摩罗迦子经

摩罗加子经(鬘童子经)

metta按:这篇经里面佛陀简要开示:在你所见闻觉知的对象上面,见只是见,闻只是闻,觉只是觉,知只是知。按这样修就可以证得阿罗汉果。传统的翻译‘见只是见’按巴利文的直译就是‘在所见中将只有所见的那么多’。马哈希尊者非常重视这篇经,为了信众的证悟四十年间反复讲解了这篇经。此经一开始佛陀提示摩罗迦子尊者不需观照没有见闻觉知的东西,从而让摩罗迦子尊者明白只需在见闻觉知的法上保持正念就可以断除烦恼成就阿罗汉。我们明白这一点,就能够对当今一些误导性的教导有免疫力。在见闻觉知上没有正念,就会积聚苦,而保持正念苦就减少,这是直接可操作的灭苦之道,是缘起法还灭们的实际操作,是内观修行的精髓。

相应部35相应95经/摩罗迦子经
 

那时,尊者摩罗迦子去见世尊,……(中略)在一旁坐好后,尊者摩罗迦子对世尊这么说:
「大德!请世尊简要地教导我法,我听闻世尊的法后,能住于独处、隐退、不放逸、热心、自我努力,那就好了!」
「摩罗迦子!这里,现在,我们将对年轻的比丘说,实在是因为你已衰老、已年老、高龄、年迈、已到了老人期的比丘,请求什么简要的教诫呢?」
「大德!虽然我已衰老,已年老,高龄,年迈,已到了老人期,大德!请世尊简要地教导我法,请善逝简要地教导我法,也许我能了知世尊所讲述的义理,也许我能成为世尊所讲述的继承人。」
「摩罗迦子!你怎么想:你对那些能被眼识知而未曾见过、以前未曾见过、你未看见、你不可能看见的色,有欲,或贪,或情爱吗?」
「不,大德!」
「你对那些能被耳识知而未曾听过、以前未曾听过、你未听、你不可能听的声音,有欲,或贪,或情爱吗?」
「不,大德!」
「你对那些能被鼻识知而未曾闻过、以前未曾闻过、你未闻、你不可能闻的气味,有欲,或贪,或情爱吗?」
「不,大德!」
「你对那些能被舌识知而未曾尝过、以前未曾尝过、你未尝、你不可能尝的味道,有欲,或贪,或情爱吗?」
「不,大德!」
「你对那些能被身识知而未曾接触过、以前未曾接触过、你未接触、你不可能接触的所触,有欲,或贪,或情爱吗?」
「不,大德!」
「你对那些能被意识知而未曾了知过、以前未曾了知过、你未了知、你不可能了知的法,有欲,或贪,或情爱吗?」
「不,大德!」
「摩罗迦子!这里,在你所见、所听、所觉知、所能了知的法上,在所见中将只有所见这么多;在所听中将只有所听这么多;在所觉知中将只有所觉知这么多;在所了知中将只有所了知这么多,摩罗迦子!当在你所见、所听、所觉知、所能了知的法上,在所见中将只有所见这么多;在所听中将只有所听这么多;在所觉知中将只有所觉知这么多;在所了知中将只有所了知这么多,摩罗迦子!则你不被它如何如何,摩罗迦子!当你不被它如何如何,摩罗迦子!则你不在那里,摩罗迦子!当你不在那里,摩罗迦子!则你也不在这里、不在其他地方、不在两者的中间,这就是苦的结束。」

「大德!我了知这世尊简要所说的详细义理:

『见色之后失去正念,作意可爱相,
以贪着之心感受它,持续黏着它。
许多感受由此繁衍;从[所见]之色生起,
贪婪与恼怒[亦然],心被此损害,
这样累积着苦,涅槃被说在远方。

听声音后失去正念,作意可爱相,
以贪着之心感受它,持续黏着它。
许多感受由此繁衍;从[所听]声音生起,
贪婪与恼怒[亦然],心被此损害,
这样累积着苦,涅槃被说在远方。

嗅气味后失去正念,作意可爱相,
以贪着之心感受它,持续黏着它。
许多感受由此繁衍;从[所嗅]气味生起,
贪婪与恼怒[亦然],心被此损害,
这样累积着苦,涅槃被说在远方。

