
- keep the mind directly on the object of meditation with pin-pointed precision
- train the mind so that it does not wander to outside objects
- train the mind not to wander for long as and if it does wander out by proper observing and noting.
To be able to do this, one must read, study, memorize and listen to the Practical Instructions in detail. Thus, I would like to advise all those who would like to practice Vipassanā meditation effectively to specially read and study the Practical Instructions.
PRACTICAL / WORKING INSTRUCTIONS ON VIPASSANĀ MEDITATION
he following is an introductory discourse on the practice of Vipassanā meditation by the Most Ven. Sayādaw of Saddhammaraṃsi Yeiktha (Meditation Centre), given to those yogis who have come to practice Vipassanā meditation at Saddhammaraṃsi Yeiktha Meditation Centre).
Of those who practice Vipassanā meditation, those who have not experienced any dhamma would like to experience the dhamma as quickly as possible. Those who have already experienced some dhamma would like to make quick progress and realise the Noble dhamma quickly. Thus to be able to experience the dhamma quickly, to be able to make progress in the dhamma quickly and to be able to realise the Noble dhamma quickly, you must listen with utmost attention and respect to the following discourse on the practice of Vipassanā Meditation.
In brief, there are three aspects to the “working or practical instructions” on the observing and noting in Vipassanā Meditation.” They are:
- Observing and noting while in the siting posture.
- Observing and noting while in the walking posture.
- Observing and noting on the general details.
I will first explain about observing and noting while in the Sitting Posture. When you are about to do your meditation practice, first you must find a quiet and peaceful place. Then choose the most comfortable posture which will enable you to sit for quite some time. You may sit with your knees bent  under you or sit across-legged. After being settled in your posture, keep your back and head erect but not stiff. Then close your eyes and focus your attention on your abdomen.
When you inhale or breathe in, the abdomen Rises or Expands in stages. You must observe this rising with close and intense attention so that your mind is pinpointed on it from the start of the rising to the end of the rising in its entirety, without letting your mind wander out anywhere and note as: “Rising”.
When you exhale or breathe out, the abdomen Contracts or Falls gradually in stages. You must also observe this with close and intense attention, from the beginning of the falling in stages to the end of the falling with pinpointed precision so that your mind does not wander out anywhere and note as “Falling”.
When observing and noting the rising and falling of the abdomen you should dissociate yourself from the physical shape and from of the abdomen as much as possible. As you inhale the air, there arise some tension and pushing in the inside of the abdomen. You must observe and note closely and intensely so as to be able to feel or know this intension and pushing taking place in the inside, as much as possible. The physical shape and form of the abdomen is Paññatti or Concept. Vipassanā is not for Paññatti (Concepts). It is for Paramattha (truth or true nature). The nature of the pushing, tension, pressure etc. taking place inside is Paramattha. This you must observe and note closely and precisely so as to know it.
You must observe and note as carefully when you breathe out. You must dissociate yourself from the form and shape of the abdomen as much as possible. You must observe and note intensely and precisely to know the nature of the gradual and slow movement, vibration and that of receding, as much as possible.
If you feel that you cannot keep your mind clam by observing and noting with these two objects as “Rising, Falling”, you may add another object and observe and note “Rising, Falling, Touching”.
When observing and noting “touching”, you should dissociate yourself from the physical shape and form as much as possible. You must observe and note closely and intensely on the nature of the hardness and tension from the touching.
If you still cannot concentrate enough and your mind tends to wander with these three objects, then you can add another and observe and note with four objects as “Rising, Falling, Sitting, Touching.”
When you observe and note “sitting”, you must observe and note by encompassing from the upper part of your body down and observe and note closely and intensely so as to feel the nature of the stiffness and tension in the body as much as possible. You must dissociate from the shape and form of the head, body, hands and legs as much as possible. You must observe the nature of the tension and pressure produced by the support of the air which has been set in motion by the desire of the intentional mind to sit and note as “sitting”.