尝味之后失去正念,作意可爱相,
以贪着之心感受它,持续黏着它。
许多感受由此繁衍;从[所尝]味道生起,
贪婪与恼怒[亦然],心被此损害,
这样累积着苦,涅槃被说在远方。

触摸触后失去正念,作意可爱相,
以贪着之心感受它,持续黏着它。
许多感受由此繁衍;从[所触之]触生起,
贪婪与恼怒[亦然],心被此损害,
这样累积着苦,涅槃被说在远方。

意识到法后失去正念,作意可爱相,
以贪着之心感受它,持续黏着它。
许多感受由此繁衍;从[所意识到的]法生起,
贪婪与恼怒[亦然],心被此损害,
这样累积着苦,涅槃被说在远方。

当持念见色后,他不在色上被染着,
以离贪着之心感受它,持续不黏着它。
见色如其存在那样,经历感受亦然,
它灭去而非积聚,如此他是俱念的行者,
这样减少着苦,涅槃被说在面前。

当持念听声音后,他不在声音上被染着,
以离贪着之心感受它,持续不黏着它。
闻声如其存在那样,经历感受亦然,
它灭去而非积聚,如此他是俱念的行者,
这样减少着苦,涅槃被说在面前。

当持念嗅气味后,他不在气味上被染着,
以离贪着之心感受它,持续不黏着它。
嗅气味如其存在那样,经历感受亦然,
它灭去而非积聚,如此他是俱念的行者,
这样减少着苦,涅槃被说在面前。

当持念受用味道后,他不在味道上被染着,
以离贪着之心感受它,持续不黏着它。
尝味道如其存在那样,经历感受亦然,
它灭去而非积聚,如此他是俱念的行者,
这样减少着苦,涅槃被说在面前。

当持念接触了触后,他不在触上被染着,
以离贪着之心感受它,持续不黏着它。
接触触如其存在那样,经历感受亦然,
它灭去而非积聚,如此他是俱念的行者,
这样减少着苦,涅槃被说在面前。

当持念意识到法后,他不在法上被染着,
以离贪着之心感受它,持续不黏着它。
了知法如其存在那样,经历感受亦然,
它灭去而非积聚,如此他是俱念的行者,
这样减少着苦,涅槃被说在面前。』

大德!我这样了知这世尊简要所说的详细义理。」

「摩罗迦子!好!好!摩罗迦子!好!摩罗迦子!你了知我简要所说的详细义理:
『见色后忘失正念,作意可爱相,
以贪着之心感受它,持续黏着它。
许多感受由此繁衍;从[所见]色生起,
贪婪与恼怒[亦然],心被此损害,
这样累积着苦,涅槃被说在远方。
……(中略)
当持念意识到法后,他不在法上被染着,
以离贪着之心感受它,持续不黏着它。
了知法如其存在那样,经历感受亦然,
它灭去而非积聚,如此他是俱念的行者,
这样减少着苦,涅槃被说在面前。』

摩罗迦子!我简要所说的详细义理应该被这样理解。」
那时,尊者摩罗迦子欢喜、随喜世尊所说后,起座向世尊问讯,然后作右绕,接着离开。
那时,当尊者摩罗迦子住于独处、隐退、不放逸、热心、自我努力时,不久,以证智自作证后,在当生中进入后住于那善男子之所以从在家而正确地出家,成为非家生活的梵行无上目标,他证知:「出生已尽,梵行已完成,应该作的已作,不再有这样[轮回]的状态了。」
尊者摩罗迦子成为众阿罗汉之一。

(根據莊春江居士的譯本略作修改)