When you observe and note with four objects as “Rising, Falling, Sitting, Touching”, your mind will usually become calm. If you find observing and noting as “Rising, Falling, Sitting, Touching” with the four objects is helpful, you may continue with such noting. However, if you find that observing and noting with four objects as such puts your mind in so much strain and worry that you cannot concentrate well, you may want to observe and note with just three objects as: “Rising, Falling, Touching”. If you still find that noting even with three objects, is not helping you because of the worry and strain, you may observe and note with just  two objects as “Rising and Falling.” The main objective is to calm the mind and develop concentration.
As a beginner, while noting “Rising, Falling, Sitting, Touching”, your mind may wander out here and there – to the monastery or temples, to the shopping centres, to the house, etc. When your mind wanders out in this way, you must also make your observing and noting mind observe and note this wandering mind as “wandering, thinking, planning etc.”
As your Samādhi (concentration) and Ñāṇa (Insight) becomes relatively strong, you will find that your wandering thoughts disappear as you observe and note “wandering, thinking, planning, etc.” As you continue observing and noting continuously as such, you will come to experience for yourself that the wandering thoughts disappear and pass away after about four or five such observing and noting.
Later, as you progress further in your Samādhi (concentration) and Ñāṇa (Insight) and reach the Insight knowledge known as “The Knowledge of Dissolution (Bhaṅga-ñāṇa)”, as you observe and note “wandering, thinking, planning”, you will find the thinking, planning disappearing with each observing and noting, you will find them passing away with each observing and noting by yourself.
When your Samādhi (concentration) and Ñāṇa (Insight) get really strong, when you observe and note “thinking, planning”, you will come to see not only the thoughts disappearing but the observing and noting mind that observes and notes it also disappearing. Thus you will come to realise that the thoughts, thinking, planning etc. are not everlasting. So also the observing and noting mind is not everlasting. They are Anicca.
One also comes to realise that such swift and rapid  succession of arising and passing away is like torture. This is suffering or Dukkha. How can one ward off the nature of these torture-like sufferings, the nature of this suffering of arising and passing away? These sufferings cannot be warded off in any way. This suffering of passing away and torture is having its own course. It is Uncontrollable. They are Anatta. Thus one comes to the realisation or Insight (Ñāṇa) into the truth about Anicca (Impermanence), Dukkha (Suffering) and being Uncontrollable —Anatta.
For the beginner yogi, as you go on observing and noting “Rising, Falling, Sitting, Touching” for about half an hour or 45 minutes, you will notice that your limbs start to ache, tingle or become painful, etc. When such occurs you have to change your observing and noting to such suffering aches and pain, Dukkha Vedanā.
There are three ways to observe and note such suffering from pain or Dukkha Vedanā:
- The first is to observe and note on the pain with the objective of making the pain disappear.
- The second is to make a determination with an aggressive mind to fight the pain so as to get rid of it within this one sitting or within this one day.
- The third is to observe and note so as to know the true nature of the pain.
(1) Observing and noting with the objective of wanting to be relieved of the pain as in the first way means that one is actually craving for the pleasure of having no pain. That means one is having greed (Lobha) for pleasure. The practice of meditation is to rid oneself of greed. Instead one’s observing and noting is now sandwiched with greed (Lobha). Because of this, it will take long for one to experience the dhamma, take long to make progress. That is  why one should not observe and note in this way.
(2) The second way where you determine yourself to get rid of the pain in one sitting or one day with an aggressive mind is that the aggressive mind means there is the mental factor of anger (Dosa) and grief (Domanassa) involved. In other words, the determination is tainted with anger and grief. This means the observation and noting is sandwiched with anger and grief. Thus one will take long to experience the dhamma and take long to make progress. That is why one should not adopt this method also.
(3) The third way is to observe and note the pain so that you will come to know the true nature of the pain. This is the way to observe and note. Only when one comes to know the true nature, will Udaya, the arising, and Vaya ,passing away, be seen.
To be able to observe and note so that one will come to know the nature: when pain occurs, yogis usually tend to become tense both in body and mind in accordance with the intensity of the pain. One should try not to tense up in this way. One should try to relax both in body and mind. Yogis also tend to worry about “whether one will have to endure the pain the whole time or during this whole hour”. You must be careful not to have such worries.