经文巴利原文
SN.35.95/(2). Mālukyaputtasuttaṃ
95. Atha kho āyasmā mālukyaputto yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami …pe… ekamantaṃ nisinno kho āyasmā mālukyaputto bhagavantaṃ etadavoca– “sādhu me, bhante, bhagavā saṃkhittena dhammaṃ desetu, yamahaṃ bhagavato dhammaṃ sutvā eko vūpakaṭṭho appamatto ātāpī pahitatto vihareyyan”ti.
“Ettha dāni, mālukyaputta, kiṃ dahare bhikkhū vakkhāma! Yatra hi nāma tvaṃ, bhikkhu, jiṇṇo vuddho mahallako addhagato vayo-anuppatto saṃkhittena ovādaṃ yācasī”ti.
“Kiñcāpāhaṃ, bhante, jiṇṇo vuddho mahallako addhagato vayo-anuppatto. Desetu me, bhante bhagavā saṃkhittena dhammaṃ, desetu sugato saṃkhittena dhammaṃ, appeva nāmāhaṃ bhagavato bhāsitassa atthaṃ ājāneyyaṃ. Appeva nāmāhaṃ bhagavato bhāsitassa dāyādo assan”ti.
“Taṃ kiṃ maññasi, mālukyaputta, ye te cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā adiṭṭhā adiṭṭhapubbā, na ca passasi, na ca te hoti passeyyanti? Atthi te tattha chando vā rāgo vā pemaṃ vā”ti? “No hetaṃ, bhante”.

“Ye te sotaviññeyyā saddā assutā assutapubbā, na ca suṇāsi, na ca te hoti suṇeyyanti? Atthi te tattha chando vā rāgo vā pemaṃ vā”ti? “No hetaṃ, bhante”.
“Ye te ghānaviññeyyā gandhā aghāyitā aghāyitapubbā, na ca ghāyasi, na ca te hoti ghāyeyyanti? Atthi te tattha chando vā rāgo vā pemaṃ vā”ti? “No hetaṃ, bhante”.
“Ye te jivhāviññeyyā rasā asāyitā asāyitapubbā, na ca sāyasi, na ca te hoti sāyeyyanti? Atthi te tattha chando vā rāgo vā pemaṃ vā”ti? “No hetaṃ, bhante”.
“Ye te kāyaviññeyyā phoṭṭhabbā asamphuṭṭhā asamphuṭṭhapubbā, na ca phusasi, na ca te hoti phuseyyanti? Atthi te tattha chando vā rāgo vā pemaṃ vā”ti? “No hetaṃ, bhante”.
“Ye te manoviññeyyā dhammā aviññātā aviññātapubbā, na ca vijānāsi, na ca te hoti vijāneyyanti? Atthi te tattha chando vā rāgo vā pemaṃ vā”ti? “No hetaṃ, bhante”.
“Ettha ca te, mālukyaputta, diṭṭhasutamutaviññātabbesu dhammesu diṭṭhe diṭṭhamattaṃ bhavissati, sute sutamattaṃ bhavissati, mute mutamattaṃ bhavissati, viññāte viññātamattaṃ bhavissati. Yato kho te, mālukyaputta, diṭṭhasutamutaviññātabbesu dhammesu diṭṭhe diṭṭhamattaṃ bhavissati, sute sutamattaṃ bhavissati mute mutamattaṃ bhavissati, viññāte viññātamattaṃ bhavissati; tato tvaṃ, mālukyaputta, na tena. Yato tvaṃ, mālukyaputta, na tena; tato tvaṃ, mālukyaputta na tattha. Yato tvaṃ, mālukyaputta, na tattha; tato tvaṃ, mālukyaputta, nevidha, na huraṃ, na ubhayamantarena. Esevanto dukkhassā”ti.
“Imassa khvāhaṃ, bhante, bhagavatā saṃkhittena bhāsitassa vitthārena atthaṃ ājānāmi–
“Rūpaṃ disvā sati muṭṭhā, piyaṃ nimittaṃ manasi karoto;
Sārattacitto vedeti, tañca ajjhosa tiṭṭhati.
“Tassa vaḍḍhanti vedanā, anekā rūpasambhavā;
Abhijjhā ca vihesā ca, cittamassūpahaññati.
Evaṃ ācinato dukkhaṃ, ārā nibbānamuccati.
“Saddaṃ sutvā sati muṭṭhā, piyaṃ nimittaṃ manasi karoto;
Sārattacitto vedeti, tañca ajjhosa tiṭṭhati.
“Tassa vaḍḍhanti vedanā, anekā saddasambhavā;
Abhijjhā ca vihesā ca, cittamassūpahaññati.