You should keep yourself calm and adopt the attitude that “Pain will come and go at its own will and my duty is to keep observing and noting the pain”. You must also adopt the attitude that you will practice “patience” with the pain. To practice patience is the most crucial element in dealing with pain. The saying (in Myanmar) that “Patience leads to Nibbāna” is the most useful maxim in mindfulness meditation.
After making a determination that you will be patient, keep your mind calm and relaxed. You must be careful not to get  tensed up in both body and mind. Keep both your mind and body relatively relaxed. Then you must pinpoint your mind direct on the pain.
After that you must try to observe intensely and closely to know the extent and intensity of the pain – how painful is it? Where is the pain most crucial – just on the flesh or skin, or muscles or right down in the bones or bone-marrow? Only after so observing intensely and closely that you should note as “pain, tingling, etc.” according to each type of pain.
The second and successive observation and noting must also be made intensely and precisely in the same way, observing on the extent and intensity of the pain and noting accordingly each successive pain. The observation and noting of the pain should be precise and penetrative and not superficial and note as “pain, pain, tingling, tingling, etc.” in a fast and rote manner. Your observing and noting must be intense and precise. As you keep observing and noting precisely and intensely in this way, you will come to experience very clearly that after four or five observing and noting, these pains and aches become more and more severe.
After reaching a peak, the pain will tend to lessen and recede following its own course. When this occurs, you should not relax your observation and noting. Instead you should continue observing and noting earnestly and enthusiastically on each type of pain. You will then experience for yourself that after every four or five observing and noting, each type of pain becomes less and less. One type of pain will become less and less, then another type of pain becomes less and less and the pain also shifting to another location.
When the yogi sees the changing nature of pain as such, the yogi becomes more interested in the observing and noting in the practice. Continuing in this way, as the Samādhi (concentration) and Ñāṇa (Insight) gets sharper and stronger, you will experience the pain increasing with each observing  and noting.
After reaching a peak, the pain usually recedes in its own course. One must not relax the intensity of one’s observing and noting when the pain starts to subside. Instead, one must continue with the same intensity of effort and precise aim. Then one will become to experience by oneself, the pain receding with each observing and noting and the pain changing locations and arising at another location. Thus one will come to realise that pain is not everlasting, it is always changing. It increases as well as decreases. In this way one comes to know more about the real nature of pain.
Continuing observing and noting in this way, when the Samādhi (concentration) and Ñāṇa (Insight) become strong and reach the level of Insight known as “Bhaṅga-ñāṇa – The Knowledge of Dissolution” one will experience, as if seeing clearly by one’s own naked eyes, that pain passes away completely with each observing and noting, as if being suddenly plucked away.
Thus when the yogi sees the passing away with each observing and noting, the yogi comes to realise that pain is not permanent. One’s observing and noting mind has now overwhelmed the pain.
With further deepening of Samādhi (concentration) and Ñāṇa (Insight), those whose Insight Knowledge of “Bhaṅga-ñāṇa – Knowledge of Dissolution” are sharp, are able to experience with each observing and noting, not only the pain but also the observing and noting mind passing away with it.
In the case of those whose Insight knowledge are exceptionally sharp, they will see distinctly three phases passing away. That is, as one observes and notes “pain”, the pain passes away, the consciousness that cognises the pain passes away and also the observing and noting mind passes  away. One comes to experience all of them by oneself.
Thus one comes to realise in one’s consciousness (mind) and Ñāṇa (Insight) by one’s own accord, that pain is not everlasting or permanent, neither does the consciousness or feeling of the pain nor the observing and noting mind. That it is Anicca.
The quick succession of passing away or dissolution is like torture, suffering – Dukkha. These torture and passing away cannot be controlled or warded off. It is taking its own course. It is Anatta, Uncontrollable. Thus one realises these truths in one’s conscious mind and Ñāṇa (Insight) by one’s own accord.
When one comes to realise in one’s conscious mind that pain is Anicca – Impermanent, Pain is Dukkha – Suffering, Pain is Anattta – Uncontrollable and when one’s Insight into Anicca, Dukkha and Anatta are explicit, thorough and conclusive, one will be able to realise the Noble dhamma that one has been wishing and aspiring for. My explanation on the observation and noting of Vedanā (painful feelings) is fairly complete.
Observing and Noting on Hearing
While doing your practice, you may hear sounds from the outside. You may also see or smell things. You may especially hear sounds – like the sounds of cocks, birds, hammering & beating sounds, people, cars, etc. When you hear such sounds, you must observe and note as: “hearing, hearing”. You must try so as to be able to pay only “bare” attention to the sounds. That is, you must try not to let your mind follow these sounds or let yourself be carried away by imagining about them. You must take care to let it be just “bare” hearing and observe and note as “hearing, hearing”.
When your Samādhi (concentration) and Ñāṇa (Insight) get relatively strong, as you observe and note “hearing, hearing”, the sounds may become unintelligible, as if from far away, or as if being carried far away, or getting nearer or become hoarse and not clear. If you experience such, that means you will now be able to observe and note on your hearing consciousness.
As you go on observing and noting in this way and your concentration and Insight get stronger, you will experience that as you observe and note “hearing, hearing” the sounds disappear syllable by syllable, the sounds pass away syllable by syllable, the hearing consciousness (that hears the sound) passes away, one by one, and the observing and noting mind that observes and notes the sound also passes away. Yogis whose insight knowledge are sharp are able to experience them very clearly and distinctly.
What is specially evident is that, even those yogis who are beginners in observing and noting sounds are able to experience distinctly the sounds disappearing syllable by syllable. The sounds are not connected to each other anymore. They disappear syllable by syllable. For example, when one hears the sound of the word “Gentleman” and observe and note as “hearing, hearing”, you will experience the sound of the syllable “Gen” pass away separately, the sound “tle” passing away separately and the sound “man” passing away separately. Thus they are heard in such broken sequence that the meaning of the word becomes obscure and unintelligible. Only the passing away of the sounds in broken sequence becomes evident.
When you experience the sounds passing away, you will come to realise that the sound is not permanent. When you experience the observing and noting mind also passing away, you will realise that the observing and noting mind is also not permanent. Thus you will realise that the sound that is heard is not permanent nor is the observing and noting  mind permanent. That is Anicca. The quick succession of such passing away is like torture – suffering (Dukkha).
How can one ward off these torture and suffering? One cannot stop or ward this off. This torture of passing away is taking its own course, it is Uncontrollable or Anatta. Thus while observing and noting “hearing, hearing” one will be able to realise the Insight knowledge (Ñāṇa) of Anicca, Dukkha and Anatta and realise the Noble Dhamma.
While Obsering and Noting in the Sitting posture
Observing and noting in the sitting posture as “Rising, Falling, Sitting, Touching” has to do with the physical body or Kāya. So, it is known as Kāyānupassanā Satipaṭṭhāna. Observing and noting as “Pain, numbness or aching” has to do with the feelings (feelings of the physical sensations) or Vedanā, so it is known as Vedanāupassanā Satipaṭṭhāna. Observing and noting on the conscious mind as “wandering, planning, thinking, etc.” has to do with the mind or acts of consciousness— Citta, so it is known as Cittānupassanā Satipaṭṭhāna. Observing and noting as “seeing, hearing, smelling, etc.” has to do with the nature of physical or mental objects known as dhamma. So, it is known as Dhammānupassnā Satipaṭṭhāna.
Thus while practicing in one sitting posture as instructed by our benefactor, the Ven Mahāsi Sayādaw, there is included all the four practices of Satipaṭṭāna. My explanation on the sitting posture is fairly complete.
Now I will explain to you how to observe and note while in the walking posture. There are four ways of observing or noting in the walking posture. They are:
- Observing and making one noting with one step.
- Observing and making two noting with one step.
- Observing and making three noting with one step.
- Observing and making six noting with one step.
Observing and Making One Noting with One Step
In this way, one has to observe and make note of the step as one movement as: “Left step, Right step”.