Evaṃ ācinato dukkhaṃ, ārā nibbānamuccati.
“Gandhaṃ ghatvā sati muṭṭhā, piyaṃ nimittaṃ manasi karoto;
Sārattacitto vedeti, tañca ajjhosa tiṭṭhati.
“Tassa vaḍḍhanti vedanā, anekā gandhasambhavā;
Abhijjhā ca vihesā ca, cittamassūpahaññati.
Evaṃ ācinato dukkhaṃ, ārā nibbānamuccati.
“Rasaṃ bhotvā sati muṭṭhā, piyaṃ nimittaṃ manasi karoto;
Sārattacitto vedeti, tañca ajjhosa tiṭṭhati.
“Tassa vaḍḍhanti vedanā, anekā rasasambhavā;
Abhijjhā ca vihesā ca, cittamassūpahaññati.
Evaṃ ācinato dukkhaṃ, ārā nibbānamuccati.
“Phassaṃ phussa sati muṭṭhā, piyaṃ nimittaṃ manasi karoto;
Sārattacitto vedeti, tañca ajjhosa tiṭṭhati.
“Tassa vaḍḍhanti vedanā, anekā phassasambhavā;
Abhijjhā ca vihesā ca, cittamassūpahaññati.
Evaṃ ācinato dukkhaṃ, ārā nibbānamuccati.
“Dhammaṃ ñatvā sati muṭṭhā, piyaṃ nimittaṃ manasi karoto;
Sārattacitto vedeti, tañca ajjhosa tiṭṭhati.
“Tassa vaḍḍhanti vedanā, anekā dhammasambhavā;
Abhijjhā ca vihesā ca, cittamassūpahaññati.
Evaṃ ācinato dukkhaṃ, ārā nibbānamuccati.
“Na so rajjati rūpesu, rūpaṃ disvā paṭissato;
Virattacitto vedeti, tañca nājjhosa tiṭṭhati.
“Yathāssa passato rūpaṃ, sevato cāpi vedanaṃ;
Khīyati nopacīyati, evaṃ so caratī sato.
Evaṃ apacinato dukkhaṃ, santike nibbānamuccati.
“Na so rajjati saddesu, saddaṃ sutvā paṭissato;
Virattacitto vedeti, tañca nājjhosa tiṭṭhati.
“Yathāssa suṇato saddaṃ, sevato cāpi vedanaṃ;
Khīyati nopacīyati, evaṃ so caratī sato.
Evaṃ apacinato dukkhaṃ, santike nibbānamuccati.
“Na so rajjati gandhesu, gandhaṃ ghatvā paṭissato;
Virattacitto vedeti, tañca nājjhosa tiṭṭhati.
“Yathāssa ghāyato gandhaṃ, sevato cāpi vedanaṃ;
Khīyati nopacīyati, evaṃ so caratī sato;
Evaṃ apacinato dukkhaṃ, santike nibbānamuccati.
“Na so rajjati rasesu, rasaṃ bhotvā paṭissato;
Virattacitto vedeti, tañca nājjhosa tiṭṭhati.
“Yathāssa sāyato rasaṃ, sevato cāpi vedanaṃ;
Khīyati nopacīyati, evaṃ so caratī sato;