When you observe and note “Left step” you must observe and note intensely and closely so that you will come to know the nature of the forward movement in stages, from the beginning of the step to the end of the step. You must try to dissociate from the physical form and shape of the foot as much as possible. Similarly with the “Right step”. You must observe and note intensely and closely so that you will come to know the nature of the forward movement in stages, from the beginning of the step to the end of the step. You must try to dissociate from the physical form and shape of the foot as much as possible. My explanation on making one noting with one step as “left step, right step” is fairly complete.
Observing and Making Two Noting with One Step
In this 2nd way, you observe and make note of the step as two movements as: “Lifting, Dropping, Lifting, Dropping”. You must focus on the nature of the gradual upward movement, movement by movement, as much as possible as you observe and note “lifting”. Again you must dissociate from the physical form and shape of the foot as much as possible. Similarly, when you note “Dropping” you must dissociate from the physical form and shape of the foot as much as possible and observe keenly and intensely to know the nature of the gradual downward movement, movement by movement. 
The physical form and shape of the foot is Paññatti — concept. Concepts are not objects of Vipassanā. The nature of motion or movement is Paramattha — truth or true nature. It is Vāyo Paramattha. My explanation on making two nothing with one step is fairly complete.
Observing and Making Three Nothing with One Step
This 3rd way is to observe and note as three movements in one step as: “Lifting, Pushing Forward, Dropping”. When you observe and note “lifting,” you must observe and note closely and intensely to know the nature of the gradual upward movement in stages as much as possible as explained above. When you observe and note as “Pushing Forward”, you must observe and note closely and intensely to know the nature of the gradual forward movement in stages as much as possible. When you observe and note “Dropping,” you must observe and note closely and intensely to know the nature of the gradual downward movement in stages, as much as possible.
When so observing and noting closely and keenly all these movements, you must observe and note in such a way that you are right with the “present movement” of the momentum (duration) of the movement (Santati Paccuppanna). You must also observe and note closely and intensely to know the nature of the movement, Paramaitha. When you are able to observe and note “Lifting”, you will come to experience by yourself not only the gradual upward movement, movement by movement, but also that it becomes lighter and lighter as it moves upward.
As you observe and note “Pushing Forward” also in this way, you will come to experience not only the gradual forward movement, movement by movement, but also that it becomes light as it moves forward. When you observe  and note “dropping” also in this way, you will not only experience the gradual downward movement, movement by movement, but also that it becomes heavier and heavier as it goes down.
When a yogi experiences the sensation of lightness in the gradual upward movement as he/she observes and notes “lifting”, the sensation of lightness in the gradual forward movement as he/she observes and notes “pushing forward”, the sensation of heaviness in the gradual downward movement as he/she observes and notes “dropping,” the yogi becomes especially interested in his/her practices. It means experiencing the beginning of the dhamma for the yogi.
Experiencing lightness in the different movements means experiencing the characteristics of Tejo Dhātu — element of heat & cold and Vāyo Dhātu — element of motion or movement. Experiencing heaviness in the downward movement means experiencing the characteristics of Paṭhavī Dhātu — element of extension, toughness or hardness, and Āpo Dhātu — element of cohesion and fluidity. Experiencing such means experiencing the beginning of the Noble dhamma. My explanation of three noting with one step is also fairly complete.
Observing and Making Six Noting with One Step
The 4th way is to make note as six movements in one step as: “Beginning to Lift, End of Lifting; Beginning to Push Forward, End of Pushing Forward; Beginning to drop, End of Dropping”. “Beginning to lift” means only the heel has been raised. “End of lifting” means the whole foot together with the toes has been raised. “Beginning to push forward” means the foot has just “started” to push forward. “End of pushing forward” means the stage of the foot that is in short pause before descending. “Beginning to drop” means the beginning stage of descending or dropping. “End of dropping” means when the foot touches the ground or floor. Actually this is just dividing the three movements in one  step into six as: beginning and ending”.
Another way is to observe and note as: “Wanting to lift, Lifting; Wanting to push forward, pushing forward; Wanting to drop, dropping”. In this type of observing and noting, the mental phenomena, Nāma (Wanting to…) and physical phenomena, Rūpa (lifting, etc.) are observed and noted separately.
Still another way is to observe and note as: “Lifting, Raising; Pushing Forward; Dropping, Touching, Pressing”. When you observe and note “Lifting” it is the stage where only the heel starts to lift. “Raising” means the whole foot together with the toes is raised. “Pushing Forward” means pushing the foot forward as just one movement. “Dropping” means starting to put the foot down. “Touching” means when the foot touches the ground or floor. “Pressing” means pressing the foot in order to lift the other foot. Thus you will note as: Lifting, Raising, Pushing Forward, Dropping, Touching, Pressing” in six movements. Many yogis are able to develop their Samādhi (Concentration) and Ñāṇa (Insight) by noting with such six movements and make progress in their observing and noting. They are able to realize the dhamma in a very distinctive way. My explanation of observing and noting on the walking posture is fairly complete.
Observing and noting on the general details means it is not the time for the sitting posture. It is also not the time for the walking posture. They are the little details that you do when you return to your living quarters such as: opening door, closing the door, making the bed, changing clothes, washing clothes, preparing meals, eating, drinking, etc. and observing and noting them. 
§3.1 Observing and Noting while Having Meal
The moment you see the meal, you observe and note “seeing, seeing”. When you stretch your hand to reach the food, observe and note “stretching, stretching”. When you touch the food, observe and note “touching, touching“. When you collect and arrange your food, observe and note “arranging, arranging”. When you bring it to your mouth, observe and note “bringing, bringing”. When you bend your head to take the food, observe and note “bending, bending”. When you open your mouth, observe and note “opening, opening.” When you put the food in your mouth observe and note “putting, putting”. When you raise your head again, observe and note “raising, raising”. When you chew, observe and note “chewing, chewing”. When you are aware of the taste observe and note “knowing, knowing”. When you swallow, observe and note “swallowing, swallowing”.
These instructions are in accordance with the way our benefactor, the Ven. Mahāsi Sayādaw, observes and notes while taking a morsel of food. They are meant for those yogis who take their practice seriously and also practice incessantly, without a gap, and respectfully and intensely.
At the beginning of the practice you will not be able to observe and note all the movements. You will forget to note most of the movements, but you must not be discouraged. Later when your concentration and Insight become mature, you will be able to observe and note all the movements.
At the beginning of the practice, you must first try to focus on the most distinctive movement for you as your main object. What is the most distinctive movement for you? If stretching you hand is the most distinctive movement, then you must try to observe and note “stretching, stretching” without missing or forgetting. If bending your head is most distinct, try to observe and note “bending, bending” without  missing or forgetting. If chewing is most distinct try to observe and note “chewing, chewing” without missing or forgetting. You should thus try to observe and note at least one distinctive movement as you main object without missing or forgetting.
Once you can focus your mind on one object closely and precisely in this way and develop concentration, you will be able to focus and observe and note other movements and develop further Samādhi (concentration) and Ñāṇa (Insight). Various levels of Vipassanā Insight will consequently unfold and one can realize the Noble Dhamma while taking your meal.
The chewing movement is especially more distinctive. Our benefactor, the Ven. Mahāsi Sayādaw, has once said that of the two jaws, it is the lower jaw that is involved in the chewing movement. This movement of the lower jaw is actually what we call “chewing” in our Burmese vocabulary.
If you can observe and note this gradual movement of the jaw well and develop concentration, you will find the observing and noting on the chewing movement to be especially good. Beginning with this chewing movement you will also be able to observe and note all the movements involved in taking a meal. My explanation on how to note the general details in taking a meal is fairly complete.
Observing and Noting on the Motion of Sitting Down
Observing and noting on such behaviors as “sitting standing, bending, stretching” are also part of observing and noting the general details. For those who have reasonable foundations of Samādhi (concentration) and Ñāṇa (Insight), if one is especially aware, the “desire of intention to sit” when one is about to sit down will be quite evident. Thus one must observe and note this intention or desire as  “wanting to sit, wanting to sit”. Then when the actual movement of sitting occurs, one must observe and note “sitting, sitting.”