Evaṃ apacinato dukkhaṃ, santike nibbānamuccati.
“Na so rajjati phassesu, phassaṃ phussa paṭissato;
Virattacitto vedeti, tañca nājjhosa tiṭṭhati.
“Yathāssa phusato phassaṃ, sevato cāpi vedanaṃ;
Khīyati nopacīyati, evaṃ so caratī sato;
Evaṃ apacinato dukkhaṃ, santike nibbānamuccati.
“Na so rajjati dhammesu, dhammaṃ ñatvā paṭissato;
Virattacitto vedeti, tañca nājjhosa tiṭṭhati.
“Yathāssa jānato dhammaṃ, sevato cāpi vedanaṃ;
Khīyati nopacīyati, evaṃ so caratī sato.
Evaṃ apacinato dukkhaṃ, santike nibbānamuccatī”ti.
“Imassa khvāhaṃ, bhante, bhagavatā saṃkhittena bhāsitassa evaṃ vitthārena atthaṃ ājānāmī”ti. “Sādhu sādhu, mālukyaputta! Sādhu kho tvaṃ, mālukyaputta, mayā saṃkhittena bhāsitassa vitthārena atthaṃ ājānāsi–
“Rūpaṃ disvā sati muṭṭhā, piyaṃ nimittaṃ manasi karoto;
Sārattacitto vedeti, tañca ajjhosa tiṭṭhati.
“Tassa vaḍḍhanti vedanā, anekā rūpasambhavā;
Abhijjhā ca vihesā ca, cittamassūpahaññati.
Evaṃ ācinato dukkhaṃ, ārā nibbānamuccati. …Pe….
“Na so rajjati dhammesu, dhammaṃ ñatvā paṭissato;
Virattacitto vedeti, tañca nājjhosa tiṭṭhati.
“Yathāssa vijānato dhammaṃ, sevato cāpi vedanaṃ;
Khīyati nopacīyati, evaṃ so caratī sato.
Evaṃ apacinato dukkhaṃ, santike nibbānamuccatī”ti.
“Imassa kho, mālukyaputta, mayā saṃkhittena bhāsitassa evaṃ vitthārena attho daṭṭhabbo”ti.
Atha kho āyasmā mālukyaputto bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinanditvā anumoditvā uṭṭhāyāsanā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṃ katvā pakkāmi. Atha kho āyasmā mālukyaputto eko vūpakaṭṭho appamatto ātāpī pahitatto viharanto nacirasseva– yassatthāya kulaputtā sammadeva agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajanti tadanuttaraṃ brahmacariyapariyosānaṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihāsi. “Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, nāparaṃ itthattāyā”ti abbhaññāsi. Aññataro ca panāyasmā mālukyaputto arahataṃ ahosīti. Dutiyaṃ.
义注:
2. Mālukyaputtasuttavaṇṇanā

95. Dutiye mālukyaputtoti mālukyabrāhmaṇiyā putto. Etthāti etasmiṃ tava ovādāyācane. Iminā theraṃ apasādetipi ussādetipi. Kathaṃ? Ayaṃ kira daharakāle rūpādīsu pamajjitvā pacchā mahallakakāle araññavāsaṃ patthento kammaṭṭhānaṃ yācati. Atha bhagavā ‘‘ ettha dahare kiṃ vakkhāma? Mālukyaputto viya tumhepi taruṇakāle pamajjitvā mahallakakāle araññaṃ pavisitvā samaṇadhammaṃ kareyyāthā ’’ ti iminā adhippāyena bhaṇanto theraṃ apasādeti nāma.
Yasmā pana thero mahallakakālepi araññaṃ pavisitvā samaṇadhammaṃ kātukāmo, tasmā bhagavā ‘‘ ettha dahare kiṃ vakkhāma? Ayaṃ amhākaṃ mālukyaputto mahallakakālepi araññaṃ pavisitvā samaṇadhammaṃ kattukāmo kammaṭṭhānaṃ yācati, tumhe nāma taruṇakālepi vīriyaṃ na karothā ’’ ti iminā adhippāyena bhaṇanto theraṃ ussādeti nāma.
Yatra hi nāmāti yo nāma. Kiñcāpāhanti kiñcāpi ‘‘ ahaṃ mahallako ’’ ti ñātaṃ. Yadi ahaṃ mahallako, mahallako samānopi sakkhissāmi samaṇadhammaṃ kātuṃ, desetu me, bhante, bhagavāti adhippāyena mahallakabhāvaṃ anuggaṇhanto ovādañca pasaṃsanto evamāha.
Adiṭṭhā adiṭṭhapubbāti imasmiṃ attabhāve adiṭṭhā atītepi adiṭṭhapubbā. Na ca passasīti etarahipi na passasi. Na ca te hoti passeyyanti evaṃ samannāhāropi te yattha natthi, api nu te tattha chandādayo uppajjeyyunti pucchati.