When you observe and note “sitting” try to dissociate from the form of head, body, legs, etc. as much as possible. You must observe and note closely and intensely on the nature of the gradual downward movement, movement by movement, as much as possible. You must also observe and note in such a way that your mind stays pinpointed on the momentum of the “present moment” of the downward movement, moment by moment.
You must also observe and note very closely and precisely to be able to know the true nature (Paramattha) of the movement. After you are able to observe and note closely and intensely and are able to pinpoint your observing and noting mind on the “momentum of the present moment” of the movement, as you observe and note “sitting, sitting” you will realise by yourself clearly that you not only come to know the gradual downward movement but are also able to feel the sensation of getting heavier and heavier as it moves downwards.
Observing and Noting on the Motion of Standing up Again.
When you are about to get up or stand up after sitting, if you are especially mindful, the “desire or intention to get up” will first become evident. You must observe and note this intention as “wanting to get up, wanting to get up”. This desire to get up sets in motion Vāyo Dhātu — the element of motion, which pushes you up. As you bend forward to collect your energy to get up, you must observe and note as “collecting energy, collecting energy”. When you stretch your hand to the side for support observe and note “supporting, supporting”.
When the body becomes filled with energy, it will gradually  rise upwards in stages. This upward movement, we call standing up/ getting up in our Burmese vocabulary. We observe and note this as “standing up, standing up”. A vocabulary is also Paññatti (Concept). What we must know is the nature of the gradual upward movement, movement by movement, as much as possible. We must also observe and note intensely and precisely so as to be with the momentum of the “present moment” of the movement of the gradual upward movement.
When you are thus able to observe and note closely, intensely and precisely to be with the momentum of the present moment and to also know the nature of the Paramattha, when you observe and note as “standing standing”, as the body reaches higher up, in addition to knowing the gradual upward movement in stages, you will come to experience by yourself, the sensation of lightness as it rises upward.
In this way, you will come to experience by yourself the sensation of heaviness with the gradual movement downwards as you observe and note “sitting” and the sensation of lightness with the gradual movement upwards as you observe and note “getting up”. Experiencing the sensation of lightness in the upward movement means seeing the nature of “Tejo Dhātu and Vāyo Dhātu”. Experiencing the sensation of heaviness in the downward movement means seeing the nature of “Paṭhavī Dhātu and Āpo Dhātu.”
Seeing the Arising and Passing Away.
Motto: Only when the nature is known, Udaya-vaya will be seen.
After coming to know the nature of the particular phenomena, one will come to know Udaya — the arising and Vaya — the passing away. That is, one will come to see  the arising and passing away of each movement, from moment to moment. There is the arising of one movement and its passing away, then another arising of the movement and its passing away, and on and on. Seeing clearly the arising and passing away is Saṅkhata-lakkhaṇa (compound or conditioned characteristics of all mental and physical phenomena).
Continuing observing and noting after seeing the arising and passing away in this way, when one’s concentration and insight become strong, you will find the arising not so distinct anymore. Only the dissolution or passing away is distinct. Experiencing the passing away more distinctly, one comes to realize that no bodily behavior is permanent. Then when one sees clearly the noting mind also passing away, one will come to realise that the noting mind is also not permanent. Both the mental (Nāma) dhamma and physical (Rūpa) dhamma are impermanent, that they are Anicca.
The swift and rapid succession of passing away is like torture. Suffering — Dukkha; that such passing away or dissolution and torture cannot be stopped or warded off, that it is taking place at its own will. Uncontrollable — Anatta. When one’s insight knowledge of this Anicca, Dukkha and Anatta becomes very explicit, thorough and conclusive, one will be able to realise the Noble Dhamma that one has been wishing and aspiring for.
Thus while observing and noting “sitting” and “standing up”, one will come to realise the general or common characteristics of Anicca, Dukkha and Anatta called Sāmañña-lakkhaṇa. When one is clear, explicit, thorough and conclusive about this Sāmañña-lakkhaṇa, one will be able to realize the Noble Dhamma that one has been wishing and aspiring for. 