Diṭṭhe diṭṭhamattanti rūpāyatane cakkhuviññāṇena diṭṭhe diṭṭhamattaṃ bhavissati. Cakkhuviññāṇañhi rūpe rūpamattameva passati, na niccādisabhāvaṃ, iti sesaviññāṇehipi me ettha diṭṭhamattameva cittaṃ bhavissatīti attho. Atha vā diṭṭhe diṭṭhaṃ nāma cakkhuviññāṇaṃ, rūpe rūpavijānananti attho. Mattāti pamāṇaṃ, diṭṭhaṃ mattā assāti diṭṭhamattaṃ, cittaṃ, cakkhuviññāṇamattameva me cittaṃ bhavissatīti attho. Idaṃ vuttaṃ hoti – yathā āpāthagatarūpe cakkhuviññāṇaṃ na rajjati na dussati na muyhati, evaṃ rāgādivirahena cakkhuviññāṇamattameva javanaṃ bhavissati, cakkhuviññāṇapamāṇeneva javanaṃ ṭhapessāmīti. Atha vā diṭṭhaṃ nāma cakkhuviññāṇena diṭṭharūpaṃ, diṭṭhe diṭṭhamattaṃ nāma tattheva uppannaṃ sampaṭicchanasantīraṇavoṭṭhabbanasaṅkhātaṃ cittattayaṃ. Yathā taṃ na rajjati, na dussati, na muyhati, evaṃ āpāthagate rūpe teneva sampaṭicchanādippamāṇena javanaṃ uppādessāmi, nāhaṃ taṃ pamāṇaṃ atikkamitvā rajjanādivasena uppajjituṃ dassāmīti ayamettha attho. Eseva nayo sutamutesu.
Viññāte viññātamattanti ettha pana viññātaṃ nāma manodvārāvajjanena viññātārammaṇaṃ, tasmiṃ viññāte viññātamattanti āvajjanapamāṇaṃ. Yathā āvajjanena na rajjati na dussati na muyhati, evaṃ rajjanādivasena uppajjituṃ adatvā āvajjanapamāṇeneva cittaṃ ṭhapessāmīti ayamettha attho. “在所知上是所知的那么多”,这里所知的也就意味着以意门转向心所知的所缘,“在那所知上是所知的那么多”即是转向心那么多。如果就转向心来说,它无贪无嗔无痴,如此就贪等而言没有给予生起(的机会),“我将令心只以转向心那么多而站立”这是此处的意思。
Yatoti yadā. Tatoti tadā. Na tenāti tena rāgena vā ratto, dosena vā duṭṭho, mohena vā mūḷho na bhavissati. Tato tvaṃ mālukyaputta na tatthāti yadā tvaṃ tena rāgena vā dosamohehi vā ratto vā duṭṭho vā mūḷho vā na bhavissasi, tadā tvaṃ na tattha tasmiṃ diṭṭhe vā sutamutaviññāte vā paṭibaddho allīno patiṭṭhito nāma bhavissasi. Nevidhātiādi vuttatthameva.
Sati muṭṭhāti sati naṭṭhā. Tañca ajjhosāti taṃ ārammaṇaṃ gilitvā. Abhijjhā ca vihesā cāti abhijjhāya ca vihiṃsāya ca. Atha vā ‘‘ tassa vaḍḍhantī ’’ ti padenāpi saddhiṃ yojetabbaṃ, abhijjhā ca vihesā cāti imepi dve dhammā tassa vaḍḍhantīti attho.

Cittamassūpahaññatīti abhijjhāvihesāhi assa cittaṃ upahaññati. Ācinatoti ācinantassa. Ārā nibbāna vuccatīti evarūpassa puggalassa nibbānaṃ nāma dūre pavuccati. Ghatvāti ghāyitvā. Bhotvāti bhutvā sāyitvā lehitvā. Phussāti phusitvā. Paṭissatoti paṭissatisaṅkhātāya satiyā yutto. Sevato cāpi vedananti catumaggasampayuttaṃ nibbattitalokuttaravedanaṃ sevantassa. Khīyatīti khayaṃ gacchati. Kiṃ taṃ? Dukkhampi kilesajātampi. Aññataroti asītiyā mahāsāvakānaṃ abbhantaro eko. Iti imasmiṃ sutte gāthāhipi vaṭṭavivaṭṭameva kathitaṃ.