Observing and Noting on Bending and Stretching
Observing and noting on bending and stretching are also part of observing and noting the general details. When you have to bend your arm, if you are especially mindful, the “desire” to bend will first become prominent. Thus you must observe and notes as “wanting to bend, wanting to bend”. After that, you must observe and note closely and attentively to know the nature of the gradual movement of the bending behavior as it bends as much as possible. Here also one will be able to experience the sensation of lightness as it moves upward by oneself. Here also one will be able to experience the sensation of lightness with the upward movement.
When one wants to stretch the arm back after taking care of whatever need to be taken care of by bending, the “desire” to stretch will also become evident first. You must observe and note this desire as “wanting to stretch, wanting to stretch”. When the actual behavior of the stretching occurs, observe and note as “stretching, stretching”. This nature of the outward and downward movement of the arm, we call “stretching” in our Burmese vocabulary. As you observe and note “stretching, stretching”, you will also experience the sensation of heaviness as it falls downward by yourself.
The characteristics of lightness and heaviness are called Sabhāva-lakkhaṇa (specific or particular mark or characteristics of mental and physical phenomena).
Motto: Only when the nature is known, Udaya-vaya will be seen.
Continuing observing and noting in this way, one will come to experience that the lightness and heaviness in the nature of the movement arise and pass away. This knowing of arising and passing away is knowing Saṅkhata-lakkhaṇa (compound or conditioned characteristics). 
Later, as one reaches the level of Insight of Bhaṅga- ñāṇa — Knowledge of Dissolution — and sees the dissolution or passing away, one comes to realise that: the behaviour of bending is not everlasting and the noting mind on the bending behaviour is also not everlasting; the behaviour of stretching is also not everlasting, nor the noting mind on the stretching behavior everlasting by yourself.
Thus while bending and stretching, one can have a clear, explicit, thorough and conclusive knowledge of the characteristics of Anicca, Dukkha and Anatta and realize the Noble Dhamma that one has been wishing and aspiring for.
Thus having listened today to the three aspects on the Practical Instructions on Vipassanā Meditation, may you be able to follow, practice and develop accordingly and may you be able to realize the Noble Dhamma that you have been wishing and aspiring for, and realize the peace of Nibbāna — the extinction of all suffering — swiftly, with ease of practice.
Yogis: May we be fulfilled with the Ven. Sayādaw’s blessings. Sadhu! Sadhu! Sadhu! 
☼ Observing and noting on the object of Paññatti as permanent is Samatha.
☼ Observing and noting on the object of Paramattha as impermanent is Vipassanā.
☼ Only when observing and noting is made at the very present moment of arising, will Sabhāva be really known.
☼ Only when the nature is known, will Udaya-vaya be seen.
☼ All arising physical and mental phenomena must be explicitly observed and noted as ending inevitably in passing away or dissolution.
☼ When the passing away or dissolution is known, Anicca will be explicitly known.
☼ When Anicca is seen, Dukkha becomes evident.
☼ When Dukkha is evident, Anatta is seen.
☼ Seeing Anatta, Nibbāna will be realized.
Ven. Saddhammaraṃsi Sayādaw, Sayādaw U Kundalā bhivamsa, a senior disciple of the late Most Ven. Mahāsi Sayādaw, is the founder and Chief Abbot of Saddhammaraṃsi Medi-tation Centre in Myan- mar. He is also a Mahāsi Nāyaka (one of chief advisory Sayādaws of the main Mahāsi Centre in Myanmar).
The Ven. Sayādaw entered the monastery at the age of nine & studied at various well known monasteries in Myanmar. The Ven. Sayādaw holds three Dhamma Lectureships & taught at the well known Maydini Forest Monastery for twenty years. After training under the late Most Ven. Mahāsi Sayādaw, the Ven. Sayādaw founded the Saddhammaraṃsi Meditation Centre in 1979, with the blessing of the late Most Ven. Mahāsi Sayādaw. The Centre has about 200 yogis daily. Sayādaw has since established 2 branches in the country side & one in the suburbs. Sayādaw has published many dhamma books and has traveled throughout Europe, U.K., U.S., Canada, Australia, Japan & the East. The Ven. Sayādaw holds the title of Agga Mahā Kammaṭṭhanācariya awarded by the government of Myanmar.